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HELIOS

25/01/2020

Mitología griega >> Dioses griegos >> Dioses del cielo >> Titanes [> 19459004] > Helio (Helios)
 

 
  Transliteración

  Helios, Helio
 

 
  Traducción

  Sol ( hêlios )
 
 

 
  Helio dios del sol, krater ateniense de figura roja C5th BC, Museo Británico HELIOS (Helius) era el dios Titán del sol, un guardián de los juramentos y el dios de la vista. Vivía en un palacio dorado en el Río Okeanos (Oceanus) en los confines de la tierra de donde emergía cada amanecer, coronado con la aureola del sol, conduciendo un carro tirado por cuatro corceles alados. Cuando llegó a la tierra de las Hespérides en el lejano oeste, descendió a una copa de oro que lo llevó a través de las corrientes del norte de Okeanos de regreso a su lugar ascendente en el este.
  Una vez que su hijo Faetón trató de conducir el carro del sol, pero perdió el control y prendió fuego a la tierra. Zeus golpeó al niño con un rayo.
  Helios fue representado como un hombre guapo, generalmente sin barba, vestido con túnicas moradas y coronado con la brillante aureola del sol. Su carro solar fue atraído por cuatro corceles, a veces alados.
  Helios fue identificado con varios otros dioses del fuego y la luz, como Hephaistos (Hephaestus) y con luz Phoibos Apollon (Phoebus Apollo).
  FAMILIA DE HELIO
  PADRES
  [1.1] HYPERION y THEIA (Hesiod Theogony 371, Apollodorus 1.8) [1.2] HYPERION & [ 19459038] EURYPHAESSA (Himno homérico 31) [1.3] HYPERION y AETHRA (Hyginus Pref5) [194590045] ] [1.4] HYPERION (Homer Odyssey 12.168, Himno homérico a Demeter 19, Himno homérico a Athena 12, Fragmento Mimnermus 12, Pindar Olympian 7 str3, Metamorfosis Ovidio 4.170) [
  DESPLAZAMIENTO
  Ver página Familia de Helios
  ENCICLOPEDIA
  HE′LIOS (Hêlios o Êelios), es decir, el sol o el dios del sol. Lo describen como el hijo de Hyperion y Theia, y como un hermano de Selene y Eos. (Hom. Od. xii. 176, 322, Himno en Min. 9, 13; Hes. Theog. 371, y c.) De su padre , se le llama con frecuencia Hyperionides, o Hyperion, la última de las cuales es una forma abreviada del patronímico, Hyperionion. (Hom. Od. xii. 176, Himno en Cer. 74; Hes. Theog. 1011; Hom. Od. I. 24, ii. 19, 398, Himno en Apoll. Pyth. 191.) En el himno homérico sobre Helios, se le llama hijo de Hyperion y Euryphaëssa. Homero describe a Helios como que da luz tanto a dioses como a hombres: se eleva en el este desde Oceanus, aunque no desde el río, sino desde algún lago o pantano (limnê) formado por Oceanus, se eleva hacia el cielo, donde alcanza el punto más alto al mediodía, y luego desciende, llegando al anochecer en la oscuridad del oeste y en Oceanus. ( Il. vii. 422, Od. iii. 1, y c., 335, iv. 400, x. 191, xi. 18, xii. 380.) Los poetas posteriores tienen maravillosamente embelleció esta simple noción: hablan del palacio más magnífico de Helios en el este, que contiene un trono ocupado por el dios y rodeado de personificaciones de las diferentes divisiones del tiempo (Ov. Met. ii. 1, & c.); y mientras Homero habla solo de las puertas de Helios en el oeste, los escritores posteriores le asignaron un segundo palacio en el oeste y describieron a sus caballos como alimentándose de hierbas que crecen en las islas de los benditos. (Nonn. Dionys. xii. 1, & c .; Athen. Vii. 296; Stat. Theb. iii. 407.) Los puntos en los que Helios se eleva y desciende al océano son, por supuesto, diferentes en las diferentes estaciones del año; y los puntos extremos en el norte y el sur, entre los cuales tiene lugar el levantamiento y la configuración, son los tropai êelioio. ( Od. xv. 403; Hes. Op. Et Dies, 449, 525.) No se menciona la manera en que Helios durante la noche pasa frente al oeste en el océano oriental. ya sea por Homero o Hesíodo, pero más tarde los poetas lo hacen navegar en un bote dorado alrededor de la mitad de la tierra, y así llegar al este en el punto desde el que tiene que levantarse nuevamente. Este bote dorado es obra de Hefesto. (Aten. Xi. 469; Apolo. Ii. 5. § 10; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1632.) Otros lo representan como haciendo su viaje nocturno mientras duerme en una cama dorada. (Aten. Xi. 470.) Los caballos y el carro con los que Helios hace su carrera diaria no se mencionan en la Ilíada y la Odisea, sino que aparecen por primera vez en el himno homérico de Helios (9, 15; comp. en Merc. 69, en Cer. 88), y ambos son descritos minuciosamente por poetas posteriores. (Ov. Met. ii. 106, & c .; Hygin. Fab. 183; Schol. ad Eurip. Pholen. 3; Pind. Ol. vii. 71.)
  Helios se describe incluso en los poemas homéricos como el dios que ve y oye todo, pero, a pesar de esto, no es consciente del hecho de que los compañeros de Odiseo robaron sus bueyes, hasta que Lampetia lo informó. ( Od. xii. 375.) Pero, debido a su omnisciencia, pudo traicionar a Hefesto la infidelidad de Afrodita y revelarle a Deméter el traslado de su hija. ( Od. viii. 271, Himno en Cer. 75, & c., en Sol. 10; comp. Soph. Ajax, [ 19459018] 847, & c.) Esta idea de Helios sabiendo todo, que también contiene los elementos de su naturaleza ética y profética, parece haber sido la causa de la confusión e identificación de Helios con Apolo, aunque originalmente eran bastante distintos; y la identificación, de hecho, nunca se realizó por completo, ya que ningún poeta griego hizo que Apolo montara en el carro de Helios por los cielos, y entre los romanos encontramos esta idea solo después del tiempo de Virgilio. Las representaciones de Apolo con rayos alrededor de su cabeza, para caracterizarlo como idéntico al sol, pertenecen a la época del imperio romano.
  La isla de Thrinacia (Sicilia) era sagrada para Helios, y allí había rebaños de bueyes y ovejas, cada uno con 350 cabezas, que nunca aumentaron ni disminuyeron, y fueron atendidos por sus hijas Phaetusa y Lampetia. (Hom. Od. xii. 128. 261, & c .; Apollon. Rhod. Iv. 965, & c.) Las tradiciones posteriores le atribuyen rebaños también en la isla de Erytheia (Apollod. I. 6. § 1; comp. Ii. 5. § 10; Theocrit. Xxv. 130), y puede observarse en general, que las bandadas sagradas, especialmente de bueyes, ocurren en la mayoría de los lugares donde se estableció el culto a Helios. Sus descendientes son muy numerosos, y los apellidos y epítetos que le dieron los poetas son en su mayoría descriptivos de su carácter como el sol. Los templos de Helios (êlieia) parecen haber existido en Grecia en una época muy temprana (Hom. Od. xii. 346), y en épocas posteriores encontramos su culto establecido en varios lugares, como en Elis ( Paus. Vi. 25. § 5), en Apollonia (Herodes. Ix. 93), Hermione (Paus. Ii. 34. § 10), en la acrópolis de Corinto (ii. 4. § 7; comp. Ii. 1 § 6), cerca de Argos (ii. 18. § 3), en Troezene (ii. 31. § 8), Megalópolis (viii. 9. § 2, 31. § 4), y en varios otros lugares, especialmente en el isla de Rodas, donde el famoso coloso de Rodas era una representación de Helios: tenía 70 codos de altura y, al ser derrocado por un terremoto, un oráculo ordenó a los rodios que no lo volvieran a erigir. (Pind. Ol. vii. 54, & c .; Strab. Xiv. P. 652; Plin. HN xxxiv. 7, 17.) Los sacrificios ofrecidos a Helios consistían en blanco carneros, jabalíes, toros, cabras, corderos, especialmente caballos blancos y miel. (Hom. Il. xix. 197; Eustath. ad Hom. pp. 36,1668; Hygin. Fab. 223; Paus. Iii. 20. § 5; Herodes. I. 216; Strab. Xi. 513.) Entre los animales sagrados para él, se menciona especialmente al gallo. (Paus. V. 25. § 5.) Los poetas romanos, cuando hablan del dios del sol (Sol), generalmente adoptan las nociones de los griegos, pero el culto al Sol se introdujo también en Roma, especialmente después de los romanos. se había familiarizado con Oriente, aunque las huellas de la adoración del sol y la luna ocurren en un período muy temprano. (Varro, de Ling. Lat. v. 74; Dionys. Ii. 50; Sext. Ruf. Reg. Urb. iv.) Helios estaba representado en el pedestal del Olimpo Zeus, en el acto de ascender su carro (Paus. V. 11. § 3), y varios estatutos de él se mencionan (vi. 24. § 5, viii. 9. § 2, 31. § 4); También fue representado montando en su carro, tirado por cuatro caballos. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 3, 19)
  Fuente: Diccionario de biografía y mitología griega y romana.
 
  Helio dios del sol, krater ateniense de figura roja C5th B.C., Museo Británico CITA CLÁSICA DE LA LITERATURA
  PADRE DE HELIO
  Homer, Odyssey 12. 168 ff (traducción Shewring) (griego épico C8th B.C.): “El señor del dios sol Helios (Helius) Hyperionides (Hijo de Hyperion)”.
  Hesiod, Theogony 371 y sigs. (Trans. Evelyn-White) (épica griega C8th o C7th BC): “Y Theia estaba sometida en amor a Hyperion y descubrió al gran Helios (Helius, Sun ) y eliminar a Selene (Luna) y Eos (Amanecer) que brillan sobre todo lo que hay en la tierra y sobre los Dioses inmortales que viven en el amplio cielo “.
  Himno homérico 31 a Helio (trans. Evelyn-White) (griego épico C7th – 4to a. C.): “Helios resplandeciente (Sol) a quien Euryphaessa (Wide Shining) de ojos suaves, el uno muy brillante, desnudo para [Hyperion], el hijo de Gaia (Gea, Tierra) y los estrellados Ouranos (Urano, Cielo). Para Hyperion se casó la gloriosa Euryphaessa, su propia hermana, que le dio a luz hijos adorables, Eos con los brazos rosados. Amanecer) y Selene (la Luna), de tupida riqueza, e Helios incansable (Helio, el Sol), que es como los dioses inmortales “.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 8 – 9 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Los Titanes (TItanes) tuvieron hijos … Hyperion y Theia tuvieron Eos (Amanecer), Helios (Helio, Sol) y Selene (Luna) “.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Prefacio (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “De Hyperion y Aethra [nacieron]: Sol [Helios (Helius)], Luna [Selene ], Aurora [Eos] “.
  DESCRIPCIONES FÍSICAS DE HELIUS
  Himno homérico 31 a Helius (trad. Evelyn-White) (épica griega C7th – 4th BC): “[Helios the Sun] monta su carro, brilla sobre hombres y dioses inmortales , y penetrantemente mira con los ojos desde su casco dorado. Los rayos brillantes irradian deslumbrantes de él, y sus brillantes mechones que fluyen desde las sienes de su cabeza encierran con gracia su rostro visible: una prenda rica y bien tejida brilla sobre su cuerpo y se agita en el viento: y los sementales lo llevan. Luego, cuando se ha quedado su carro y caballos de yugo dorado, descansa allí en el punto más alto del cielo, hasta que los conduce maravillosamente de nuevo por el cielo a Okeanos (Oceanus). ”
  Apolonio Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 726 ff (trans. Rieu) (griego épico C3rd BC): “Todos los hijos de Helios (Helius) fueron fáciles de reconocer, incluso desde la distancia , por sus ojos brillantes, que dispararon rayos de luz dorada [es decir, como los de su padre] “.
  Ovidio, Metamorfosis 2. 20 ff (trad. Melville) (epopeya romana C1st BC a C1st AD): “Se dirigió directamente a la presencia [de Helios] y allí se paró lejos, incapaz de acercarse a la luz deslumbrante. Envuelto en vestimentas moradas, Febo [Helios (Helio)] se sentó, en lo alto de un trono de esmeraldas brillantes “.
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 4. 90 ff (trans. Mozley) (epopeya romana C1st AD): “Sol [Helios the Sun] se pone su diadema de miríadas de rayos y el corselet tejido de doce estrellas [las constelaciones del zodiaco] y atadas por el cinturón que impide que las nubes de lluvia muestren a los hombres su arco de muchos tonos “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 38. 90 ff (trans. Rouse) (épica griega C5th AD): “Él [Helios] colocó el casco dorado [del Sol] en la cabeza de Phaethon y lo coronó él con su propio fuego, enrollando los siete rayos como cuerdas sobre su cabello, y puso la falda escocesa blanca alrededor de él sobre sus lomos; lo vistió con su propia túnica ardiente y ató su pie en la bota púrpura, y le dio su carro a su hijo.”
  HELIO Y LA GÉNESIS DE LOS ANIMALES
 
  Helius, Nyx y Eos, lekythos ateniense de figura negra C5th BC, Museo Metropolitano de Arte En los primeros días del cosmos cuando Ouranos (Urano, Cielo) y Gaia (Gea, Tierra) había sido separada por los Titanes (Titanes), Helios (Helio) el dios del sol brilló sobre la tierra por primera vez por primera vez sobre la tierra. y del barro cálido y burbujeante surgió una nueva vida: plantas y animales.
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 673 y sigs. (Trans. Rieu) (griego épico C3er a. C.): “Monstruos anodinos, equipados con extremidades misceláneas, fueron producidos espontáneamente por Ge (Gaea, Tierra) del barro primitivo, cuando aún no se había solidificado bajo un cielo sin lluvia y no estaba obteniendo humedad de la ardiente Helios (Helio, el Sol). Pero Khronos (Cronos, Tiempo), combinando esto con eso, trajo la creación animal en orden “.
  Diodorus Siculus, Biblioteca de Historia 5. 56. 3 (trad. Oldfather) (historiador griego C1st BC): “Helios (Helius, el Sol), nos dice el mito. causó la desaparición del agua que la había desbordado [la isla de Rodas], pero la verdadera explicación es que, aunque en la primera formación del mundo la isla todavía era como barro y suavidad, el sol secó la mayor parte de su humedad. y llenó la tierra de criaturas vivientes “.
  Diodorus Siculus (en el Libro 1) también ofrece una descripción más detallada de las burbujas de barro calentadas por el sol que dan a luz a los primeros animales (no se cita aquí actualmente).
  Ovidio, Metamorfosis 1. 434 ff (trans. Melville) (epopeya romana C1st BC a C1st AD): “Cuando [después del Gran Diluvio] Tellus (la Tierra) [Gaia] Recubierta profundamente con el limo del diluvio tardío, brillando nuevamente bajo las cálidas caricias del brillante Sol (el Sol) [Helios], trajo innumerables especies, algunas restauradas en formas antiguas, otras raras y nuevas “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 82 ff (trans. Rouse) (griego épico C5th AD): “Khthon (Chthon, la Tierra), moliendo desde Helios (Helius, el Sol) el brillo de su brillo recién hecho sobre su pecho materno [en el primer amanecer] “.
  HELIUS INVENTOR DEL CARRO DE CUATRO CABALLOS
  Helios (Helius) fue considerado como el inventor del carro de cuatro caballos, una asociación natural dado que los griegos creían que el dios del sol conducía un carro por el cielo.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 13 (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “Júpiter [Zeus] viendo que él [Erikhthonios (Erichthonius)] primero entre los hombres yugados caballos en carros de cuatro caballos, admiraban el genio de un hombre que podría rivalizar con la invención del Sol (el Sol) [Helios], quien primero entre los dioses hizo uso de la cuadriga “.
  HELIUS Y BÚSQUEDA DEL DEMETRO DE PERSONAS
  Himno homérico 2 a Demeter 19 ff (traducción Evelyn-White) (épica griega C7th o 6th BC): “[Haides agarró a Perséfone y la llevó al inframundo:] Luego ella [Perséfone] gritó estridentemente con su voz, invocando a su padre [Zeus] … Nadie, ni los dioses inmortales ni los hombres mortales, escuchó su voz, ni los olivos con frutos ricos: solo [Hekate (Hécate)] … escuchó a la niña de su cueva, y el brillante señor Helios (Helius) Hyperionides (el Sol) … [Deméter, acompañado por Hekate, fue en busca de su hija robada:] vino a Helios (el Sol), que es el vigilante de los dioses y los hombres, y se paró frente a sus caballos; y la brillante diosa le preguntó: ‘Helios, al menos me consideras, diosa como soy, si alguna vez Por palabra o por obra mía he animado tu corazón y tu espíritu. A través del aire infructuoso ( aitheros ) escuché el emocionante grito de mi hija a la que descubrí, dulce vástago de mi cuerpo y hermosa forma, como la de uno agarrado violentamente; aunque con mis ojos no vi nada. Pero tú, porque con tus rayos miras hacia abajo desde el brillante aire superior (aitheros) sobre toda la tierra y el mar, cuéntame verdaderamente de mi querida hija si la has visto en algún lugar, qué dios u hombre mortal la ha capturado violentamente. contra su voluntad y la mía, y así se fue. ” Así lo dijo ella. Y Hyperionides [Helios] le respondió: ‘Reina Deméter, hija de Rheia de pelo rico, te diré la verdad; porque te admiro mucho y te compadezco en tu dolor por tu hija de tobillo delgado. No se puede culpar a ningún otro de los dioses inmortales, sino solo a Zeus, que se reunió en la nube y se la entregó a Aides [Haides], el hermano de su padre, para que se llamara su gran esposa. Y los ayudantes la agarraron y la llevaron llorando en voz alta en su carro hasta su reino de niebla y tristeza. Sin embargo, diosa, cesa tu fuerte lamento y no mantengas la ira vanamente implacable: Aidoneus, el gobernante de muchos, no es un marido no apto entre los dioses inmortales para tu hijo, siendo tu propio hermano y nacido del mismo linaje: también, por honor, él tiene esa tercera parte que recibió cuando se hizo la división en la primera, y es nombrado señor de aquellos entre los que habita “. Así que habló, y llamó a sus caballos: y en su reprimenda rápidamente hicieron girar al veloz carro a lo largo, como pájaros de largas alas “.
  Ovidio, Fasti 4. 575 y siguientes (traducido por Boyle) (poesía romana C1st BC a C1st AD): “Ella [Demeter] vaga por el cielo también [en busca de Perséfone] , y aborda a las Estrellas sin límpidos Oceanus cerca del polo frío: ‘Parrhasian Stars (puedes saberlo todo, ya que nunca te hundes debajo de la corriente de Oceanus), muéstrale a este miserable padre su hija, Perséfone’. Ella habló. Helice responde esto a ella: “La noche no tiene culpa. Consulte a Sol (el Sol) [Helios] sobre la violación de la virgen. Él mira a lo largo y ancho de los hechos del día.” Sol (el Sol) se acerca. “No pierdas el tiempo”, dice. , ‘Buscas a la novia del hermano de Jove [Zeus’] [Haides], la reina del tercer reino “.
  Para MÁS información sobre la búsqueda de Demeter, consulte DEMETER
  HELIO Y EL ADULTERIO DE AFRODITA
 
  Helio el sol, voluta krater de figura roja de Apulia, siglo IV aC, Museo de Bellas Artes de Boston Homero, Odisea 8. 260 ss. trans. Shewring) (épica griega del siglo VIII a. C.): “Ares y Afrodita … yacían juntos en secreto en la morada de Hefesto (Hefesto) [esposo de Afrodita]. Pero Helios (Helio) el dios del sol los había visto en su deslumbramiento y se apresuró a contarle a Hephaistos; para él, la noticia era amarga como la hiel, y se dirigió hacia su herrería, meditando en la venganza … [y creó una red para atrapar a los amantes en el acto de adulterio]. Entonces [Ares y Afrodita] fueron a la cama y allí se acostaron, pero las astutas cadenas de astutos Hephaistos los envolvieron, y no pudieron ni levantar sus extremidades ni moverlos; entonces vieron la verdad cuando no había escapatoria. Mientras tanto, el dios artesano cojo se acercó; se había alejado de la tierra de Lemnos , ya que el dios del sol Helios le había contado todo “.
  Ovidio, Metamorfosis 4. 169 ff (trad. Melville) (epopeya romana C1st BC a C1st AD): “Even Sol (el Sol) [Helios], cuyo resplandor de estrella gobierna el mundo, se convirtió en la esclava del amor. Cómo se enamoró Sol, será mi historia. Se cree que Sol fue el primero en ver el adulterio de Venus [Afrodita] con Marte [Ares]: Sol es el primero en ver todo sorprendido por la vista que le contó al esposo de la diosa [Hephaistos (Hephaestus)], Junonigena [hijo de Hera], cómo le pusieron los cuernos y dónde. Luego cayó el corazón de Volcanus [Hephaistos ‘], y de sus hábiles manos de herrero cayeron. también el trabajo que realizó. Inmediatamente forjó una red, una malla de eslabones más delgados de bronce, demasiado fina para que la vieran los ojos [con la cual colocó una trampa para los amantes Afrodita y Ares] … Citreia [Afrodita] no olvídalo. Él [Helios] que reveló y arruinó el amor que esperaba esconder, castigó con un amor tan ruinoso. Lo que entonces aprovechó el orgulloso hijo de Hyperion, el brillo de su belleza ¿Liance y sus brillantes rayos? Por qué, él, cuyos fuegos incendiaron el mundo, resplandeció con fuego nuevo, y el que debería observar todas las cosas solo miraba a Leucothoe [un amor condenado] “.
  Séneca, Phaedra 124 ff (trad. Miller) (tragedia romana C1st AD): “Venus [Afrodita], detestando a la descendencia del odiado Sol [Helios el Sol], es vengador a través de nosotros [es decir, Pasiphae, Phaedra] las cadenas que la unían a su amado Marte [Ares], y carga a toda la raza de Febo [Helios (Helius)] con vergüenza indescriptible [es decir, la diosa infligió a las hijas de Helios con deseos poco naturales] “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 24. 305 y sigs. (Trans. Rouse) (griego épico C5th AD): “[Hermes se dirige a Afrodita:] ‘Faetón [Helios, el Sol], el testigo brillante de tus amores, que contó historias del ladrón furtivo de tu cama. “”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 39. 403 y siguientes: “Faetón [Helios] se rió, porque Ares en la pelea [de Dionisos contra los indios] había huido nuevamente antes del incendio de Hefesto (Hefesto) , como una vez antes, huyó de sus cadenas “.
  Para MÁS información sobre estos dioses ver ARES , AFRODITA y HEPHAISTOS
  HELIO Y LAS GUERRAS DE TITÁN Y GIGANTES
  Helios (Helius) participó en la guerra de los dioses contra los Gigantes (Gigantes) y los Titanes.
  I. SACRIFICIOS A HELIO, GAEA Y URANO
  Diodorus Siculus, Biblioteca de Historia 5. 71. 2 (trad. Oldfather) (historiador griego C1st BC): “Antes de la batalla contra los Gigantes (Gigantes) [y Titanes] en Se nos dice que Krete (Creta), Zeus sacrificó un toro a Helios (Helio, el Sol) y a Ouranos (Urano, Cielo) y a Ge (Gea, Tierra); y en relación con cada uno de los ritos, se reveló a lo que era la voluntad de los dioses en el asunto, los presagios que indicaban la victoria de los dioses y la deserción del enemigo [ciertos titanes, incluido Helios desertaron al lado de Zeus] “.
  II. HIJA DE HELIO AEX Y EL AEGIS DE ZEUS
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 13 (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “Aex [era] la hija de Sol [Helios (Helius)], quien superó muchos en belleza de cuerpo, pero en contraste con esta belleza, tenían una cara horrible. Aterrorizados, los Titanes (Titanes) le rogaron a Terra (Tierra) [Gaia] que ocultara su cuerpo, y se dice que Terra la escondió en ella. una cueva en la isla de Creta. Más tarde se convirtió en enfermera de Jove [Zeus], ​​como hemos dicho antes. Pero cuando Júpiter [Zeus], ​​confiado en su juventud, se estaba preparando para la guerra contra los Titanes, se le dio una respuesta oracular. [presumiblemente de Helios, Ouranos (Urano) y Gaia, como arriba] que si deseaba ganar, debería continuar la guerra protegida con la piel de una cabra, aigos [Aex hija de Helios], y la cabeza de la Gorgona. Los griegos llaman a esto la égida. Cuando esto se hizo, como hemos demostrado anteriormente, Júpiter, venciendo a los Titanes, tomó posesión del reino “.
  III. EL ALQUINEO GIGANTE Y EL GANADO DE HELIO
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 35 (trans. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Ge (Gaia, Tierra) dio a luz a los Gigantes (Gigantes)… Lanzarían rocas y robles en llamas al cielo. Los más grandes fueron Porphyrion y Alkyoneus (Alcyoneus), que de hecho era inmortal siempre que luchara en la tierra donde nació. Fue Alkyoneus [el Gigante] quien alejó el ganado de Helios (Helius, el Sol) de Erytheia [la isla de la puesta del sol] “.
  IV. GAEA, LOS GIGANTES Y LA HIERBA DE LA INVULNERABILIDAD
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 35 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Ahora había un oráculo entre los dioses que ellos mismos no podrían destruir. cualquiera de los Gigantes (Gigantes), pero los acabaría solo con la ayuda de algún aliado mortal. Cuando Ge (Gea, Tierra) se enteró de esto, buscó una droga que evitaría su destrucción incluso con manos mortales. Pero Zeus prohibió la aparición de Eos (el amanecer), Selene (la luna) y Helios (Helius, el sol), y cortó la droga él mismo antes de que Ge pudiera encontrarla “.
  V. HELIUS RESCATE HEPHAESTUS DEL BATTLEFIELD
  Apolonio Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 221 y sigs. (Trans. Rieu) (griego épico C3rd BC): “[Hephaistos (Hephaestus) dio muchos regalos] como una ofrenda de agradecimiento a Helios ( el Sol), que lo había llevado en su carro cuando se hundió exhausto en el campo de batalla de Phlegra [en la guerra de los Gigantes] “.
  VI. HELI BATALLA EL MOLY GIGANTE
  Ptolomeo Hephaestion, New History Book 4 (resumen de Photius, Myriobiblon 190) (trad. Pearse) (mitógrafo griego C1st a C2nd AD): “La planta ‘moly’ de la cual Homero habla; se dice que esta planta creció de la sangre del Gigante (Gigante) asesinado en la isla de Kirke (Circe); tiene una flor blanca; el aliado de Kirke que mató al Gigante fue Helios (Helio, el Sol); el combate fue duro (griego malos ) de donde proviene el nombre de esta planta “.
  Para MÁS información sobre las Guerras ver TITANES y GIGANTES
  VII. HELIO Y EL MONSTRUO TIFOEO
  El monstruoso gigante de tormenta Typhoeus asedió al cielo en su contienda con Zeus por el trono del cielo.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1. 207 ff (trans. Rouse) (épica griega C5th AD): “Muchas veces en el abismo él [el monstruo Typhoeus] … se retiró un semental junto a su melena empapada en salmuera del pesebre submarino, y arrojó el naga del vagabundo a la bóveda del cielo, disparando su tiro en Olympos (Olympus) – golpeó el carro de Helios el Sol, y los caballos en su ronda relincharon bajo el yugo “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 543 y siguientes: “[Zeus golpeó a Typhoeus con descargas de granizo congelado:] [Gaia] al ver las balas de piedra y los puntos de hielo incrustados en el [Typhoeus ‘del Gigante ] carne, testigo de su destino, rezó a Titán Helios con voz sumisa: le rogó un rayo al rojo vivo, para que con su fuego ardiente pudiera derretir el agua petrificada de Zeus, vertiendo su resplandor afín sobre el helado Tifón. ”
  Para MÁS información sobre este monstruoso gigante ver TYPHOEUS
  HELIUS WRATH: ODYSSEUS Y SUS HOMBRES
 
  Helio el sol, mosaico grecorromano, Museo Arqueológico de Esparta Homero, Odisea 1. 8 ff (trans. Shewring) (griego épico C8th BC): “Los tontos [los compañeros de Odiseo], devoraron el ganado de Hyperion, y él, Helios (el Sol), les cortó el día de su regreso a casa”.
  Homer, Odyssey 11. 102 y siguientes: “[El fantasma de Teiresias (Tiresias) advierte a Odysseus de las tribulaciones que le esperan:] ‘Usted y sus hombres tal vez puedan llegar a casa, aunque con mucha miseria, si solo tienes la fuerza para contener el apetito tuyo y de tus camaradas cuando dejas el océano oscuro y acercas tu embarcación a la isla Thrinakian (Thrinacian). Encontrarás ovejas y ganado pastando allí; pertenecen a un dios , Helios (el Sol) que todo lo ve y todo lo escucha. Si los deja ilesos, si se propone regresar, pueden llegar a Ithaka, aunque con mucha miseria. Pero si los lastima , entonces pronostico destrucción por igual para tu nave y para tus camaradas. “”
  Homer, Odyssey 12. 127 y siguientes: “[Kirke (Circe), hija de Helios, advierte a Odysseus de las tribulaciones que debe enfrentar:] ‘Llegarás a la isla de Thrinakia (Thrinacia) [en algún lugar del lejano Oriente, tal vez el Caspio o el Mar Negro]. En esto hay muchas vacas y muchos rebaños de ovejas gordos; son Helios, siete rebaños de vacas y tantos rebaños de ovejas. En cada rebaño y en cada rebaño hay cincuenta bestias; no hay nacimientos que los aumenten, ni las muertes los disminuyen [fueron inmortales]. Son pastoreados por diosas, Nymphai (Ninfas) de pelo encantador llamadas Phaethousa (Phaethusa) y Lampetie (Lampetia). , cuyo padre es el dios del sol Hyperion [Helios] y cuya madre es la brillante Neaera; después de haberlos dado a luz y criarlos, se los llevó a la remota Thrinakia para vivir allí y cuidar de las ovejas y los rebaños de su padre con cuernos rizados. these unharmed–if you set your mind only on return –you may all of you still reach Ithaka, though with much misery. But if you harm them, then I foretell destruction alike for your ship and for your comrades, and if you yourself escape that end, you will return late and in evil plight, having lost for ever all your comrades.’”
  Homer, Odyssey 12. 261 ff : “When we [Odysseus and his men] had left the rocks behind us, with Skylla (Scylla) and terrible Kharybdis (Charybdis), we came soon enough to the lovely island of Helios. Here were the fine broad-browed herds, here were the plentiful fat flocks of Hyperion [Helios]. While the dark ship was still out at sea, I heard sheep bleating and cows lowing as they entered their quarters for the night; and into my heart came back the blind prophet’s [Teiresias’ (Tiresias’) ] words and Aiaian Kirke’s (Aeaean Circe’s) also; both of them had enjoined me earnestly to shun this island of the all-gladdening Helios. Troubled at heart, I spoke to my comrades thus : ‘Comrades, listed to what I say, sad though your plight is; I must tell you of the prophetic words of Theban Teiresias and of Kirke. They urged me solemnly, both of them, to shun this island of the all-gladdening sun-god Helios, because there, they said, the direst of p erils awaited us. Take heed then; row the dark vessel past this island.’ So I spoke, and the men’s hearts sank within them. Eurylokhos (Eurylochus) answered me at once [and with the other men insist that Odysseus land’s the ship] . . . We beached our ship and dragged it up to a certain cave within whose hollows the Nymphai (Nymphs) could sit or weave their lovely dances. Then I called an assembly of my men and spoke thus among them : ‘Friends, in our ship we have food and drink enough. Let us keep our hands from the cattle, then, lest evil should overtake us; these beasts the cows and fat sheep, belong to the dread divinity, Helios the sun-god, who sees all things and hears all things.’ So I spoke, and their own strong wills gave consent. Then for a whole month the south wind blew without ceasing . . . [the men of Odysseus were starving, so the hero departed to pray in private to the gods.] Among my comrades Eurylokhos put forth evil counsel : ‘Comrades, in this sad plight of ours, hear what I have to say. Every form of death is loathsome to wretched mortals, but to perish of hunger, to starve to death – that is the most pitiful thing of all. Enough! Let us carry off the best of Helios’ cattle and give them in sacrifice to the Deathless Ones whose home is wide heaven. And if ever we should return again to our own land, Ithaka, we will hasten to build a sumptuous temple to Hyperion the sun-god, and there we may place fine offerings in plenty. But if in anger over his long-horned cattle he resolves to wreck our ship and the other gods second him–why, then, I would rather drink the brine and lose life at one gulp than waste away by inches in this forsaken island.’ So spoke Eurylokhos, and the rest of the crew applauded him. They drove off at once the best of Helios’ cattle–it was near at hand, not far from the ship, that they were grazing, these handsome beasts with their broad brows and curling horns. The men surrounded them and began their prayer to the gods, and because they had no barley-meal in the ship, they plucked instead the fresh tender leaves of a tall oak. Prayer over, they slaughtered and flayed the cows, cut out the thigh-bones and covered them with a double fold of fat, then laid the raw meat above. They had no wine to make libation over the burning sacrifice, but instead poured water as they set to roasting the inward parts. When the thigh-bones were quite consumed and the entrails tasted, they sliced and spitted the rest. At that moment the sleep that had soothed me [Odysseus] passed of a sudden from my eyelids, and I took my way to the shore and ship again. Then, as I neared the curving vessel, the rich savour of roasting meat was wafted all about me. I groaned aloud, I cried out to the deathless gods : ‘Oh Father Zeus, oh blessed and ever-living gods, surely it was for my destruction that you lulled me with that fatal slumber, while the comrades that I left behind me devised this deed of unrighteousness.’ But without delay Lampetie (Lampetia) of the trailing robe sped off to Hyperion [Helios] the sun god to tell him that we had slain his cattle, and he with his heart inflamed with anger spoke out at once to the Deathless Ones : ‘O Father Zeus, O blessed and ever-living gods, take vengeance on the crew of Laertes’ son Odysseus; in their lawlessness they have slain the cattle in which I always took delight, both as I climbed the starry sky and as I took my path again back from the sky and down towards the earth. Unless these men pay a just atonement for my cattle, I will descend to Haides’ kingdom and shine among the dead.’ Zeus who masses the clouds made answer : ‘Helios, shine in the sight of the Deathless One and of mortals over the fertile earth. As for those you speak of, soon enough I will strike their ship with my white-hot thunderbolt and shatter and shiver it in mid-ocean.’ All this I heard from Kalypso (Calypso) of the lovely hair, who herself heard it, so she told me, from Hermes, messenger of the gods.
When I reached the sea where the ship lay, I went round to the men one by one and upbraided them, but as for a remedy, there was none to be found; the cattle were killed already. Then the gods began to show signs and wonders to my crew. The beasts’ hides began to move; the flesh on the spits, raw or roasted, began to bellow, and there was a noise like the noise of cattle [perhaps because the cattle were immortal and could not die].
For six days more the crew still banqueted on the choice cattle that they had seized; but when Zeus brought us the seventh day, the wind and raging tempest ceased. So without delay we went aboard, stepped the mast, hauled the white sails and launched into wide ocean . . . [And then Zeus, as promised, sent a tempest, and destroyed the ship with a thunderbolt–only Odysseus survived.]”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca E7. 22- 23 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “He [Odysseus] went to Thrinakia (Thrinacia), an island belonging to Helios (the Sun), where cattle grazed. He stayed there, held captive by windless weather. His crew, lacking sustenance, slaughtered and feasted on some of the cattle; and Helios angrily complained to Zeus. So when the ship but to sea, Zeus hit it with a thunderbolt.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 125 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “He [Odysseus] had come to the island of Sicily to the sacred herds of Sol [Helios], but their flesh lowed when his comrades cooked it in a brazen kettle. He had been warned by Tiresias and by Circe, too, not to touch them, and as a result he lost many comrades there. Borne on to Charybdis, who three times a day sucked down the water and three times belched it up, by Tiresias’ warning he passed by. But Sol [Helios] was angry because his herd had been harmed. When Ulysses had come to the island, and at Tiresias’ warning forbade anyone’s touching the herd, his comrades seized some cattle while he slept; as they were cooking them the flesh lowed from the brazen kettle. For his reason Jove [Zeus] struck his ship with a thunderbolt and burned it.”
  For MORE information on the Nymphai daughters of Helios see NEAEREIDES
  HELIUS WRATH : NERITES
  Aelian, On Animals 14. 28 (trans. Scholfield) (Greek natural history C2nd A.D.) : “Poseidon was the lover of Nerites [son of Nereus and Doris] . . . [and] when Poseidon drove his chariot over the waves . . . [all were] left utterly and far behind by the speed of his horses; only the boy favourite was his escort close at hand . . . for the god willed that his beautiful favourite should not only be highly esteemed for other reasons but should also be pre-eminent at swimming. But the story relates that Helios (the Sun) resented the boy’s power of speed and transformed his body into the spiral shell as it now is: the cause of his anger I cannot tell, neither does the fable mention it [perhaps the boy bragged of his prowess]. But if one may guess where there is nothing to go by, Poseidon and Helios might be said to be rivals. And it may be that Helios was vexed at the boy travelling about in the sea and wished that he should travel am ong the constellations instead of being counted among the Ketea (Cetea, Sea-Monsters).”
  For MORE information on this godling see NERITES
  HELIUS WRATH : ARGE
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 205 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “When Arge, a huntress, was pursuing a stag, she is said to have told it : ‘Though you equal the speed of the Sun (Sol) [Helios], yet I will catch up with you.’ Sol [Helios], in anger, changed her into a doe.”
  HELIUS WRATH : PHINEUS
  Phineus challenged Helios (Helius) to a contest, perhaps as a test of their prophetic skills.
  Oppian, Cynegetica 2. 615 (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd A.D.) : “A rumour not to be believed has spread among men that the moles boast themselves sprung from the blood of a king, even of Phineus, whom a famous Thrakian (Thracian) hill nurtured. Against Phineus once on a time was the Titan Phaethon [Helios] angered, wroth for the victory of [Phineus] the prophet of Phoibos (Phoebus) [Apollon], and robbed him of his sight and sent the shameless Harpyiai (Harpies), a winged race to dwell with him to his sorrow. But when the two glorious sons of Boreas, even Zetes and Kalais (Calais) . . . slew that tribe [the Harpyiai] and gave his poor lips sweet food. But not even so did Phaethon [Helios] lull his wrath to rest, but speedily turned him into the race of moles which were before not; wherefore even now the race remains blind and gluttonous of food.”
  HELIUS FAVOUR : HERACLES
 
  Heracles in the cauldron-boat of Helius, Athenian red-figure pelike C4th B.C., State Hermitage Museum Helios (Helius) loaned his golden cup-boat to Herakles (Heracles) when that hero sought passage to Erytheia, the land of the setting sun in the west, in his quest for the cattle of Geryon.
  Eumelus of Corinth or Arctinus of Miletus, Titanomachia Fragment 7 (from Athenaeus 11. 470B) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “Theolytos (Theolytus) says that he [Herakles] sailed across the sea [i.e. Okeanos (Oceanus)] in a cauldron; but the first to give this story is the author of the Titanomakhia .”
  Stesichorus, Geryoneis Fragment S17 (from Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (Greek lyric C7th to C6th B.C.) : “Helios (the Sun) too was conveyed to his setting in a cup Stesikhoros (Stesichorus) tells us in the following words: ‘And then Hyperion’s strong child [Helios] went down into the cup of solid gold, so that he might cross over Okeanos (Oceanus) and reach the depths of holy, dark night and his mother [Theia] and wedded wife and dear children; while he Zeus’ son [Herakles], who has reached Erytheia in the cup or has traveled back to the mainland in it, now retuns it to Helios went on foot into the grove, shady with its laurels.’”
  Stesichorus, Geryoneis Fragment S17 (from Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) : “Stesichorus says that Helios (the Sun) sailed across Okeanos (Oceanus) in a cup and that Herakles (Heracles) also crosssed over in it when travelling to get Geryon’s cattle.”
  Aeschylus, Fragment 37 Heracleidae (from Scholiast on Aristeides) (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) : “Starting thence, when that he [Herakles] had crossed Okeanos (Oceanus) in a golden bowl [i.e. the boat of the sun-god Helios], he drave the straight-horned kine from the uttermost parts of the earth, slew the evil herdsmen and their triple-bodied master [Geryon].”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 107 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “When Helios (the Sun) made him [Herakles] hot as he proceeded, he aimed his bow at the god and stretched it; Helios was so surprised at his daring that he gave him a golden goblet, in which he crossed Okeanos (Oceanus) [to reach Erytheia] . . . He then loaded the cattle [of Geryon] into the goblet, sailed back to Tartessos, and returned the goblet to Helios.”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 119 : “Then after proceeding through Libya to the sea beyond, he [Herakles] appropriated the goblet from Helios (the Sun) [for the trip round the river Okeanos (Oceanus) from Libya to the Prometheus in the Kaukasos (Caucasus) mountains].”
  For MORE information on this labour of Herakles see GERYON
  HELIUS FAVOUR : ORION
  Helios as the god of sight, restored the eyes of the blinded giant Orion.
  Hesiod, The Astronomy Fragment 4 (from Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Catastersimoi 32) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “When he [Orion] was come to Khios (Chios), be outraged Merope, the daughter of Oinopion (Oenopion), being drunken; but Oinopion when he learned of it was greatly vexed at the outrage and blinded him and cast him out of the country. Then he came to Lemnos as a beggar and there met Hephaistos (Hephaestus) who took pity on him and gave him Kedalion his own servant to guide him. So Orion took Kedalion (Cedalion) upon his shoulders and used to carry him about while he pointed out the roads. Then he came to the east and appears to have met Helios (the Sun) and to have been healed [of his blindness], and so returned back again to Oinopion to punish him; but Oinopion was hidden away by his people underground.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 34 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “He [Orion] was blinded by Oenopion and cast out of the island. But he came to Lemnos and Vulcanus [Hephaistos (Hephaestus)], and received from him a guide named Cedalion. Carrying him on his shoulders, he came to Sol [Helios], and when Sol healed him he returned to Chios to take vengeance on Oenopion.”
  For MORE information on this giant see ORION
  HELIUS FAMILY FAVOUR : PHAETHON
  Phaethon was the son of the sun-god Helios who begged his father to let him drive his sun-chariot across the sky. Helios reluctantly agreed, but the boy could not control the fiery steeds, and set the earth ablaze. Zeus struck him down from the sky with a thunderbolt.
  For the MYTH of Phaethon and the chariot of the sun see PHAETHON
  HELIUS FAMILY FAVOUR : THE HELIADES
  When the Heliades, Nymphai (Nymph) daughters of Helios, sisters of Phaethon, were transformed into trees. Helios made their sun-golden tears into amber.
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 5. 300 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “The Thugateres Helioio (Daughters of the Sun) [Heliades], the Lord of Omens [Helios], shed [tears] for Phaethon slain, when by Eridanos’ flood they mourned for him. These, for undying honour to his son, the God [Helios] made amber, precious in men’s eyes.”
  For MORE information on these Nymphs see THE HELIADES
  HELIUS FAMILY FAVOUR : CIRCE
 
  Helius and Heracles, Athenian black-figure skyphos C6th B.C., National Archaeological Museum of Taranto The immortal witch Kirke (Circe) was a daughter of Helios (Helius). She was carried by her father in the chariot of the sun, to settle the Tyrrhenian island of Aiaia (Aeaea).
  Hesiod, Catalogues of Women & Eoiae Fragment 46 (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “Kirke (Circe) came to the island over against Tyrrhenia on the chariot of Helios (the Sun).”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 311 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “[Aeetes addresses Iason (Jason) and the Argonauts :] ‘I myself was whirled along it in the chariot of my father Helios (the Sun), when he took my sister Kirke to the Western Land and we reached the coast of Tyrrhenia, where she lives, far, far indeed from Kolkhis (Colchis).’”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 726 ff : “As soon as the girl [Medea, granddaughter of Helios] had looked up from the ground she [Kirke (Circe) daughter of Helios] noticed her eyes. For all the children of Helios were easy to recognise, even from a distance, by their flashing eyes, which shoot out rays of golden light.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 14. 365 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Circe turned to prayers and incantations, and unknown chants to worship unknown gods, chants which she used to eclipse Luna’s [Selene the Moon’s] pale face and veil her father’s [Helios the Sun’s] orb in thirsty clouds.”
  For MORE information on this goddess-witch see KIRKE
  HELIUS FAMILY FAVOUR : AEETES
  Aeetes was perhaps Helios’ most favoured son. The god bestowed him with innumerable gifts including: a fabulous golden palace, golden chariot with horses, armour, and even his Eastern kingdom. He was even said to have ridden once in the chariot of the sun–a rare honour.
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 221 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “[The palace of King Aeetes, son of Helios :] Four perennial springs gushed up. These were Hephaistos’ (Hephaestus’) work, One flowed with milk, and one with wine, the third with fragrant oil, while the fourth was a fountain of water which grew warm when the Pleiades set, but changed at their rising and bubbled from the hollow rock as cold as ice. Such were the marvels that Hephaistos the great Engineer had contrived for the palace of Kytaian (Cytaean) Aeetes. He had also made him bulls with feet of bronze and bronze mouths from which the breath came out in flame, blazing and terrible. And he had forged a plough of indurated steel, all in one piece. All as a thank-offering to Helios, who had taken him up in his chariot when he sank exhausted on the battlefield of Phlegra [in the war of the Gigantes (Giants)].”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 311 ff : “[Aeetes addresses the Argonauts :] ‘I myself was whirled along it in the chariot of my father Helios (the Sun), when he took my sister Kirke (Circe) to the Western Land and we reached the coast of Tyrrhenia, where she lives, far, far indeed from Kolkhis (Colchis).’”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 595 ff : “It [the arrival of the Argonauts in Kolkhis (Colchis)] with an ugly hint he [Aeetes] had heard from his father Helios (the Sun), warning him to beware of treasonable plots and evil machinations in his own family.”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 3. 1228 ff : “On his [Aeetes’] head he set his golden helmet with its four plates, bright as Helios’ (the Sun’s) round face when he rises fresh from Okeanos (Oceanus) Stream.”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 222 ff : “Aeetes in his fine chariot, with the wind-swift horses that Helios (the Sun) had given him, stood out above them all [the Kholkians (Colchians)].”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 228 ff : “In frenzy, he [Aeetes] lifted up his hands to Helios (the Sun) and Zeus calling on them to witness these outrageous deeds [i.e. the betrayal of his daughter Medea and theft of the Golden Fleece].”
  Philostratus the Younger, Imagines 11 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) : “[From a description of an ancient Greek painting :] You also see Aeëtes on a four-horse chariot, tall and overtopping other men, wearing the war-armour of some giant ( gigantos ), methinks.” [N.B. This is the armour of the Gigante described by Apollonius Rhodius 3. 221, which Helios presented to his son Aeetes.]
  Seneca, Medea 570 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) : “[Medea speaks :] ‘I have a robe, a gift from heaven, the glory of our house and kingdom, given by Sol [Helios the Sun] to Aeetes as a pledge of fatherhood; there is also a gleaming necklace of woven gold and a golden band which the sparkle of gems adorns, with which the air is encircled. Let my sons bring these as gifts unto the bride, but let them first be anointed and imbued with baneful poisons.’ . . . [Medea then uses the magical robe and crown to set Glauke (Glauce), the new bride of Iason (Jason), on fire.]”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 1. 504 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “Sol (the Sun) [Helios] pours forth [to Zeus when the Argonauts departed for Colchis] these words from his breast : ‘Supreme Creator, for whom as the years go round our light completes and renews its manifold changes, are these things thy will? Is it beneath thy guidance that the Grecian vessel now sails the sea? May I too break forth into complaints?–they are but just! Through fear of this and that none might move an envious hand against my son [Aeetes], I chose not the wealth of some middle land or the teeming fields of a rich country . . . nay, in chill fields oppressed by thy fierce cold and by icebound rivers did we settle. Even from these would my son withdraw and retreat without recompense still further did not a region dense with clouds, a stranger to spring, lie beyond and beat back our rays. How can that terrible land, how can savage Phasis be an o ffence to other rivers, or my offspring to nations so remote? What, is the Grecian fleece a possession won by force? Nay [i.e. he received it as a gift from his son-in-law Phrixus] . . .
Turn the vessel’s [the Argonaut’s] course, sire, and open not the sea for them to my hurt; the wood of Padus knows enough of my ancient sorrows, and the Sisters [the Heliades] who weep as they look upon their father [Sol, Helios].’”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 6. 517 ff : “Absyrtus [son of Aeetes], amid the effulgence of his flashing shield and of the chariot of his grandsire Solis’ [Helios the Sun] whose quivering spear and threatening helm the folk could not look on close at hand, but in fear gave ground and turned their backs and were stricken, while their loud cries enhance the panic.”
  HELIUS FAMILY FAVOUR : MEDEA
 
  Sol-Helius as Sunday, Greco-Roman mosaic from Orbe C3rd A.D., Roman villa of Orbe-Boscéaz The witch Medea was the daughter of King Aeetes of Kolkhis (Colchis) and so a grand-daughter of Helios (Helius) the sun. Like her father and aunts she was a powerful witch and a favourite of Helios. The god was said to have given her her famed winged-serpent drawn chariot.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 146 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Medeia [slew Kreon (Creon), Glauke (Glauce) and her sons by Iason (Jason)], and escaped to Athens on a chariot drawn by winged Drakones (Dragons) which she had received from Helios (the Sun).”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 726 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “As soon as the girl [Medea granddaughter of Helios] had looked up from the ground she [Kirke (Circe) daughter of Helios] noticed her eyes. For all the children of Helios were easy to recognise, even from a distance, by their flashing eyes, which shot out rays of golden light.”
  Philostratus the Younger, Imagines 7 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) : “[From a description of an ancient Greek painting :] Her eye shining either already with love or with inspiration, I know not which, and with an ineffable radiance, when she permits her face to be seen. This in truth is the distinguishing mark of the descendants of Helios (the Sun); I believe one must recognize Medea, the daughter of Aeëtes.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 7. 94 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “[Medea invokes Helios and other gods in a spell to render Iason invulnerable to fire :] ‘By the pure rites of Triformis [Hekate (Hecate)] and by whatever Power dwelt in that grove [Ares of Kolkhis (Colchis)] she swore, and by her father’s father [Helios the Sun] who sees all the world, and by his triumphs and his perils passed.’”
  Seneca, Medea 28 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) : “[Medea, grand-daughter of Helios speaks :] ‘Does he behold this [her betrayal by Jason], Sol (the Sun) [Helios], father of my race, and do men still behold him as, sitting in his chariot, he courses over bright heaven’s accustomed spaces? Why does he not return to his rising and measure back the day? Grant, oh, grant that I ride through the air in my father’s car; give me the reins, O sire, give me the right to guide thy fire-bearing steeds with the flaming reins; then let Corinth . . . be consumed by flames and bring the two seas together.’” [N.B. Medea uses magic to destroy King Kreon (Creon) and his palace with fire.]
  HELIUS FAVOUR : EOS & MEMNON
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 7 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) : “[From a description of an ancient Greek painting depicting the funeral of Memnon :] As for the deities of the sky ( daimones meteôroi ), Eos (the Dawn) mourning over her son [Memnon] causes Helios (the Sun) to be downcast and begs Nyx (Night) to come prematurely and check the hostile army, that she may be able to steal away her son, no doubt with the consent of Zeus. And look! Memnon has been stolen away and is at the edge of the painting. Where is he? In what part of the earth? No tomb of Memnon is anywhere to be seen but in Aithiopia he himself has been transformed into a statue of black marble [i.e. a colossal statue on the upper Nile, still extant]. The attitude is that of a seated person, but he figure is that of Memnon yonder, if I mistake not, and the ray of Helios (the Sun) falls on the statue. For Helios (the Sun), striking the lips of Memnon as a plectrum strikes the lyre, seems to summon a voice from them, and by this speech-producing artifice consoles Hemera (the Day) [i.e. Eos].”
  AWARDING OF THE ISLAND OF RHODES TO HELIUS
  Pindar, Olympian Ode 7. 54 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “Now on the tongues of men are told the stories of ancient days, that when Zeus and the immortals made division of the lands of earth [after the Titanes (Titans) were vanquished], not yet to see was Rhodes, shining upon the waves of sea, but the isle lay hidden deep within the salt sea’s folds. But for Helios (Helius, the Sun) no lot was drawn; for he was absent, and they left him of broad earth no heritage, that holy god. And when he made known his mischance, Zeus was in mind to portion out the lots again; but he allowed him not, for he said that beneath the surge of sea his eyes had seen a land growing out of the depths, blessed with rich nourishment for men and happy with teeming flocks. And straightaway then the god commanded Lakhesis of the golden fillet to raise aloft her hands and swear, no on her lips alone, the great oath of the gods, promising with the son of Kronos (Cronus) [Zeus] this land once risen to the light of heaven should be thenceforth as for a crown of honour his own awarded title. The great words spoken, fell in truth’s rich furrow. And there grew up from the watery wave this island, and great Helios who begets the fierce rays of the sun, holds her in his dominion, that ruler of the horses breathing fire. There long ago he lay with Rhodes and begot seven sons, endowed beyond all men of old with genius of thoughtful mind. And of these one begot he eldest Ialysos (Ialysus), and Kamiros (Camirus) and Lindos (Lindus); and in three parts they divided their father’s land, and of three citadels the brothers held each his separate share, and by their three names are the cities called.”
  Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 56. 3 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “Helios (Helius), the myth tells us, becoming enamoured of Rhodos (Rhode) [daughter of Poseidon], named the island Rhodes after her and caused the water which had overflowed it to disappear. But the true explanation is that while in the first forming of the world the island was still like mud and soft, the sun dried up the larger part of its wetness and filled the land with living creatures, and there came into being the Heliadai (Heliadae, sons of Helios), who were named after him, seven in number ,and other peoples who were, like them, sprung from the land itself. In consequence of these events the island was considered to be sacred to Helios, and the Rhodians of later times made it their practice to honour Helios above all the other gods, as the ancestor and founder from whom they were descended. His seven sons were Okhimos (Ochimus), Kerkaphos (Cercaphus), Makar (Macar), Aktis (Actis), Tenages, Triopas, Kandalos (Candalus), and there was one daughter, Elektryone (Electryone), who quite this life while still a maiden and attained at the hands of the Rhodians to honours like those accorded to the heroes. And when the Heliadai attained to manhood they were told by Helios that the first people to offer sacrifice to Athene (Athena) would ever enjoy the presence of the goddess; and the same thing, we are told, was disclosed by him to the inhabitants of Attika (Attica).”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 7. 365 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Rhodes, Phoebus’ [Helios the Sun’s] favourite.”
  For DESCRIPTIONS of the kingly heirs of Helios in Rhodes see: Helios Family: Kingdom of Rhodes (next page)
  CONTEST OF HELIUS & POSEIDON FOR CORINTH
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 1. 5 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “The Korinthians (Corinthians) say that Poseidon had a dispute with Helios (the Sun) about the land [which god should possess Korinthia], and that Briareos (Briareus) [the storm god] arbitrated between them, assigning to Poseidon the Isthmos (Isthmus) and the parts adjoining, and giving to Helios the height above the city.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 4. 5 : “The Akrokorinthos (Acrocorinth) [at Korinthos (Corinth)] is a mountain peak above the city, assigned to Helios (the Sun) by Briareos (Briareus) when he acted as adjudicator [between Helios and Poseidon over the land of Korinthos], and handed over, the Korinthians say, by Helios to Aphrodite . . . After these [precincts of other gods] are altars to Helios.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 43. 184 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “[Poseidon boasts :] ‘Champion Phaethon [Helios the Sun] too in his celestial course felt the point of my trident, when the deep waged formidable war in that starry battle for Korinthos (Corinth).’”
  For DESCRIPTIONS of the kingly heirs of Helios in Korinthos see Helius Family : Kingdom of Corinth (next page)
  HELIUS IN THE FABLES OF AESOP
  I. THE CONTEST OF HELIUS & BOREAS
  Aesop tells a fable describing a contest between Helios (Helius) the warm sun and Boreas the chill wind of winter.
  Aesop, Fables (from Babrius, Fabulae Aesopeae 18) (trans. Gibbs) (Greek fable C6th B.C.) : “Boreas (the North Wind) and Helios (the Sun) disputed as to which was the most powerful, and agreed that he should be declared the victor who could first strip a wayfaring man of his clothes. Boreas (the North Wind) first tried his power and blew with all his might, but the keener his blasts, the closer the traveler wrapped his cloak around him, until at last, resigning all hope of victory, the Wind called upon Helios (the Sun) to see what he could do. Helios (the Sun) suddenly shone out with all his warmth. The traveler no sooner felt his genial rays than he took off one garment after another, and at last, fairly overcome with heat, undressed and bathed in a stream that lay in his path. Persuasion is better than force.”
  For MORE information on the god of the north wind see BOREAS
  II. HELIUS & THE FROGS
  Aesop, Fables 127 (from Babrius, Fabulae Aesopeae 24 & Phaedrus 1. 6) : “Once upon a time, when Helios/Sol (the Sun) announced his intention to take a wife, the Frogs lifted up their voices in clamor to the sky. Zeus/Jupiter, disturbed by the noise of their croaking, inquired the cause of their complaint. One of them said, ‘Helios/Sol (the Sun), now while he is single, parches up the marsh, and compels us to die miserably in our arid homes. What will be our future condition if he should beget other suns?’”
 
  ANCIENT GREEK & ROMAN ART
 
 
 
 
  T17.1 Chariot of Helius & Astra
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T17.6 Chariot of Helius w/ Aureole
  Apulian Red Figure Vase Painting C4th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T19.12 Chariots of Helius & Eos
  Apulian Red Figure Vase Painting C4th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T17.3 Chariots of Helius, Eos, Nyx
  Athenian Black Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T17.4 Helius & Heracles
  Athenian Black Figure Vase Painting C6th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T17.5 Heracles in Helius’ Cup
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C4th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z18.1 Helius with Aureole
  Greco-Roman Sparta Floor Mosaic A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z50.1A Sol-Helius as Sunday
  Greco-Roman Orbe Mosaic C3rd A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z50.3 Helius, Selene, the Horae
  Greco-Roman Floor Mosaic A.D.
 
 
 
 

  SOURCES (ALL HELIUS PAGES)
  GREEK
  Homer, The Iliad – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Homer, The Odyssey – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Hesiod, Theogony – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  Hesiod, Astronomy Fragments – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  Hesiod, Fragments – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  The Homeric Hymns – Greek Epic C8th – 4th B.C.
  Epic Cycle, Titanomachia Fragments – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Aesop, Fables – Greek Fables C6th B.C.
  Pindar, Odes – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Pindar, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric II Anacreontea, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th – 4th B.C.
  Greek Lyric III Stesichorus, Fragments – Greek Lyric C7th – 6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric V Euripides, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric V Philoxenus, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th – 4th B.C.
  Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragments – Greek Lyric B.C.
  Greek Elegaic Mimnermus, Fragments – Greek Elegaic C7th B.C.
  Aeschylus, Agamemnon – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Aeschylus, Suppliant Women – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Aeschylus, Fragments – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Aristophanes, Clouds – Greek Comedy C5th – 4th B.C.
  Herodotus, Histories – Greek History C5th B.C.
  Plato, Cratylus – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Plato, Republic – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Plato, Statesman – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Apollodorus, The Library – Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Apollonius Rhodius, The Argonautica – Greek Epic C3rd B.C.
  Callimachus, Hymns – Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  Callimachus, Fragments – Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  Lycophron, Alexandra – Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  Aratus, Phaenomena – Greek Astronomy C3rd B.C.
  Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History – Greek History C1st B.C.
  Strabo, Geography – Greek Geography C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Pausanias, Description of Greece – Greek Travelogue C2nd A.D.
  The Orphic Hymns – Greek Hymns C3rd B.C. – C2nd A.D.
  Aelian, On Animals – Greek Natural History C2nd – 3rd A.D.
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines – Greek Rhetoric C3rd A.D.
  Philostratus the Younger, Imagines – Greek Rhetoric C3rd A.D.
  Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana – Greek Biography C2nd A.D.
  Oppian, Cynegetica – Greek Poetry C3rd A.D.
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy – Greek Epic C4th A.D.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca – Greek Epic C5th A.D.
  Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History – Greek Mythography C1st – 2nd A.D.
  Greek Papyri III Anonymous, Fragments – Greek Poetry C4th A.D.
  ROMAN
  Hyginus, Fabulae – Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Hyginus, Astronomica – Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Ovid, Metamorphoses – Latin Epic C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Ovid, Fasti – Latin Poetry C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Ovid, Heroides – Latin Poetry C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Virgil, Georgics – Latin Bucolic C1st B.C.
  Cicero, De Natura Deorum – Latin Rhetoric C1st B.C.
  Seneca, Hercules Furens – Latin Tragedy C1st A.D.
  Seneca, Medea – Latin Tragedy C1st A.D.
  Seneca, Oedipus – Latin Tragedy C1st A.D.
  Seneca, Phaedra – Latin Tragedy C1st A.D.
  Seneca, Troades – Latin Tragedy C1st A.D.
  Valerius Flaccus, The Argonautica – Latin Epic C1st A.D.
  Statius, Thebaid – Latin Epic C1st A.D.
  Statius, Achilleid – Latin Epic C1st A.D.
  Statius, Silvae – Latin Poetry C1st A.D.
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass – Latin Novel C2nd A.D.
  BYZANTINE
  Photius, Myriobiblon – Byzantine Greek Scholar C9th A.D.
  Suidas, The Suda – Byzantine Greek Lexicon C10th A.D.
  OTHER SOURCES
  Other references not currently quoted here: Argonautica Orphica 1216, Sophocles Oedipus at Colonus 869, Athenaeus 7.296 & 11.470, Eustathius on Homer 36 & 1632 & 1668, Pliny Natural History 34.3 & 34.7 & 34.17 & 34.19, Theocritus 25.130.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY
  A complete bibliography of the translations quoted on this page.