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HORAI

25/01/2020

Mitología griega >> Dioses griegos >> Dioses del Olimpo >> Horae (Horai)
 
 
  Nombre griego

  Ὡρα Ὡραι
 
 
  Transliteración

  Hôra, Hôrai
 
 
  Ortografía latina

  Hora, Horae
 
 
  Traducción

  Porción del tiempo, temporada
 
 

 
  Las tres Horae, figura roja ateniense kylix C5th B.C., Antikensammlung Berlin THE HORAI (Horae) fueron las diosas de las estaciones y las porciones naturales del tiempo. Presidieron las revoluciones de las constelaciones celestiales por las cuales se midió el año, mientras que sus tres hermanas, las Moirae (Moirae) hicieron girar la red del destino. El Horai también protegió las puertas de Olympos y reunió las estrellas y las constelaciones del cielo.
  Los Horai fueron especialmente honrados por los agricultores que plantaron y cuidaron sus cosechas a tiempo con el surgimiento y la puesta de las estrellas, medidas de las estaciones que pasan. Por lo general, las tres se llamaban diosas Eunomia (buen orden, buen pasto), Eirene (paz, primavera) y dique (justicia) que representaban individualmente las condiciones requeridas para la prosperidad agrícola. La asociación de la agricultura con la ley y el orden también se puede encontrar en las divinidades de Zeus, Demeter y el Daimones Khryseoi .
  Otro conjunto de Horai personifica las doce horas del día.
  FAMILIA DE LAS HORAE
  PADRES
  [1.1] ZEUS & THEMIS (Hesiod Theogony 901, Pindar Frag 30, Apollodorus 1.13, Pausanias 5.17.1, Himno órfico 43, Hyginus Fabulae 183) [ 19459005] [2.1] HELIOS y SELENE (Quintus Smyrnaeus 10.334) [2.2] HELIOS [194599034] [194599034] [194590034] (Nonnus Dionysiaca 12.1)
  NOMBRES
  [1.1] EUNOMIA , DIKE , EIRENE (Hesiod Theogony 901, Pindar Olympian Ode 13, Griego lírico V Anon Fragus 1018, Apollo 1.13, Himno órfico 43, Diodorus Siculus 5.72.5, Hyginus Fabulae 183) [2.1] THALLO , KARPO , AUXO [194590034] [194590034] ] (Pausanias 9.35.1, Hyginus Fabulae 183) [3.1] AUXESIA , DAMIA (Pausanias 9.35.1, Hyginus Fabulae 183) [1945900 [ ] [4.1] EUPORIA, ORTHOSIE, PHEROUSA (Hyginus Fabulae 183) [5.1] EIAR, THEROS, KHEIMON, PHTHINOPORON (Nonnus Dionysiaca 38.2685] [194590945]
  ENCICLOPEDIA
  HORAE (Hôrai), originalmente las personificaciones o diosas del orden de la naturaleza y de las estaciones, pero en tiempos posteriores fueron consideradas como las diosas del orden en general y de la justicia. En Homero, que ni menciona a sus padres ni su número, son las divinidades olímpicas del clima y los ministros de Zeus; y en esta capacidad vigilan las puertas del Olimpo y promueven la fertilidad de la tierra, mediante los diferentes tipos de clima que envían. ( Od. xxiv. 343; comp. X. 469, xix. 132, Il. v. 749, viii. 393) Como el clima, en general, está regulado de acuerdo con las estaciones, se describen además como las diosas de las estaciones, i. mi. Las fases regulares bajo las cuales la Naturaleza se manifiesta. ( Od. ii. 107, x. 469, xi. 294, xix. 152, xxiv. 141.) Son amables y benevolentes, trayendo a dioses y hombres muchas cosas que son buenas y deseables. ( Il. xxi. 450; comp. Himno en Apoll. Pyth. 16; Theocrit. Xv. 105; Ov. Rápido. i. 125. ) Sin embargo, como Zeus tiene el poder de reunir y dispersar las nubes, en realidad son solo sus ministros y, a veces, también los de Hera. ( Il. viii. 433; comp. Moschus, Idyll. ii. 160; Paus. V. 11. § 2.) Los hombres en diferentes circunstancias consideran el curso del tiempo (o las estaciones) ya sea tan rápido o tan lento, y ambos epítetos se aplican en consecuencia a las Horae. (Theocr. Xv. 104; Pind. Nem. iv. 34; Horat. ( Carm. iv. 7. 8; Ov. Met. ii. 118.) El curso de las estaciones (u horas) se describe simbólicamente en la danza de Horae; y, junto con Charites, Hebe, Harmonia y Afrodita, acompañan las canciones de las Musas y la obra de Apolo en el lira, con su baile. (Hom. Himno. en Apoll. Pyth. 16, & c .; Pind. Ol. iv. 2; Xen. Simposios. [19459047 ] 7.) Las nociones homéricas continuaron entreteniéndose durante mucho tiempo después, considerándose a Horae como el dador de las diversas estaciones del año, especialmente de primavera y otoño, es decir, de la naturaleza en su floración y madurez. Horae, Thallo (la Hora de la primavera) y Carpo (la Hora del otoño), fueron adorados desde tiempos muy remotos (Paus. Ix. 35. § 1; comp. Athen. Xiv. P. 636; Ov. Met. ii. 1118, & c .; Val. Flacc. iv. 92; Lucian, Dial. Deor x. 1.) La Hora de la primavera acompaña a Perséfone todos los años en su ascenso del mundo inferior; y la expresión de ” La ​​cámara de la Horae se abre” es equivalente a “Se acerca la primavera”. (Orph. Himno. xlii. 7; Pind. Fragm. xlv. 13, p. 576, ed. Bocckh.) Los atributos de flores primaverales, fragancia y frescura elegante. en consecuencia son transferidos a las Horae; De este modo, adornaron a Afrodita cuando se levantó del mar, hicieron una guirnalda de flores para Pandora, e incluso las cosas inanimadas se describen como derivando hechizos peculiares de los Horae. (Hom. Himno. viii. 5, & c .; Hes. Op. 65; Hygin. Poeta. Astr. ii. 5; Theocr. I. 150; Atenas. Ii. P. 60.) Por lo tanto, se parecen y se mencionan junto con los Charites, y ambos son frecuentemente confundidos o identificados. (Paus. Ii. 17. § 4; Müller, Orchom. p. 176, & c. 2da edición.) Como fueron concebidos para promover la prosperidad de todo lo que crece, aparecen también como protectoras. de jóvenes y dioses recién nacidos (Paus. ii. 13. § 3; Pind. Pyth. ix. 62; Philostr. Imag. i. 26; Nonnus, Dionys. xi. 50); y los jóvenes atenienses, al ser admitidos a lo largo del ephebi, mencionaron a Thallo, entre otros dioses, en el juramento que hicieron en el templo de Agraulos. (Pólux, viii. 106.)
  En esto, como en muchos otros casos de la mitología griega, es visible una transición gradual, de nociones puramente físicas a éticas, y la influencia que las Horae originalmente tuvieron sobre la naturaleza se transfirió posteriormente a la vida humana en particular. El primer rastro de esto ocurre incluso en Hesíodo, porque los describe como dar a un estado buenas leyes, justicia y paz; los llama las hijas de Zeus y Themis, y les da los nombres significativos de Eunomia, Dice y Eirene. (Theog. 901, & c .; Apollod. I. 3. § 1; Diod. V. 72.) Pero las ideas éticas y físicas no siempre se mantienen separadas, y ambas a menudo se mezclan con cada una. otro, como en Pindar. ( Ol. iv. 2, xiii. 6, Nem. iv. 34; Orph. Himno. 42.) El número de Horae es diferente en los diferentes escritores, aunque el número más antiguo parece haber sido dos, como en Atenas (Paus. iii. 18. § 7, ix. 35. § 1); pero luego su número común es tres, como el de Moerae y Charites. Hyginus ( Fab. 183) está muy confundido con respecto al número y los nombres de las Horae, ya que mezcla los nombres originales con los apellidos y las designaciones de estaciones u horas separadas. De esta manera, primero hace una lista de diez Horae, a saber. Titanis, Auxo, Eunomia, Pherusa, Carpo, Dice, Euporia, Eirene, Orthosia y Thallo, y un segundo de once, Auge, Anatole, Musia, Gymnasia, Nymphes, Mesembria, Sponde, Telete, Acme, Cypridos, Dysis. Los Horae (Thallo y Carpo) fueron adorados en Atenas, y su templo allí también contenía un altar de Dioniso Orthus (Aten. I. P. 38; comp. Xiv. P. 656; Hesych. s.v. hôraia); igualmente fueron adorados en Argos (Paus. ii. 20. § 4), Corinto y Olimpia (v. 15. § 3). En las obras de arte, las Horae fueron representadas como doncellas florecientes, que llevaban los diferentes productos de las estaciones.
  Fuente: Diccionario de biografía y mitología griega y romana.
  NOMBRES DE LAS HORAE
 
 
  Nombre griego
  Δικη
  [ιρηνη
  [υνομια
 
 
  Transliteración
  Dikê
  Eirênê
  Eunomia
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Dicé
  Irene
  Eunomia
 
 
  Traducción
  Justicia, Ley de Aduanas ( dikê )
  Paz ( eirênê ), primavera ( eiar )
  Buen orden, buen pasto ( eu, nomos )
 
 
 
 
  Nombre griego
  Καρπω
  Θαλλω
  ξωυξω
 
 
  Transliteración
  Karpô
  Thallô
  Auxô
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Carpo
  Thallo
  Auxo
 
 
  Traducción
  Frutas, productos ( karpos )
  Green-Shoots, Blooming ( thallô )
  Crecimiento, aumento ( auxêsis )
 
 
 
 
  Nombre griego
  [υξησια
  Δαμια
  [ρθωσια
  [ερουσα
 
 
  Transliteración
  Auxêsia
  Damia
  Orthôsia
  Pherousa
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Auxesia
  Damia
  Ortesis
  Pherusa
 
 
  Traducción
  Crecimiento, aumento ( auxêsis )
  Tierra de enfermería ( da, dê, maia )
  Prosperidad ( orthôsis )
  Trayendo sustancia ( pherô, ousa )
 
 
 
 
  Nombre griego
  [ιαρ
  [ερος
  [ινοφωρον
  [ειμων
 
 
  Transliteración
  Eiar
  Theros
  Phthinophôron
  Kheimôn
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Eiar
  Theros
  Phthinophoron
  Cheimon
 
 
  Traducción
  Primavera ( eiar )
  Verano ( theros )
  Otoño ( phthiniphôron )
  Invierno ( kheima )
 
 
  PADRES Y GRUPOS DE LAS HORAE
 
  Helio, Selene y Horae de las cuatro estaciones, mosaico grecorromano A.D. LISTA GENERAL
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 183 (trad. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “Los nombres de Horae, hijas de Jove [Zeus], ​​hijo de Saturno [Kronos ( Cronus)], y Themis, hija Titanidis (Titaness), son estos: Auxo (Crecimiento), Eunomia (Orden), Pherusa (Sustancia), Carpo (Fruta), Dados (Justicia), Euporia (Abundancia), Irene (Paz) , Orthosie (Prosperidad), Thallo (Brotes verdes) “. [N.B. Estos parecen ser tres grupos distintos de tres Horai: – (1) Eunome, Dike y Eirene (Irene); (2) Auxo, Karpo (Carpo), Thallo; (3) Pherousa (Pherusa), Euporia, Orthosie (Orthosia).]
  I. EUNOMIA, DIKE, IRENE (EIRENE)
  Hesíodo, Teogonía 901 y sigs. (Traducción Evelyn-White) (épica griega C8th o 7th BC): “Luego [Zeus] se llevó a Themis (Ley Divina) que descubrió el Horai (Horae, Seasons), y Eunomia (Good Order), Dike (Justice), y blooming ( thallô ) Eirene (Irene, Peace), quienes se preocupan por las obras de los hombres mortales, y los Moirai (Moirae , Fates) a quien el sabio Zeus le dio el mayor honor, Klotho (Clotho), y Lakhesis, y Atropos, quienes dan a los hombres mortales el mal y el bien de tener “. [N.B. Eirene también podría denotar primavera, y Eunomia buenos pastos.]
  Pindar, Fragmento de Odas 30 (trad. Sandys) (letra griega C5th BC): “[Themis] la novia primigenia de Zeus Soter (Salvador). Y ella le dio a luz el Horai ( Horae, Seasons) con filete dorado y fruta reluciente, – el Horai que siempre es cierto “.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 13 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Con Themis, la hija de Ouranos (Urano, Cielo), él [Zeus] engendró a sus hijas Horai (Horae), por su nombre Eirene (Irene, Paz), Eunomia (Legalidad) y Dike (Justicia) “.
  Pausanias, Descripción de Grecia 5. 17. 1 (trad. Jones) (cuaderno de viaje griego C2nd AD): “Las figuras de Horai (Horae) junto a ellos [estatuas de Hera y Zeus en el Heraion (Heraeum) en Olympia], sentado sobre tronos … A su lado se encuentra una imagen de Themis, como madre de los Horai “.
  Himno órfico 43 a las Horae (trad. Taylor) (himnos griegos C3rd BC a 2nd AD): “Hijas de Zeus y Themis, Horai (Horae) brillante, Dique (Justicia) y bendita Eirene (paz) y Eunomia (legalidad) “.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 183 (trad. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “Los nombres de Horae, hijas de Jove [Zeus], ​​hijo de Saturno [Kronos ( Cronus)], y Themis, hija Titanidis (Titaness), son estos:… Eunomia (Orden)… Dados (Justicia)… Irene (Paz), Orthosie (Prosperidad) “.
  II. CARPO (KARPO), AUXO, THALLO
  Pausanias, Descripción de Grecia 9. 35. 1 (trans. Jones) (cuaderno de viaje griego C2nd AD): “Los nombres apropiados para los Kharites (Charites, Graces) son los dados por los Los atenienses, que desde la antigüedad han adorado a dos Kharites, Auxo y Hegemone. [El tercero] Karpo (Carpo, Fruit) es el nombre, no de Kharis (Charis), sino de Hora. La otra Hora es adorada junto con Pandrosos. por los atenienses que llaman a la diosa Thallo (Blooming) “. [N.B. Las diosas atenienses Auxo, Karpo (Carpo) y Thallo fueron descritas como Horai (Horae) y Kharites (Charites). Pausanias probablemente es incorrecto cuando intenta colocarlos exclusivamente en una categoría u otra.]
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 183 (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “Los nombres de las Horae… Auxo (Crecimiento)… Carpo (Fruta) … Thallo (brotes verdes) “. [N.B. En la teogonía de Hesíodo , la Hora Eirene (Paz o Primavera) recibe el epíteto thallô “floreciendo”]
  III. FERUSA (FEROUSA), EUPORIA, ORTHOSIE
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 183 (trad. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “Los nombres de las Horae… Pherusa (Sustancia)… Euporia (Abundancia) … Ortesis (prosperidad) “.
  DIOSAS HORAE DE LA ORDEN DEL AÑO
  Homer, Iliad 21. 450 ff (trans. Lattimore) (griego épico C8th B.C.): “Las estaciones cambiantes (Horai) trajeron el tiempo para que nuestro trabajo sea pagado”.
  Homer, Odyssey 2. 107 y siguientes (traducción Shewring) (griego épico C8th B.C.): “Cuando pasaron las estaciones (Horai) y llegó el cuarto año”.
  Pindar, Paean 1 (trad. Sandys) (letra griega C5th BC): “Ahora tiene el año en su círculo completo, y Horai (Horae, Seasons), las hijas de Themis, ven a la ciudad de Thebe que conduce el corcel, trayendo a Apollon el banquete que ama la guirnalda “.
  Pausanias, Descripción de Grecia 1. 40. 4 (trad. Jones) (cuaderno de viaje griego C2nd AD): “[En el templo de Zeus en Megara:] Sobre la cabeza de Zeus son los Horai (Horae, Seasons) y Moirai (Moirae, Fates), y todos pueden ver que él es el único dios obedecido por Moira (Destiny), y él distribuye las estaciones como es debido “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 7. 7 ss (traducción Rouse) (griego épico C5th AD): “El Padre [Zeus] habló, el Moirai (Moirae, Fates) aplaudió; a su las palabras del pie ligero Horai (Horae, Seasons) estornudaron, como un presagio de lo que vendrá “. [N.B. Las Horai como diosas del paso del tiempo eran hermanas de Moirai o Fates. Los antiguos consideraban los estornudos como un presagio.]
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 8. 33 y siguientes: “Los asistentes de Kronion [Zeus ‘] los Horai (Horae, Seasons) recorrieron el cielo”.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 38. 15 ss (trans. Rouse) (griego épico C5th A.D.): “Tan pronto como Horai (Horae, Seasons) trajo el séptimo año”.
  Ver también: – (1) Personificaciones Horae de las Cuatro Estaciones (abajo) (2) Diosas Horae de Fructificación y Floración (abajo) (3) Horae Guardianes de las Puertas del Cielo (abajo)
  HORAE GUARDIANES DE LAS PUERTAS DEL CIELO
  Las Horai (Horae) eran las diosas del orden celestial y, como tales, también estaban representadas como los guardianes de las puertas del cielo.
  Homero, Ilíada 5. 750 y 8. 393 y siguientes (trans. Lattimore) (griego épico C8th BC): “Hera puso el látigo rápidamente sobre los caballos [dejando el cielo]; y El movimiento de ellos mismos gimió por las puertas del cielo que los Horai custodiaban, esos Horai (Horae, Hours) a cuyo cargo el enorme cielo y Olympos (Olympus), para abrir la densa oscuridad o de nuevo para cerrarla “. [NÓTESE BIEN. Este mismo pasaje aparece dos veces en la Ilíada .]
  Pausanias, Descripción de Grecia 5. 11. 7 (trad. Jones) (cuaderno de viaje griego C2nd AD): “Estos [los Horai (Horae)] en la poesía épica están incluidos entre los hijas de Zeus. Homero también en la Ilíada dice que a los Horai se les ha confiado el cielo, como los guardias de la corte de un rey “.
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 11 (trad. Fairbanks) (retórico griego C3rd AD): “[De una descripción de una pintura griega antigua en Neapolis (Nápoles):] En su pasión por conducir a este hijo [Faetón] de Helios (el Sol) se aventuró a montar el carro de su padre, pero debido a que no mantenía un control firme, se entristeció y cayó en el Eridanos (Eridanus) … ¡Mira! Nyx ( Noche) está conduciendo a Hemera (Día) desde el cielo del mediodía, y el orbe del sol mientras se sumerge hacia la tierra dibuja en su tren las Astera (Estrellas). Las Horai (Horae, Horas) abandonan sus puestos en las puertas [del cielo] y huir hacia la penumbra que se levanta para encontrarlos “.
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2. 34: “Que las puertas del cielo ( ouranos ) están a cargo del Horai (Horae, Seasons) que podemos dejar según el conocimiento especial y la prerrogativa de Homero, porque muy probablemente se convirtió en un íntimo de los Horai cuando heredó los cielos “.
  Ovidio, Fasti 1. 125 ff (trad. Boyle) (poesía romana C1st BC a C1st AD): “Yo [el dios romano Janus] me siento en las puertas del cielo con el gentil Horae (Horas, estaciones): Júpiter [Zeus] va y entra por mi oficina “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1. 223 y sigs. (Trans. Rouse) (épica griega C5th AD): “[Cuando el monstruo Typhoeus asaltó el Cielo:] El Horai (Horae, Seasons) armado sin temor los batallones estrellados, y las líneas de constelaciones celestiales en un círculo disciplinado brillaron en la refriega “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 170 ff (trans. Rouse) (griego épico C5th AD): “[Cuando el monstruo Typhoeus asedió el Cielo:] Era de noche. Los centinelas se pusieron en fila alrededor Olympos y las siete zonas [de las estrellas], y como era de la cumbre de las torres, llegaron sus alarmas nocturnas; las llamadas de las estrellas en muchas lenguas fueron llevadas al extranjero, y la marca de giro de Selene (la Luna) recibió el crujido. eco del punto de partida de Kronos (Cronus, Time). Ahora los Horai (Horae, Seasons), guardianes del aire superior, sirvientas de Faetón [Helios el Sol], habían fortificado el cielo con una larga cadena de nubes que cubrían como un coronal. Las estrellas habían cerrado la barra atlante de las puertas inviolables para que alguna tropa sigilosa no entrara en los cielos mientras los Benditos estaban lejos: en lugar del ruido de las tuberías y la flauta familiar, la brisa silbaba una melodía con sus alas a través de la noche.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 270 y siguientes: “[Typhoeus amenaza a Zeus:] ‘¡Dejen que las tímidas Horai (estaciones), las sirvientas de Helios el Sol, huyan de los cielos bajo la lluvia de montañas! ‘”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 699 y siguientes: “[Zeus regresando de su victoria sobre el monstruo Tifón:] Giró rápidamente su carro dorado hacia la ronda de las estrellas etéreas, mientras Nike (Victoria ) a su lado condujo al equipo de su padre con el látigo celestial. Entonces el dios vino una vez más al cielo; y para recibirlo el señorial Horai (Horae, Seasons) abrió las puertas celestiales y coronó los cielos. Con Zeus victorioso, los otros dioses volvieron a casa en Olympos (Olympus), en su propia forma volvieron, porque pospusieron las formas aladas que habían tomado “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 13. 22 y siguientes: “[Iris entrega un mensaje de Zeus al joven dios Dionysos:] ‘Ven, levanta el tiros de la batalla en tus manos y gana el cielo por tus acciones, porque la corte inmortal de Zeus no te recibirá sin trabajo duro, y los Horai (Horae, Hours) no te abrirán las puertas de Olympos a menos que hayas luchado por el premio [es decir, los Horai admiten nuevos dioses en el cielo ]. ‘”
  DIOSAS HORAE DE LA FLORACIÓN Y FRUTACIÓN ESTACIONALES
 
  Horae de las cuatro estaciones, mosaico grecorromano de Chebba C2nd AD, Museo del Bardo Homer, Odyssey 24. 343 ff (traducción Shewring) (griego épico C8th BC) : “Trece perales, diez manzanos, cuarenta higueras … cada uno de ellos dando fruto a su vez; había racimos de cada grado de madurez como los Horai (Horae, Seasons) ) de Zeus arrojaron su influencia desde arriba “.
  Hesíodo, Obras y días 69 y siguientes (traducción: Evelyn-White) (épica griega C8th o 7th BC): “[Pandora la primera mujer fue creada por los dioses:] Los ricos pelirroja Horai (Horae, Seasons) coronó su cabeza con flores de primavera “.
  Pindar, Fragmento de Odas 30 (trad. Sandys) (letra griega C5th BC): “[Themis] la novia primigenia del Salvador Zeus. Y ella le dio a luz el Horai (Horae, Estaciones) con filete dorado y fruta reluciente, los Horai que siempre son ciertos “.
  Pindar, Dithyrambs Fragment 75: “Claramente se ven los símbolos brillantes de los ritos sagrados, sin embargo, en la apertura de la cámara del Horai (Horae, Seasons) con túnica púrpura, el la fragante primavera trae las plantas que respiran néctar. Luego, oh, entonces, arrojan sobre la tierra inmortal los hermosos mechones de violetas, y las rosas se entrelazan en el cabello; luego suenan las voces de las canciones con el sonido de las flautas; luego suenan los bailes en honor de Semele con corona de diadema [es decir, la madre del dios del vino Dionisos] “.
  The Anacreontea, Fragment 5 (trad. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C5th B.C.): “Los Horai (Horae, Seasons) nos traen las primeras rosas deliciosas”.
  Corinna, Fragmento 690 (trad. Campbell, Vol. Griego Lyric IV) (C5th BC): “Eos (Dawn), dejando las aguas de Okeanos (Oceanus), sacó del cielo la luz sagrada de la luna, mientras que el Horai (Horae, Seasons) vino del inmortal Zeus entre las flores de primavera “.
  Platón, Cratylus 400d y 410c (trad. Fowler) (filósofo griego C4 aC): “[Platón inventa etimologías para explicar los nombres de los dioses:] Sokrates (Sócrates ): Preguntemos qué pensaron los hombres al darles a [los dioses] sus nombres … Los primeros hombres que dieron nombres [a los dioses] no fueron personas comunes, sino pensadores y grandes conversadores … Pero ¿por qué deberían ustedes? no hablar de otro tipo de dioses, como el sol, la luna, las estrellas, la tierra, el éter, el aire, el fuego, el agua, las estaciones y el año … La palabra hôrai (estaciones) debería ser pronunciado en la antigua forma del ático, horai , si desea conocer el significado probable; êorai existen para dividir inviernos y veranos y vientos y los frutos de la tierra; y como se dividen ( horizousi ), con razón se llamarían horai “.
  Callimachus, Himno 2 al Apolo 81 y siguientes (trad. Mair) (poeta griego C3rd BC): “Los altares [de Apollon] usan flores en primavera, incluso todas las flores de varios colores que Horai (Horae, Seasons) lidera cuando Zephyros (el Viento del Oeste) [de la primavera] respira rocío “.
  Diodorus Siculus, Biblioteca de Historia 5. 72. 5 (trad. Oldfather) (historiador griego C1st BC): “El Horai (Horae, Seasons), como se les llama, a cada uno de ellos, según su nombre indica, recibió [es decir, asignado por Zeus] el orden y el adorno de la vida “.
  Himno órfico 43 a las Horae (trans. Taylor) (himnos griegos C3rd BC a 2nd AD): “Horai (Horae, Seasons) … vernal y herboso, vívido, santo poderes, cuyo aliento balsámico exhala en hermosas flores; Horai (estaciones del año) de colores intensos aumentan su cuidado, dando vueltas, para siempre floreciente y justo: invertido con un velo de rocío brillante, un velo florido encantador a la vista: asistiendo a Perséfone, cuando regresan de la noche, los Moirai (Moirae, Fates) y Kharites (Charites, Graces) la llevan a la luz … Con la Madre [Deméter] triunfando, y Zeus divino … le dan a la tierra una reserva de frutos irreprochables ”
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1 (trad. Fairbanks) (retórico griego C3rd AD): “La invención de la pintura pertenece a los dioses – testigo en la tierra de todos los diseños con los que el Horai (Horae, Seasons) pinta los prados y las manifestaciones que vemos en los cielos “.
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 11: “[De una descripción de una pintura griega antigua de Neapolis (Nápoles):] En su pasión por conducir [Faetón] este hijo de Helios (el Sol) se aventuró a montar el carro de su padre, pero como no mantuvo un control firme, se afligió y cayó en el Eridanos (Eridanus) … ¡Mira! Nyx (Noche) conduce a Hemera (Día) desde el mediodía cielo, y el orbe del Sol mientras se sumerge hacia la tierra dibuja en su tren los Astera (Estrellas). Los Horai (Horae, Hours) abandonan sus puestos en las puertas [del cielo] y huyen hacia la penumbra que se levanta para encontrarlos. ”
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2. 34: ” [Ostensiblemente una descripción de una pintura griega antigua en Neapolis (Nápoles:] Horai (Horae, Seasons). Que las puertas del cielo son a cargo del Horai, podemos dejarlo al conocimiento especial y prerrogativa de Homero, porque muy probablemente se hizo íntimo del Horai cuando heredó los cielos; pero el tema que aquí se trata en la pintura es fácil de entender para un hombre Para las Horai (Estaciones), viniendo a la tierra en sus propias formas, con las manos juntas están bailando el año a lo largo de su curso, creo, y Ge (Gea, la Tierra) en su sabiduría les trae todos los frutos de el año. “No pises el jacinto o la rosa” No le diré al Horai de la primavera, porque cuando se pisan, parecen más dulces y exhalan una fragancia más dulce que los propios Horai. ” No camine por los campos arados cuando sea suave ‘No le diré a las Horae del invierno- tiempo; porque si los pisotean los Horai, producirán espiga de trigo. Y las Horae de cabello dorado están caminando sobre las puntas de las orejas, pero no para romperlas o doblarlas; no, son tan ligeros que ni siquiera balancean los tallos. Te encanta, vides, que intentes aferrarte al Horai de la marea de otoño; porque sin duda amas a Horae porque te hacen justo y dulce como el vino. Ahora estas son nuestras cosechas, por así decirlo, forman la pintura; pero en cuanto a los Horai mismos, son muy encantadores y de arte maravilloso. ¡Cómo cantan y cómo giran en el baile! Tenga en cuenta también el hecho de que ninguno de ellos está dirigido a nosotros; y tenga en cuenta el brazo levantado, la libertad del cabello volador, la mejilla cálida por la carrera y los ojos que se unen en el baile. Quizás nos permitan tejer un cuento sobre el pintor; porque me parece que él, al enamorarse de los Horai mientras bailaban, fueron atrapados por ellos en su danza, las diosas tal vez intimidando esa gracia ( hora ) debe asistir a su pintura “. [19459014 ]
  Ovidio, Fasti 5. 217 y sigs (trad. Boyle) (poesía romana C1st BC a C1st AD): “[Flora-Chloris la diosa de las flores habla:] Tan pronto como el de las hojas se emite escarcha y los rayos de sol calientan la flor moteada, los Horae (Seasons) se reúnen, enganchan sus vestidos de colores y recogen estos regalos míos en tinas de luz. De repente, las Charites (Graces) irrumpen y tejen coronas y coronas para entrelazar el cabello de los dioses “.
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass 6. 24 ff (trans. Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) : “[At the wedding of Cupid (Eros) and Psyche (Psykhe) :] The Horae (Seasons) brightened the scene with roses and other flowers, the Gratiae (Graces) [Kharites] diffused balsam.”
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass 10. 30 ff : “They [the Horai, Seasons] were appeasing the goddess [Aphrodite] by strewing wreaths and single blossoms before her, and they formed a most elegant chorus-line as they sought to please the Mistress of pleasures with the foliage of spring.”
  Colluthus, Rape of Helen 344 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poetry C5th to 6th A.D.) : “She [Helene] hath gone to the meadow and sits on the dewy plain of the Horai (Horae, Seasons) . . . and the paths of roses.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 7. 7 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “The Horai (Horae, Seasons), those daughters of the lichtgang, still joyless, plaited garlands for the gods only of meadow-grass. For Wine was lacking. Without Bakkhos [who was not yet born] to inspire the dance, its grace was only half complete and quite without profit; it charmed only the eyes of the company.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 10. 170 ff : “The banks free of waves [of the river Patoklos (Pactolus) in Lydia] spirted up self-growing roses, the lily sprouted, the Horai (Horae, Seasons) crowned the shores while Bakkhos (Bacchus) bathed.”
  HORAE GODDESSES OF THE FOUR SEASONS
 
  Horae of the four seasons, Greco-Roman mosaic A.D., Red Castle Museum, Tripoli The Horai (Horae) sometimes personified the four seasons–Spring (Eiar), Summer (Theros), Autumn (Phthinoporon) and Winter (Kheimon). As such they were described as daughters of the sun-god Helios (Helius) who guided their father’s path across the heavens and oversaw the flowering and fruiting of the earth.
  Alcman, Fragment 20 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C7th B.C.) : “And he [Zeus] created three seasons, Summer and Winter, and the third, Autumn, and Spring as a fourth, when things grow but there is not enough to eat.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 10. 334 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “[Paris of Troy lay dying, wounded by a poison arrow :] Hera beheld him, with rejoicing soul throned in the Olympian palace-court of Zeus. And seated at her side were handmaids four whom radiant-faced Selene (the Moon) bare to Helios (the Sun) to be unwearying ministers in Heaven, in form and office diverse each from each; for of these Horai (Horae, Seasons) one was summer’s queen, and one of winter and his stormy star, of spring the third, of autumn-tide the fourth. So in four portions parted is man’s year ruled by these Queens in turn–but of all this be Zeus himself the Overseer in heaven. And of those issues now these spake with her which baleful Aisa (Fate) in her all-ruining heart was shaping [i.e. the final chapter of the Trojan War] . . . Of these things with her handmaids did the Queen of Heaven hold converse, and of many such, but Paris, while they ta lked, gave up the ghost on Ida: never Helen saw him more.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 2. 24 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Enrobed in purple vestments Phoebus [Helios the Sun] sat, high on a throne of gleaming emeralds. Attending him on either side stood Dies (Day) and Mensis (Month) and Annus (Year) and Saecula (Century), and Horae (Seasons) disposed at equal intervals between. Young Ver (Spring) was there, with coronet of flowers, and naked Aestas (Summer), garlanded with grain; Autumnus (Autumn) was there with trampled vintage stained, and icy Hiems (Winter), rime upon his locks.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 2. 118 ff : “When Titan [Helio the Sun] perceived the Morning Star [Eosphoros] setting and saw the world in crimson sheen . . . he bade the nimble Horae (Hours) go yoke his steeds, and they, swift goddesses, fastened the jingling harness and the reins, as from the lofty stalls the horses came, filled with ambrosial food and breathing flame.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 11. 486 – 12. 116 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “The rosycheek Horai (Horae, Seasons), daughters of the restless lichtgang their stormfoot father [Helios], made a hast to the house of Helios (the Sun). One [Winter] wore a snowy veil shadowing her face, and sent forth a gleam of subtle light through the black clouds; her feet were fitted with chilly hailstone shoes. She had bound her braids about her watery head, and fastened across her brow a rain-producing veil, with an evergreen garland on her head and a white circlet of snow covering her frost-rimed breast. Another [Spring] puffed out from her lips the swallow-wind’s breath which gives joy to mortal men, having banded the spring-time tresses of her zephyrloving head with a fresh dewy coronet, while she laughed like a flower, and fanned through her robe far abroad the fragrance of the opening rose at dawn. So she wove the merry dance for Adonis [ whose festival was in spring] and Kythereia (Cytherea) [Aphrodite] together. Another [Summer], the harvest-home Season (Hora), came with her Sisters. In her right hand she held a head of corn with grains clustering on the top, and a sickle with sharpcutting blade, forecrier of harvest; her maiden form was wrapt in linen shining white, and as she wheeled the dance the fine texture showed the secrets of her thighs, while in a hotter sun the cheeks of her drooping face were damp with dewy sweat. Another [Autumn] leading the dance for an easy plowing, had bound about her hairless temple shoots of olive drenches with the waters of sevenstream Nile. Scanty and withering was the hair by her temples, dry was her body; for she is fruitpining Autumn who shears off the foliage from the trees with scatter-leaf winds. For there were no vinebranches yet, trailing about the Nymphe’s neck with tangled clusters and golden curls; not yet was she drunken with purple Maronian juice beside the neatswilling winepress; not yet had the ivy run up with wild intertwining tendrils. But then the fated time had come, which had brought the Horai (Horae, Seasons) running together to the house of Helios (the Sun). So these by the brows of western Okeanos (Oceanus) took ship for the mansion of Helios their father. As they approached, Hesperos (Hesperus) the Evening Star leapt up and went out of the hall to meet them. Selene (the Moon) herself also darted out newrisen, showing her light as she drove her cattle. The Sisters at the sight of the lifegiving Charioteer stayed their fruitful step. He had just finished his course and come down from the sky. Bright Phosphoros [the Morning Star] was ready for the fire-eyed driver, near his chariot and four. He put away the hot yokestraps and starry whip, and washed in the neighbouring Okeanos (Oceanus) stream the bodies of the firefed horses wet with sweat. The colts shook the dripping manes on their necks, and stamped with sparkling hooves the shining mangertrough. The four were greeted by the twelve circling Horai (Horae, Hours), daughters of Khronos (Chronos, Time), tripling round the fiery throne of the untiring Charioteer in a ring, servants of Helios that attend on his shining car, priestesses of the lichtgang each in her turn: for they bend the servile neck to the ancient manager o the universe. Then up and spoke the grapetending Hora (Season) [i.e. Autumn], holding out her hook of the fruitpining autumn as witness to her prayer: ‘Helios, giver of feason, plantdresser, lord of fruits! When will the soil make winemother grapes to grow? Which of the blessed will have this honour betrothed him by Aion (Aeon) [Khronos, Time]? Hide it not, I adjure you, because of all the Sisters I alone have no privilege of honour! I provide no fruit, no corn, no meadowhay, no rain from Zeus.’ She spoke, and Helios cheered the nurse of the fruitage to come. He raised a finger, and pointed out to his circling daughter close to a wall opposite the separated tablets of Harmonia. In these are recorded in one group all the oracles which the prophetic hand of Phanes [Khronos, Time] first born engraved as ordained for the world, and drew with his pencil the house proper for each [the astronomical house or zodiac sign]. And Hyperion [Helios the Sun], dispenser of fire, added these words: ‘In the third tablet, you shall know whence the fruitage of wine shall come–where is the Lion and the Virgin: in the fourth, who is the Prince of grapes–that is where Ganymedes draws the delicious nectar, and lifts cup in hand in the picture.’ When the god had spoken, the wineloving maiden turned her eyes about, and ran to the place. Beside the oracular wall she saw the first tablet, old as the infinite past, containing all things in one: upon it was all that Ophion lord paramount had done, all that ancient Kronos accomplished . . . But when the stormfoot Hora, Phaethon’s [Helios the Sun’s] handmaid, had seen the fiery shining victory of Zeus at war and the hailstorm snowstorm conflict of Kronos (Cronus), she looked at the next tablet in its turn. There was shown how the pine was in labour of the human race . . . how Raincloud Zeus brought the waters up in mountainous seas on high and flooded all cities . . . When the priestess of lichtgang passed with nimble foot to the third tabled, the circling maiden stood gazing at the manifold oracles of the world’s fate, in letters of flowing colour engraved with the artist’s vermilion, all that elaborate story which the primeval mind had inscribed; and this was the prophecy that she read in the tablets : ‘[Various prophecies from the nymphe Io to Atalanta] . . .’ The Hora passed restless over all these on one tablet, until she came to the place where fiery Helios had indicated the signs of prophecy to the wind-swept maiden. There was drawn the shining Lion, there the starry Virgin was depicted in mimic shape, holding a bunch of grapes, the summergrown flower of fruitage: there the daughter of Khronos (Chronos, Time) stayed her feet, and this is what she read : ‘Kissos (Cissus, Ivy), the lovely youth, shall creep into a plant, and he shall by the highflying ivy that entwines about the branches. From young Kalamos (Calamus) will spring a reed rising straight and bending to the breeze, a delicate sprout of the fruitful soil, to support the tame vine. Ampelos (Ampelus, Vine) shall change form into a plant and give his name to the fruit of the vine.’ But when the harvest-home maiden had seen all these prophecies, she sought the place where hard by on the neighbouring wall was engraved the figure of Ganymedes pouring the nectar-juice into a golden cup. There was an oracle engraved in four lines of verse. There the grape-loving goddess revelled, for she found this prophecy, kept for Lyaios (Lyaeus) Ivybearer [Dionysos], ‘Zeus gave to Phoibos (Phoebus) [Apollon] the prophetic laurel, red roses to the rosy Aphrodite, the grayleaf olive to Athena Greyeyes, corn to Demeter, vine to Dionysos.’ That is what the Euian maiden saw on the tablets. She departed joyful, and with her Sisters was away to the stream of the eastern Okeanos (Oceanus), moving along with Phaethon’s [Helios the Sun’s] team.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 38. 235 ff : “I [Helios the Sun] carry the measures of time ( khronos ), surrounded by the four Horai (Horae, Seasons), about the same centre, until I have passed through a whole house [of the Zodiac] and fulfilled one complete month as usual . . . Against Mene the moon [Selene] I move my rolling ball, the sparkling nourisher of sheafproducing growth, and pass on my endless circuit about the turning-point of the Zodiakos (Zodiac), creating the measures of time ( khronos ).”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 38. 268 ff : “When I [Helios the Sun] reach the Ram, the centre of the universe, the navel-star of Olympos, I [Helios] in my exaltation let the Spring (Eiar) increase; and crossing the herald of the West-Wind (Zephyros), the turning-line which balances night equal with day, I guide the dewy course of that Season (Eiar) [Hora] when the swallow comes. Passing into the lower house, opposite the Ram, I cast the light equal day on the two hooves; and again I make day balanced equally with dark on my homeward course when I bring in the leafshaking course of the autumn Season (Phthinoporon) [Hora], and drive with lesser light to the lower turning-point in the leafshedding month. Then I bring Winter (Kheimon, Cheimon) [Hora] for mankind with its rains, over the back of fish-tailed Aigokereos (Aegocerus) [constellation Capricorn], that earth may bring forth her gifts full of life for the farmers, when she receives the bridal showers and the creative dew. I deck out also corn-tending Summer (Theros) [Hora] the messenger of harvest, flogging the wheatbearing earth with hotter beams.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 577 ff : “The Horai (Horae, Seasons), handmaids of Helios (the Sun), to do grace to Lyaios (Lyaeus) [Dionysos], painted with flowers the fountain’s margin, and fragrant whiffs from the new-growing meadow beat on the balmy air. There were the clustering blooms which have the name Narkissos (Narcissus) the fair youth . . . there was the living plant of Amyklaian (Amyclaean) iris; there sang the nightingales over the spring blossoms, flying in troops above the clustering flowers.”
  HORAE GODDESSES OF PEACE, JUSTICE & ORDER
  As an extension of their function as the goddesses of the ordering of the year, the Horai (Horae) also presided over the ordering of human affairs personified as Good Order, Justice and Peace.
  Pindar, Olympian Ode 13. 6 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “Here [in this city] dwells Eunomia (Good Order) and that unsullied fountain Dike (Justice), her sister, sure support of cities; and Eirene (Irene, Peace) of the same kin, who are the stewards of wealth for mankind–three glorious daughters of wise-counselled Themis (Order).
Far from their path they hold proud Hybris (Insolence), fierce-hearted mother of full-fed Koros (Corus, Disdain) . . . But to you sons of Aletes, how often the Horai (Horae, Hours), decked in their wreaths, have given the glory of the victor’s triumph for supreme valour in the sacred games.”
  Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragment 1018 (from Stobaeus, Anthology) (trans. Campbell) (Greek lyric B.C.) : “Listen, Moirai (Moirae, Fates) . . . hear our prayers . . . send us rose-bloomed Eunomia (Good Order) and her bright-throned sisters Dike (Justice) and garland-wearing Eirana (Irene, Peace), and make this city forget its heavy-hearted misfortunes.”
  Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 72. 5 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “To Zeus also were born, they say, the goddesses . . . Horai (Horae), as they are called, Eunomia (Good Order) and Dike (Justice) and Eirene (Irene, Peace) . . . The Horai, as they are called, to each of them, according as her name indicates, was given [assigned by Zeus] the ordering and adornment of life, so as to serve to the greatest advantage of mankind; for there is nothing which is better to build a life of felicity than obedience to law ( eunomia ) and justice ( dike ) and peace ( eirene ).”
  For MORE information on the Horai as abstractions see DIKE , EIRENE , EUNOMIA
 
  Zeus, Hera and the Horae, Athenian black-figure dinos C6th B.C., British Museum HORAE NURSES, MIDWIVES & ATTENDANTS OF THE GODS
  The Horai (HOrae) were close companions of the gods of spring, such as Hera queen of the heavens, Aphrodite the goddess of procreation (including animals in spring), Hermes god of the herds and flocks, and Persephone goddess of the spring growth. They were often depicted as nature’s midwives, as were their sisters, the Moirai or Fates.
  I. NURSES & HANDMAIDENS OF HERA
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 13. 3 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “Olen [legendary Greek poet, unknown date], in his hymn to Hera, says that Hera was reared by the Horai (Horae, Seasons).”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 17. 3 : “[In the temple of Hera near Mykenai (Mycenae) in Argolis, the statue of the goddess] is wearing a crown with Kharites (Charites, Graces) and Horai (Horae, Seasons) worked upon it.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 17. 1 : “[At Olympia :] In the temple of Hera is an image of Zeus, and the image of Hera is sitting on a
throne with Zeus standing by her . . . The figures of Horai (Horae, Seasons) next to them, seated upon
thrones.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 10. 334 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “Hera . . . throned in the Olympian palace-court of Zeus. And seated at her side were handmaids four whom radiant-faced Selene (the Moon) bare to Helios (the Sun) to be unwearying ministers in Heaven, in form and office diverse each from each; for of these Horai (Horae, Seasons) one was summer’s queen, and one of winter and his stormy star, of spring the third, of autumn-tide the fourth.”
  For MORE information on this goddess see HERA
  II. ATTENDANTS OF ZEUS
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 40. 4 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “[In the temple of Zeus at Megara :] Above the head of Zeus [in his temple at Megara] are the Horai (Horae, Seasons) and Moirai (Moirae, Fates), and all may see that he is the only god obeyed by Moira (Destiny), and the he apportions the seasons as is due.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 11. 7 : “[Among the images decorating the throne of Zeus at Olympia :] On the uppermost parts of the throne Pheidias has made, above the head of the image [of Zeus], three Kharites (Charites, Graces) on one side and three Horai (Horae, Seasons) on the other.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 10. 334 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “So in four portions parted is man’s year ruled by these Queens [the Horai, Seasons] in turn–but of all this be Zeus himself the Overseer in heaven.”
  III. NURSES & HANDMAIDENS OF APHRODITE
  Homeric Hymn 6 to Aphrodite 2 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th to 4th B.C.) : “[Aphrodite was born of the sea-foam near :] Sea-set Kypros (Cyprus) . . . and there the gold-filleted Horai (Horae, Seasons) welcomed her joyously. They clothed her with heavenly garments : on her head they put a fine, well-wrought rorwn of gold, and in her pierced ears they hung ornaments of orichale and precious gold, and adorned her with golden necklaces over her soft neck and snow-white breats, jewels the gold-filleted Horai wear themselves whenever they go to their father’s house to join the lovely dances of the gods. And when they had fully decked her, they brought her to the gods, who welcomed her when they saw her.”
  Homeric Hymn 3 to Pythian Apollo 186 ff : “[Apollon] speeds from earth to Olympos (Olympus) , to the house of Zeus, to join the gathering of the other gods : then straightway the undying gods think only of the lyre and song, and all the Mousai (Muses) together, voice sweetly answering voice, hymn . . . Meanwhile the rich-tressed Kharites (Charites, Graces) and cheerful Horai (Horae, Seasons) dance with Harmonia (Harmony) and Hebe (Youth) and Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus, holding each other by the wrist.”
  Alcaeus, Fragment 308 (from Menander the rhetorician, Declamations) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (C6th B.C.) : “Alkaios (Alcaeus) . . . deals with the mid-wifery of the Kharites (Charites, Graces) and the nursing of the Horai (Horae, Seasons).”
  Ibycus, Fragment 288 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (C6th B.C.) : “Euryalos (Euryalus), offshoot of the blue-eyed Kharites (Charites, Graces), darling of the lovely-haired Horai (Horae), Kypris (Cypris) [Aphrodite] and soft-lidded Peitho (Persuasion) nursed you among rose-blossoms.”
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass 10. 30 ff (trans. Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) : “[From a description of an ancient Greek play portraying the Judgement of Paris :] Each maiden representing a goddess was accompanied by her own escort . . . Next floated in charming children [attending Aphrodite], unmarried girls, representing on one side the Gratiae (Graces) [Kharites (Charites)] at their most graceful, and on the other the Horae (Seasons) [Horai] in all their beauty. They were appeasing the goddess by strewing wreaths and single blossoms before her, and they formed a most elegant chorus-line as they sought to please the Mistress of pleasures with the foliage of spring.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 3. 380 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “The childbed Horai (Horae, Seasons) had just delivered her [Aphrodite’s] baby [Harmonia] still wet, when her breasts were tight and swollen with the gushing white sap.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 155 ff : “The four Horai (Horae, Seasons) struck up a tune together, when Aphrodite brought forth her wonderful daughter [Beroe].”
  For MORE information on this goddess see APHRODITE
  IV. COMPANIONS OF PERSEPHONE
  Orphic Hymn 43 to the Horae (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) : “[The Horai (Horae)] attending Persephone, when back from night the Moirai (Moirae, Fates) and Kharites (Charites, Graces) lead her up to light [out of the Underworld in spring]; when in a band harmonious they advance, and joyful found her form the solemn dance.”
  Orphic Hymn 29 to Persephone : “[Persephone] associate of the Horai (Horae, Seasons), essence bright, all-ruling virgin, bearing heavenly light. With fruits abounding, of a bounteous mind, horned, and alone desired by those of mortal kind. O vernal queen, whom grassy plains delight, sweet to the smell, and pleasing to the sight: whose holy form in budding fruits we view, earth’s vigorous offspring of a various hue.”
  For MORE information on this goddess see PERSEPHONE
  V. NURSES OF HERMES
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 26 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) : “[From a description of an ancient Greek painting at Neapolis (Naples) :] Birth of Hermes . . . He is born on the crest of Olympos (Olympus), at the very top, the abode of the gods . . . There the Horai (Horae, Seasons) care for Hermes at his birth. The painter has depicted these also, each according to her time, and they wrap him in swaddling clothes, sprinkling over him the most beautiful flowers, that he may have swaddling clothes not without distinction. While they turn to [Maia] the mother of Hermes lying on her couch of travail, he slips out of his swaddling clothes and begins to walk at once and descends from Olympos.”
  Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 5. 15 (trans. Conybeare) (Greek biography C1st to C2nd A.D.) : “[Hermes] remembered the Horai (Horae, Seasons), by whom he himself had been nurtured on the peaks of Olympos, and bethought how once, when he was still in swaddling clothes, they had told him a story about the cow, which had a conversation with the man about herself and about the earth, and so set him aflame after the cows of Apollon.”
  For MORE information on this god see HERMES
  VI. NURSES OF ARISTAEUS (ARISTAIOS)
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 9. 58 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “There shall she [Kyrene (Cyrene)] bear a son [Aristaios (Aristaeus)], whom glorious Hermes will take from his fond mother’s breast, and carry to the enthroned Horai (Horae, Seasons) and Mother Gaia (Gaea, Earth); and they will gently nurse the babe upon their knees, and on his lips distil ambrosia and nectar, and shall ordain him an immortal being, a Zeus or holy Apollon, a joy to men who love him.” [N.B. Aristaios was the rustic god of shepherds and beekeeping.]
  For MORE information on this god see ARISTAIOS
  VII. COMPANIONS OF PAN
  Orphic Hymn 11 to Pan (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) : “Throned with the Horai (Horae, Seasons), Bacchanalian Pan, goat-footed, horned, from whom the world began; in endless dance and melody divine.”
  For MORE information on this god see PAN
  VIII. MIDWIVES OF DIONYSUS
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 8. 3 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “For to Kronides (Cronides) [Zeus] Semele’s house was lovely heaven, and the quickfoot Horai (Horae, Seasons) of Zeus became the attendants in the palace of Kadmos (Cadmus).”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 8. 33 ff : “Round about the boy [i.e. Dionysos in the womb of Semele] Kronion’s (Cronion’s) [Zeus’] attendants the Horai (Horae, Seasons) went their rounds about the sky.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 9. 12 ff : “[Dionysos was birthed from the thigh of Zeus :] No sooner had he [Dionysos] peeped out by this divine delivery, than the childbed Horai (Horae, Seasons) crowned him with an ivy-garland in presage of things to come; they wreathed the horned head of a bullshaped Dionysos with twining horned snakes under the flowers.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 16. 392 ff : “[The nymphe Nikaia (Nicaea) was impregnated by the god Dionysos :] When the time came for her delivery, the lifewarming Horai (Horae, Seasons) played the midwives to a female child [Telete], and confirmed the nine-circled course of Selene (the Moon).”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 794 ff : “O midwife Horai (Horae, Seasons), be witness of her delivery.”
  For MORE information on the Horai & the birth of Dionysos see: Horai Personifications of the Four Seasons (this page) For MORE information on this god see DIONYSOS
  IX. HANDMAIDENS OF HELIUS (HELIOS)
  The Horai (Horae, Seasons) were often represented as the handmaidens of Helios the sun, who guided his seasonal path across the heavens.
  For INFO on the as handmaidens of Helios the sun see: Horae Personifications of the Four Seasons (above) For MORE information on this god see HELIOS
  X. NURSES OF DARDANUS (DARDANOS)
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 3. 195 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “Dardanos, Emathion’s brother, was one whom the bed of Zeus had begotten, whom Dike (Justice) nursed and cared for a the time when the Horai (Horae) ran to the mansion of Queen Elektra (Electra), bearing the sceptre of Zeus, and the robe oHoraif Time, and the staff of Olympos, to prophecy the indissoluble dominion of the Ausonian race [the Trojans]. The Horai brought up the baby; and by an irrevocable oracle of Zeus, the lad just sprouting the flower of recrescent youth left Elektra’s house, when for the third time a deluge of rain had flooded the world’s foundations with towering billows.”
  HORAE & THE CROWN OF ARIADNE
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 5 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Crown [Constellation Corona]. This is thought to be Ariadne’s crown, placed by Father Liber [Dionysos] among the constellations. For they say that when Ariadne wed Liber on the island of Dia, and all the gods gave her wedding gifts, she first received this crown as a gift from Venus [Aphrodite] and the Horae (Seasons).”
  HORAE GODDESSES OF IMMORTALITY
  The Horai (Horae) were regarded as goddesses of immortality: they guarded the gates of heaven, admitting only gods; were present as midwives and nurses of the gods; and delivered ambrosia, the food of the gods.
  I. AMBROSIA, THE FOOD OF THE GODS
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 4. 128 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “Singing of Peleus’ Bridal of Delight [the wedding of Peleus and Thetis], which all the blest Immortals brought to pass by Pelion’s crests; sang of the ambrosial feast when the swift Horai (Horae, Hours) brought in immortal hands meats not of earth, and heaped in golden maunds; sang how the silver tables were set forth in haste by Themis [i.e. the mother of the Horai] blithely laughing . . . sang how the Nymphai (Nymphs) in golden chalices mingled ambrosia.”
  II. GUARDIANS OF THE PATH TO GODHOOD
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 19. 3 – 5 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “[Among the scenes depicted on the throne of Apollon at Amyklai (Amyclae) near Sparta :] The Moirai (Moirae, Fates) and Horai (Horae, Seasons), and with them Aphrodite, Athena and Artemis. They are carrying to heaven Hyakinthos (Hyacinthus) and Polyboia (Polyboea), the sister, they say, of Hyakinthos [i.e. who were granted immortality in heaven].”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 13. 22 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “[Iris delivers a message from Zeus to the young god Dionysos :] ‘Come, lift the thyrsus of battle in your hands, and earnheaven by your deeds. For the immortal court of Zeus will not receive you without hard work, and the Horai (Horae, Hours) will not open the gates of Olympos (Olympus) to you unless you have struggled for the prize [i.e. the Horai admit new gods into heaven].’”
  For MORE info on the Horai as gatekeepers of heaven see: Horae Guardians of the Gates of Heaven (above)
  HYMNS TO THE HORAE
  Orphic Hymn 43 to the Horae (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) : “To the Horai (Horae, Seasons), Fumigation from Aromatics. Daughters of Zeus and Themis, Horai bright, Dike (Justice), and blessed Eirene (Irene, Peace) and Eunomia (Lawfulness) right, vernal and grassy, vivid, holy powers, whose balmy breath exhales in lovely flowers; all-coloured Horai (Seasons), rich increase your care, circling, for ever flourishing and fair: invested with a veil of shining dew, a flowery veil delightful to the view: attending Persephone, when back from night the Moirai (Moirae, Fates) and Kharites (Charites, Graces) lead her up to light; when in a band harmonious they advance, and joyful round her form the solemn dance. With Mother [Demeter] triumphing, and Zeus divine, propitious come, and on our incense shine; give earth a store of blameless fruits to bear, and make these novel mystics’ life your care.”
  CULT OF THE HORAE & CULT ART
  I. MEGARA Main Town of Megaris (Southern Greece)
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 40. 4 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “[In the temple of Zeus at Megara :] Above the head of Zeus are the Horai (Horae, Seasons) and Moirai (Fates), and all may see that he is the only god obeyed by Moira (Destiny), and the he apportions the seasons as is due.”
  II. Near MYCENAE (MYKENAI) Town in Argolis (Southern Greece)
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 17. 3 : “[In the temple of Hera near Mykenai (Mycenae) in Argos, the statue of the goddess] is wearing a crown with Kharites (Charites, Graces) and Horai (Horae, Seasons) worked upon it.”
  III. ARGOS Main City of Argolis (Southern Greece)
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 20. 5 : “[Near the Khorea (Chorea) in Argolis city :] A little further on is a sanctuary of the Horai (Horae).”
  IV. SPARTA Main City of Lacedaimonia (Lakedaimonia) (Southern Greece)
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 18. 10 – 16 : “[The throne of Apollon at Amyklai (Amyclae) near Sparta :] is supported by two Kharites (Charites, Graces) and two Horai (Horae).”
  V. OLYMPIA Village & Sanctuary in Elis (Southern Greece)
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 11. 7 : “[Among the images decorating the throne of Zeus in his temple at Olympia :] On the uppermost parts of the throne Pheidias has made, above the head of the image [of Zeus], three Kharites (Charites, Graces) on one side and three Horai (Horae, Seasons) on the other. These in epic poetry are included among the daughters of Zeus. Homer too in the Iliad says that the Horai have been entrusted with the sky, just like guards of a king’s court.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 15. 2 : “[At the shrine of Olympia :] Well, there is in the Altis, when you are about to pass to the left of the Leonidaion, an altar of Aphrodite, and after it one of the Horai (Horae, Seasons).”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 17. 1 : “[At the shrine of Olympia :] In the temple of Hera is an image of Zeus, and the image of Hera is sitting on a throne with Zeus standing by her, bearded and with a helmet on his head. They are crude works of art. The figures of Horai (Horae, Seasons) next to them, seated upon thrones, were made by the Aeginetan Smilis. Beside them stands an image of Themis, as being mother of the Seasons. It is the work of Dorykleidas (Dorycleidas), a Lakedaimonian by birth and a disciple of Dipoenos (Dipoenus) and Skyllis (Scyllis).”
  VI. MEGALOPOLIS Main City of Arcadia (Arkadia) (Southern Greece)
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 31. 1 : “[At Megalopolis in Arkadia (Arcadia)] is an enclosure sacred to the Great Goddesses ( Megalai Theai ) [Demeter and Persephone] … Before it stands a table, on which are carved two Horai (Horae), Pan with pipes, and Apollon playing the harp. There is also an inscription saying they are among the first gods.”
  VII. ERYTHRAE (ERYTHRAI) Town in Ionia – Lydia (Asia Minor)
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 7. 5. 9 : “[By the temple of Athena in Erythrai (Erythrae) in Ionia :] The white marble images of Kharites (Charites, Graces) and Horai (Horae) that stand in the open before the entrance.”
 
  ANCIENT GREEK & ROMAN ART
 
 
 
 
  K17.1 Three Horae
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K17.2 Horae, Zeus, Hera
  Figura ateniense negra Jarrón Pintura C6th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z50.6 Horae the Four Seasons
  Greco-Roman Jamahiriya Floor Mosaic A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z50.4 Horae the Four Seasons
  Greco-Roman Chebba Floor Mosaic C2nd A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z16.4 Gaea, Aeon, Horae, Carpi
  Greco-Roman Damascus Mosaic A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z50.3 Horae, Helius, Selene
  Greco-Roman Floor Mosaic A.D.
 
 
 
 

  SOURCES
  GREEK
  Homer, The Iliad – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Homer, The Odyssey – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Hesiod, Theogony – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  The Homeric Hymns – Greek Epic C8th – 4th B.C.
  Pindar, Odes – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Pindar, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric I Alcaeus, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric II Anacreontea, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th – 4th B.C.
  Greek Lyric III Ibycus, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric III Simonides, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th – 5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric IV Corinna, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragments – Greek Lyric B.C.
  Plato, Cratylus – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Apollodorus, The Library – Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Theocritus, Idylls – Greek Idyllic C3rd B.C.
  Callimachus, Hymns – Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History – Greek History C1st B.C.
  Pausanias, Description of Greece – Greek Travelogue C2nd A.D.
  The Orphic Hymns – Greek Hymns C3rd B.C. – C2nd A.D.
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines – Greek Rhetoric C3rd A.D.
  Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana – Greek Biography C2nd A.D.
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy – Greek Epic C4th A.D.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca – Greek Epic C5th A.D.
  Colluthus, The Rape of Helen – Greek Epic C5th – 6th A.D.
  ROMAN
  Hyginus, Fabulae – Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Hyginus, Astronomica – Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Ovid, Metamorphoses – Latin Epic C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Ovid, Fasti – Latin Poetry C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass – Latin Novel C2nd A.D.
  OTHER SOURCES
  Other references not currently quoted here: Statius Thebaid 3.410, Horace Odes 4.7.8, Lucian Dialogues of the Gods 10, Theocritus Idylls 15.104, Athenaeus 2.38, Pollux 8.106.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY
  A complete bibliography of the translations quoted on this page.