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JARITAS

25/01/2020

Mitología griega >> Dioses griegos >> Dioses del Olimpo >> Charites (Kharites)
 
 
  Nombre griego

  Χαρις Χαριτες
 
 
  Transliteración

  Kharis, Kharites
 
 
  Nombre romano

  Gratia, Gratiae
 
 
  Traducción

  Gracia, belleza ( kharis )
 
 

 
  Las tres gracias, fresco grecorromano de Pompeya C1st AD, Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Nápoles LOS JARITAS (Charites) o Gracias, eran tres diosas de la gracia, la belleza , adornos, alegría, alegría, fiesta, baile y canto.
  Un número de Kharites más jóvenes presidieron los otros placeres de la vida, incluyendo juegos, diversión, banquetes, decoración floral, felicidad, descanso y relajación.
  Los Kharites eran asistentes de las diosas Afrodita y Hera . Una llamada Kharis (Charis) era la esposa de Hephaistos (Hephaestus) y otra, Pasithea , estaba casada con Hypnos (Hypnus) el dios del sueño.
  Las tres Kharitas fueron representadas en el arte clásico como mujeres desnudas, cogidas de la mano y bailando en círculo. A veces eran coronados y sostenían ramitas de mirto.
  En el jarrón griego, un grupo de Kharites más jóvenes forman el séquito de Afrodita.
  FAMILIA DE LOS CARITES
  PADRES
  [1.1] ZEUS y EURYNOME (Hesiod Theogony 907, Onomacritus Frag, Apollodorus 1.13, Callimachus Aetia Frag 6, Pausanias 9.35.1, Hygin45 Preface [5] ] [1.2] ZEUS y EUNOMIA (Himno órfico 60) [2.1] HELIOS y AIGLE (Antimachus Frag, Pausanias 9.35.1, Suidas ‘Aigles Kharites’) [3.1] HERA (Colluthus 88 y 174, Nonnus Dionysiaca 31.103 Nonnus Dionysiaca 31.103 ) [4.1] DIONYSOS (Fragmento de Anacreontea 38) [4.2] DIONYSOS y KRONOIS [194590387] (Nonnuscausnysia). & 48.530)
  NOMBRES
  [1.1] AGLAIA , EUPHROSYNE , THALEIA (Hesiod Theogony 907, Pindar Olympian Ode 14, Apollodorus 1.13, Orphus Hymn, Orphus Hymn 9.35.1) [1.2] KHARIS (Homer Iliad 18.382, Pausanias 9.35.1) [2.1] PASITHEA [ 19459038] (Homer Iliad 14.231, Pausanias 9.35.1, Statius Thebaid 2.285, Nonnus Dionysiaca 15.87) [3.1] AUXO , HEGEMONE, THALLO [ Pausanias 9.35.1) [4.1] PHAENNA, KLETA (Pausanias 3.18.6 y 9.35.1) [5.1] PEITHO ( Hermeseniax Frag, Pausanias 9.35.1) [6.1] EUDAIMONIA, PAIDIA, PANDAISIA, PANNYKHIS, ANTHEIA (Pintura de jarrones griegos antiguos)
  ENCICLOPEDIA
  CHARIS (Charis), la personificación de Gracia y Belleza, que los poetas romanos traducen por Gratia y nosotros después de ellos por Gracia. Homero, sin darle otro nombre, describe a Charis como la esposa de Hefesto. ( Il. xviii. 382.) Hesíodo ( Theog. 945) llama a Charis, la esposa de Hefesto, Aglaia, y la más joven de los Charites. (Comp. Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1148.) Según la Odisea, por otro lado, Afrodita era la esposa de Hefesto, de lo cual podemos inferir, si no la identidad de Afrodita y Charis , al menos una estrecha conexión y semejanza en las nociones entretenidas sobre las dos divinidades. La idea de la gracia y la belleza personificadas fue, como ya hemos visto, dividida en una pluralidad de seres en una época muy temprana, probablemente para indicar las diversas formas en que lo bello se manifiesta en el mundo y lo adorna. En la Ilíada misma (xiv. 269) Pasithea es llamada una de las Charites más jóvenes, que está destinada a ser la esposa del Sueño, y las Charites plurales aparecen varias veces en los poemas homéricos. ( Od. xviii. 194.)
  La ​​paternidad de los Charites se describe de manera diferente; el relato más común las convierte en hijas de Zeus, ya sea por Hera, Eurynome, Eunomia, Eurydomene, Harmonia o Lethe. (Hesíodo. Theog. 907, & c .; Apollod. I. 3. § 1; Pind. Ol. xiv. 15; Phurnut. 15; Orph. Himno. 59. 2; Stat. Theb. ii. 286; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 982.) Según otros, eran las hijas de Apolo por Aegle o Euanthe (Paus. Ix. 35. § 1), o de Dioniso por Afrodita o Coronis. Los poemas homéricos mencionan solo un Charis, o un número indefinido en plural, y del pasaje en el que se menciona a Pasithea, casi parecería que el poeta intimara que estaba pensando en un gran número de Charites y en una división de ellos en clases. Hesíodo menciona claramente tres Charites, cuyos nombres son Euphrosyne, Aglaia y Thalia, y este número, así como estos nombres, posteriormente se estableció en general, aunque ciertos lugares en Grecia conservaron su número antiguo y establecido. Por lo tanto, los espartanos solo tenían dos Charites, Cleta y Phaënna, y los atenienses el mismo número, Auxo y Hegemone, que fueron adorados allí desde los primeros tiempos. Hermesianax agregó a Peitho como tercero. (Paus. Ix. 35.) Sostratus ( ap. Eustath. Ad Hom. p. 1665) relata que Afrodita y las tres Charites, Pasithea, Cale y Euphrosyne, disputaron sobre su belleza el uno con el otro, y cuando Teiresias le otorgó el premio a Cale, Afrodita lo convirtió en una anciana, pero Cale lo recompensó con una hermosa cabellera y lo llevó a Creta. El nombre de Cale en este pasaje ha llevado a algunos críticos a pensar que Homero también ( Il. xviii. 393) menciona los nombres de dos Charites, Pasithea y Cale, y que kalê debe escribirse en una inicial mayúscula. .
  El carácter y la naturaleza de los Charites están suficientemente expresados ​​por los nombres que llevan: fueron concebidos como las diosas que dieron alegría festiva y mejoraron el disfrute de la vida mediante el refinamiento y la gentileza. Por lo tanto, se les atribuye la gracia y la belleza en las relaciones sociales. (Horat. Carm. iii. 21, 22; Pind. Ol. xiv. 7, y c.) En su mayoría se describen como estar al servicio o asistencia de otras divinidades, como La verdadera alegría existe solo en círculos en los que el individuo se entrega a sí mismo y lo convierte en su principal objeto para proporcionar placer a los demás. Mientras menos ambicioso sea gobernar, mayor será su victoria; y cuanto menos homenaje exige, más libremente se le paga. Estas vistas son las ideas encarnadas en las Charites. Prestan su gracia y belleza a todo lo que deleita y eleva a dioses y hombres. Esta noción fue probablemente la causa de que Charis fuera llamada la esposa de Hefesto, el artista divino. Las obras de arte más perfectas se llaman así las obras de los Charites, y los artistas más grandes son sus favoritos. La gentileza y la gracia que imparten a los placeres ordinarios del hombre se expresan moderando la excitante influencia del vino (Hor. Carm. iii. 19. 15; Pind. Ol. xiii. 18), y con su Afrodita y Eros acompañantes. (Hom. Od. viii. 364, xviii. 194; Paus. Vi. 24. § 5.) También ayudan a Hermes y Peitho a dar gracia a la elocuencia y la persuasión (Hesíodo. Op. 63), y la sabiduría misma recibe sus encantos de ellos. La poesía, sin embargo, es el arte especialmente favorecido por ellos, de donde se les llama erasimolpoi o philêsimolpoi. Por la misma razón, son amigos de las Musas, con quienes viven juntas en el Olimpo. (Hes. Theog. 64; Eurip. Herc. Fur. 673; Theocrit. Xvi. En fin.) Los poetas se inspiran en las Musas, pero la aplicación de sus canciones a las El adorno de la vida y las fiestas de los dioses son obra de los Charites. Los escritores romanos tardíos describen los Charites (Gratiae) como los símbolos de gratitud y benevolencia, a los cuales fueron guiados por el significado de la palabra gratia en su propio idioma. (Senec. De Benef. i. 3; comp. Diod. V. 73.)
  Se creía que el culto a los Charites había sido introducido por primera vez en Beocia por Eteoclus o Eteocles, el hijo de Cephissus, en el valle de ese río. (Paus. Ix. 35. § 1; Theocrit. Xvi. 104; Pind. Ol. xiv.) En Orchomenos y en la isla de Paros se celebró un festival, la carisia o charitêsia, a los Charites. . (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1843; Apollod. Iii. 15. § 7.) En Orchomenos fueron adorados desde los primeros tiempos en forma de piedras groseras, que se creía que habían caído del cielo en El tiempo de Eteocles. (Paus ix. 38. § 1; Strab. Ix. P. 414.) Las estatuas de ellos se mencionan en varias partes de Grecia, como en Esparta, en el camino de Esparta a Amyclae, en Creta, en Atenas, Elis, Hermione , y otros. (Paus. I. 22. § 8, ii. 34. § 10, iii. 14. § 6, vi. 24. § 5.) A menudo fueron representados como los compañeros de otros dioses, como Hera, Hermes, Eros , Dioniso, Afrodita, Horae y las Musas. En las antiguas estatuas de Apolo en Delos y Delfos, el dios llevaba las Charites en su mano. En los primeros tiempos, los Charites estaban representados vestidos, pero luego sus figuras siempre estaban desnudas, aunque incluso Pausanias (ix. 35. § 2) no sabía quién había introducido la costumbre de representarlos desnudos. Todavía existen ejemplares de representaciones vestidas y desnudas de los Charites. Su carácter es el de las doncellas insospechadas en plena floración de la vida, y generalmente se abrazan. Sus atributos difieren según las divinidades a las que asisten; Como compañeros de Apolo a menudo llevan instrumentos musicales, y como compañeros de Afrodita llevan mirtos, rosas o dados, el juego favorito de la juventud.
  Fuente: Diccionario de biografía y mitología griega y romana.
  LISTA DE CARIDADES
  AGLAIA (Aglaea) era la diosa Kharis (Charis) de belleza, adorno, esplendor y gloria. Ella era una de las tres Kharites (Charites), siendo sus hermanas Euphrosyne y Thalia. Aglaia también era la esposa del dios Hefesto (Hefesto).
  ANTHEIA (Anthea) era la diosa de las flores y las coronas de flores que se usaban en festivales y fiestas. Fue una de las encargadas de Afrodita en la pintura de jarrones atenienses.
  AUXO La diosa Kharis o Hora del crecimiento primaveral. Fue adorada en Atenas junto a Damia y Hegemone.
  EUDAIMONIA (Eudaemonia) La diosa de la felicidad, la prosperidad y la opulencia. Ella era una de un grupo de hermosas y jóvenes diosas que formaron el séquito de Afrodita (como se muestra en la pintura del jarrón griego antiguo).
  EUPHROSYNE La diosa Kharis de buen ánimo, alegría, alegría y alegría. Ella era una de las tres hermanas Kharites, las otras dos eran Aglaia y Thalia.
  EUTHYMIA La diosa Kharis de buen ánimo, alegría y satisfacción. Ella generalmente se llamaba Euphrosyne.
  HEGEMONE A Kharis adoraba en Atenas junto con Auxo y Damia.
  KALLEIS (Calleis) La diosa Kharis de la belleza. Ella generalmente se llamaba Aglaia.
  JARIS (Charis) La esposa Kharis del dios Hefesto (Hefesto). También era conocida como Aglaia.
  KLETA (Cleta) La diosa Kharis de la fama y la gloria. Ella era una de las dos Kharitas adoradas por los espartanos, y la otra era Phaenna.
  PAIDIA (Paedia) La diosa del juego y la diversión. Paidia, como la mayoría de los asistentes de Afrodita, no se menciona en ninguna literatura clásica sobreviviente. Sin embargo, es representada con frecuencia junto a la diosa en la pintura de jarrones antiguos.
  PANDAISIA La diosa de los ricos banquetes. Ella aparece en la pintura de jarrones atenienses como una asistente de la diosa Afrodita.
  PANNYKHIS (Pannychis) La diosa de las fiestas y fiestas nocturnas. Ella era una de las asistentes de Afrodita, como se muestra en la pintura de jarrón ateniense.
  PASITHEA La esposa Kharis del dios del sueño Hypnos (Hypnus). Ella era la diosa de la relajación y quizás de las drogas alucinantes.
  PEITHO La diosa de la seducción y la persuasión. A veces la contaban entre los Kharites.
  PHAENNA Una de las dos Kharitas adoradas por los espartanos. El otro era Kleta.
  THALIA La diosa Kharis de las celebraciones festivas y los ricos y lujosos banquetes. Ella era una de las tres Kharites, las otras dos eran Aglaia y Euphrosyne.
  CITAS DE LITERATURA CLÁSICA
  PADRE DE LOS CARITES
 
  The Graces, mosaico grecorromano de Villa Cornovaglia C2nd A.D., Musée du Louvre I. HIJAS DE ZEUS Y EURYNOME
  Hesiod, Theogony 907 ff (trad. Evelyn-White) (griego épico C8th o 7th BC): “Y Eurynome (Pasturero), la hija de Okeanos (Oceanus), hermosa en forma, le mostró [Zeus] tres Kharites de mejillas rubias (Charites, Graces), Aglaia (Aglaea, Glory) y Euphrosyne (Merriment), y la encantadora Thaleia (Thalia, Festivity), de cuyos ojos mientras miraban fluía el amor que pone nerviosos los miembros: y hermoso es su mirada debajo de sus cejas “.
  Píndaro, Oda olímpica 14. 5 ff (traducción Conway) (letra griega C5th BC): “Kharites (Charites, Graces) tres … Euphrosyne, amante de la canción, y Aglaia (Aglaea) venerada, hijas de Zeus, la más alta … con Thalia, querida de la armonía “.
  Safo, Fragmento 53 (trad. Campbell, Vol. Griego Lírico I) (C6º a. C.): “Aquí, sagradas Kharites (Charites, Graces), hijas santas de Zeus. ”
  Theognis, Fragment 1. 15 (trans. Gerber, Vol. Greek Elegiac) (elegía griega C6th BC): “Mousai (Musas) y Kharites (Charites, Graces), hijas de Zeus.”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 13 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Por la hija de Okeanos (Oceanus) Eurynome él [Zeus] tenía los Kharites ( Charites, Graces), llamado Aglaia (Aglaea), Eurphrosyne y Thaleia (Thalia) “.
  Callimachus, Aetia Fragment 6 (trad. Trypanis) (poeta griego C3rd BC): “Otros dijeron que el Titenia (Titaness) Eurynome dio a luz a los Kharites (Charites, Graces). ”
  Diodoro Siculus, Biblioteca de Historia 5. 72. 5 (trad. Oldfather) (historiador griego C1st BC): “A Zeus también le nacieron, dicen, las diosas Afrodita y el Kharites (Charites, Graces) “.
  Himno órfico 60 a los Charites (trad. Taylor) (himnos griegos C3rd BC a 2nd AD): “Kharites ilustres (Charites, Graces), poderoso nombre, descendiente de Zeus, y Eunomia famosa, Thalia y Aglaia (Aglaea) bellas y brillantes, y bendita Euphrosyne “.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Prefacio (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “De Jove [Zeus] y Eurynome [nacieron]: Gratiae (Graces) [Kharites]. ”
  II. HIJAS DE DIONYSUS
  The Anacreontea, Fragment 38 (trad. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C5th BC): “Déjanos alegrarnos y beber vino y cantar Bakkhos (Bacchus). Gracias a él, Methe (borrachera) nació, nació Kharis (Charis, Grace), Lupa (dolor) descansa y Ania (problema) se duerme “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 16. 130 ss. (Trans. Rouse) (griego épico C5th AD): “[Dionysos:] ‘Te presentaré las Kharites (Charites, Graces) de Orkhomenos divinos (Orchomenus) … mis hijas, a quienes tomaré de Afrodita. “”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 33. 4 y siguientes: “[Cuando Dionysos que se volvió loco por Hera durante su guerra contra los indios y su ejército derrotó:] Uno de los Kharites (Charites) de zapata veloz [a saber, Pasithea] … en un bosque no muy lejos vio la locura de Lyaios (Lyaeus) [Dionysos] su padre. Lloró de tristeza y afecto tierno, y se rasgó las mejillas con las uñas de luto “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 530 y siguientes: “[El fantasma de Ariadne se dirige a su esposo Dionysos:] ‘No diré nada del [tu] amor de Kronois (Cronoïs), de cuya cama nacieron las tres Kharites (Charites, Graces) siempre inseparables. “” [NB Kronois, “la hija de Kronos”, era un título de Hera que a veces era nombrada como la madre de los Kharites. En otra tradición, Dionisos era su padre. Combinar estas dos tradiciones era imposible, por lo que Nonnus inventó una ninfa llamada Kronois como madre de las niñas por el dios.]
  III. HIJAS DE HERA
  Homero, Ilíada 14. 231 y sigs (trans. Lattimore) (griego épico C8th BC): “Hera le respondió [Hypnos dios del sueño]: ‘… te daré una de las Kharites (Charites, Graces) más jóvenes ( hoploterai ) para que te cases, y se llamará tu dama; Pasithea. “” [NB Homero puede estar sugiriendo que Hera era la madre de los Kharites.]
  Alcaeus, Fragment 308 (de Menander el retórico, Declamations) (trad. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (C6th BC): “Alkaios (Alcaeus).. Trata con la mitad de la esposa de los Kharites (Charites, Graces) y la lactancia de los Horai (Horae, Seasons) “.
  Colluthus, Violación de Helen 88 y siguientes (traducción de Mair) (poesía griega C5th a 6th AD): “Hera llaman a la santa enfermera de los Kharites (Charites, Graces), y dicen que ella ejerce soberanía y sostiene el cetro “.
  Colluthus, Violación de Helen 174 y siguientes: “Dicen que tú [Hera], madre de Ares, disgustas con esfuerzo el coro sagrado de Kharites (Charites, Graces). “.
  IV. HIJAS DE HELIO Y AEGLE
  Pausanias, Descripción de Grecia 9. 35. 1 (trans. Jones) (cuaderno de viaje griego C2nd AD): “Antimakhos (Antimachus) [poeta griego C5th BC], sin dar ni el número de los Kharites (Charites, Graces) ni sus nombres, dicen que son hijas de Aigle (Aegle) y Helios (el Sol) “.
  Suidas s.v. Aigles Kharites (trans. Suda On Line) (léxico griego bizantino C10th AD): “Aigles Kharites (Radiant Graces): Han rastreado de manera plausible el linaje de los Kharites (Charites, Graces). Helios (el Sol ) también es de Aigle (Aegle), ya que, al parecer, los Kharites son radiantes [es decir, hermosos] “.
  V. VISIÓN GENERAL DE VARIAS CUENTAS
  Pausanias, Descripción de Grecia 9. 35. 1 (trans. Jones) (cuaderno de viaje griego C2nd AD): “Los bootianos (boeotianos) dicen que Eteokles (Eteocles) [un rey mítico de Orkhomenos (Orchomenus)] fue el primer hombre en sacrificarse a los Kharites (Charites, Graces). Además, son conscientes de que estableció tres como el número de Kharites, pero no tienen tradición de los nombres que les dio. 19459039] Los Lakedaimonians (Lacedaemonians), sin embargo, dicen que los Kharites son dos, y que fueron instituidos por Lakedaimon (Lacedaemon), hijo de Taygete, quien les dio los nombres de Kleta (Cleta) y Phaenna. Estos son nombres apropiados para el Kharites. Como son los dados por los atenienses, que desde tiempos antiguos han adorado a dos Kharites, Auxo y Hegemone. Karpo (Carpo, Fruit) es el nombre, no de Kharis (Grace), sino de Hora. Fue de Eteokles de Orkhomenos que aprendimos la costumbre de rezar a tres Kharites. [194590 39] Y Angelion y Tekatios (Tecatius), hijos de Dionisos, que hicieron la imagen de Apolón para Atenas, pusieron tres Kharitas en su mano. Nuevamente, en Atenas, antes de la entrada a la Acrópolis (Acrópolis), los Kharites son tres. . . Pamphos [un legendario poeta griego] fue el primero que conocemos para cantar sobre los Kharites, pero su poesía no contiene información ni sobre su número ni sobre sus nombres. Homer (él también se refiere a los Kharites) hace de ella la esposa de Hephaistos (Hephaestus), dándole el nombre de Kharis (Charis). También dice que Hypnos (Hypnus) era un amante de Pasithea, y en el discurso de Hypnos hay un verso: “Verdaderamente, me daría uno de los Kharites más jóvenes”. Por lo tanto, algunos sospechan que Homer sabía de mayores. Kharites también. Hesíodo en la Teogonía dice que los Kharites son hijas de Zeus y Eurynome, dándoles los nombres de Euphrosyne, Aglaia (Aglaea) y Thalia. El poema de Onomakritos (Onomacritus) [poeta C6th B.C.] está de acuerdo con esta cuenta. Antimakhos (Antimachus) [poeta C5th B.C.], aunque no da el número de Kharites ni sus nombres, dice que son hijas de Aigle (Aegle) y Helios (el Sol). El poeta elegante Hermesianax [poeta C4th B.C.] no está de acuerdo con sus predecesores en que hace de Peitho (Persuasión) uno de los Kharites “.
  HIMNOS A LOS CARITES
  Pindar, Oda olímpica 14. 1 ff (trad. Conway) (letra griega C5th BC): “Cuyas guaridas están junto al río Kephissos (Cephisus), reinas amadas de poetas ‘Canción, Orkhomenos (Orchomenus), esa ciudad iluminada por el sol y tierra de encantadores corceles, vigila y protege a la antigua raza Minyan, escucha ahora mi oración, Kharites (Charites, Graces) tres. Porque en tu regalo están todas nuestras alegrías mortales , y cada cosa dulce, ya sea sabiduría, belleza o gloria, que enriquece el alma del hombre. Ni siquiera los dioses inmortales pueden ordenar a sus órdenes la danza y los festivales, sin la ayuda de los Kharites, que son el administrador de todo ritos del cielo, cuyos tronos se establecen en Pytho al lado de Apolón del arco dorado, y que con honor eterno adoran al Padre, señor del gran Olympos. Eufrosina, amante de la canción, y Aglaia (Aglaea) venerada, hijas de Zeus el más alto, escucha, y con Thalia, querida de la armonía, mira nuestras canciones de alegría, con los pies ligeros caminando hacia gracia esta hora feliz. . . Vengo a alabar a Asopikhos (Asopichus), cuya casa de Minyan, Thalía, ahora a tu favor, lleva el orgullo del vencedor olímpico “.
  Himno órfico 60 a los Charites (trans. Taylor) (himnos griegos C3rd BC a 2nd AD): “A los Kharites (Charites, Graces), Fumigación de Storax. Escúchame, ilustres Kharites, poderosamente nombradas, descendientes de Zeus, y Eunomia famosa, Thalia y Aglaia (Aglaea) bellas y brillantes, y la bendita Euphrosyne, cuya alegría se deleita: madres de alegría; todo encantador a la vista, placer abundante, puro, te pertenece : varios, para siempre florecientes y justos, deseados por los mortales, muy invocados en la oración; dando vueltas, ojos oscuros, deliciosos para la humanidad, vengan y ustedes, místicos, bendigan con mente generosa “.
  CARITA DIOSAS DE ALEGRÍA Y FAVOR
  Los Kharites (Charites) fueron las diosas de todas las cosas que traen alegría: belleza, adornos, arte, música, gloria, baile, fiesta y alegría.
  Pindar, Olympian Ode 9. 25 ff (trad. Conway) (letra griega C5th BC): “Mi mensaje irá a toda velocidad, si el decreto de Fate concede que mi mano pueda hasta la preciosa belleza del jardín de los Kharites (Charites, Graces). Porque de su regalo es toda alegría, y del poder divino son corazones nobles y sabios dotados al hombre “.
  Pindar, Oda Olímpica 14. 5 y siguientes: “Kharites (Charites, Graces) tres. Porque en tu regalo están todas nuestras alegrías mortales, y cada cosa dulce, ya sea sabiduría, belleza , o la gloria, que enriquece el alma del hombre. Ni siquiera los dioses inmortales pueden ordenar a sus órdenes la danza y los festivales, sin la ayuda de los Kharites, que son los administradores de todos los ritos del cielo, cuyos tronos se encuentran en Pytho al lado Apolón del arco dorado, y quien con honor eterno alaba al Padre, señor del gran Olimpo. Eufrosina, amante de la canción, y Aglaia (Aglaea) veneran, hijas de Zeus, el más alto, escucha y con Thalia, querida de la armonía, mira nuestras canciones de alegría “.
  Theognis, Fragment 1. 1135 (trad. Gerber, Vol. Greek Elegiac) (elegía griega C6th BC): “Elpis (Hope) es el único dios bueno que queda entre la humanidad; el otros se han ido y se han ido a Olympos. Pistis (Trust), un poderoso dios se ha ido, Sophrosyne (Restricción) se ha ido de los hombres, y los Kharites (Charites, Graces), mi amigo, han abandonado la tierra “.
  Diodoro Siculus, Biblioteca de Historia 5. 72. 5 (trad. Oldfather) (historiador griego C1st BC): “A Zeus también le nacieron, dicen, las diosas Afrodita y el Kharites (Charites, Graces) … A los Kharites se les dio [es decir, Zeus le asignó el papel] el adorno de la apariencia personal y el embellecimiento de cada parte del cuerpo con el objetivo de hacerlo más atractivo y agradable a la mirada, y el privilegio adicional de ser el primero en otorgar benefacción y, por otro lado, de exigir con los favores apropiados ( kharites ) a los hombres que han realizado buenos actos “.
  Himno órfico 60 a los Charites (trad. Taylor) (himnos griegos C3rd BC a 2nd AD): “Kharites ilustres (Charites, Graces) … quienes disfrutan del placer: madres de alegría; todo encantador a la vista, placer abundante, puro, te pertenece: varios, siempre florecientes y justos, deseados por los mortales, muy invocados en la oración; circundantes, de ojos oscuros, encantadores para la humanidad “.
  CARITA DIOSAS DE BELLEZA Y ADORNO
  Los Kharites (Charites) eran diosas de la belleza y el adorno. Como asistentes de Afrodita, fueron diosas de la belleza personal y los adornos que mejoraron esto: maquillaje, aceites, perfumes, ropa fina y joyas. Kharis como la esposa de Hephaistos (Hephaestus) representó la belleza en objetos artesanales y adornos artísticos.
  I) DIOSAS DE LA BELLEZA PERSONAL
  Hesiod, Theogony 907 y sigs. (Trad. Evelyn-White) (griego épico C8th o 7th BC): “Tres Kharites de mejillas rubias (Charites, Graces) … de cuyos ojos mientras miraban fluía el amor que inquieta a los miembros: y hermoso es su mirada debajo de sus cejas “.
  Hesíodo, Catálogos de mujeres Fragmento 14: “Los ojos radiantes de los Kharites (Charites, Graces)”.
  Hesiod, Catálogos de mujeres Fragmento 68: “Los ojos brillantes de los Kharites (Charites)”.
  Hesíodo, Catálogos de mujeres Fragmento 92: “¿Quién tenía la belleza de los Kharites (Charites)”.
  Himno homérico 5 a Afrodita 94 y sigs. (Trans. Evelyn-White) (épica griega C7th a 4th BC): “[Ankhises (Anchises) se dirige a la diosa disfrazada Afrodita:] ‘O , tal vez, eres uno de los Kharites (Charites, Graces) que vienen aquí, que llevan la compañía de los dioses y son llamados inmortales ‘”
  Píndara, Oda olímpica 14. 5 ff (traducción Conway) (letra griega C5th BC): “Ustedes Kharites (Charites, Graces) tres … su regalo son todos nuestros mortales alegrías y cada cosa dulce, ya sea sabiduría, belleza o gloria “.
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 2. 42 y siguientes: “Lejos estaban los Kharites (Charites, Graces) cuando la madre [Nephele] dio a luz – nunca una madre, nunca una madre así hijo – su bebé de raza monstruosa [es decir, los Kentauroi (Centauros)] “.
  Safo, Fragmento 53 (trad. Campbell, Vol. Griego Lírico I) (C6º a. C.): “Aquí, sagradas Kharites (Charites, Graces), hijas santas de Zeus. ”
  Alcaeus, Fragment 386 (trad. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (C6th BC): “Los Kharites puros (Charites, Graces) te llevaron [una encantadora y bella juventud] a su seno por Kronides (Cronides) [Zeus] “.
  The Anacreontea, Fragment 5 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C5th BC): “Erotes (Loves) desarmados y riendo Kharites (Charites, Graces) [es decir, en la conexión entre belleza y deseo] “.
  The Anacreontea, Fragment 16: “Debajo de su suave mentón, deja que todas las Kharites (Charites, Graces) [es decir, belleza y adorno] vuelen alrededor de su cuello blanco como el mármol”.
  Ibycus, Fragment 284 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (C6th BC): “Entre los hermosos capullos de rosas, Kharis (Charis, Grace), lo alimentaste [ un joven hermoso] sobre el templo de Afrodita. Debo llamar a la guirnalda fragante, todas las flores de las que teñía al niño, halagándolo. Y las diosas le otorgaron tierna belleza “.
  Ibycus, Fragment 288: “Euryalos (Euryalus), rama de los Kharites (Charites, Graces) de ojos azules, querida de la encantadora Horai (Horae, Seasons), Kypris (Cypris) [Afrodita] y Peitho (Suasion) de tapa blanda te cuidó entre flores de rosas [es decir, lo hizo hermoso] “.
  Simonides, Fragment 67 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (C6th to 5th BC): “Quien sintonizó su lira para canciones del dulce amor de los niños, canciones con el aroma de los Kharites (Charites, Graces) y Erotes (Loves) “.
  Bacchylides, Fragment 1 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th B.C.) : “Richly gifted by the Kharites (Charites, Graces) [i.e. an athlete, given beauty of form].”
  Lycophronides, Fragment 844 (from Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric V) (B.C.) : “The girl who is dear to the Kharites (Charites, Graces) and beautiful.”
  Theognis, Fragment 1. 15 (trans. Gerber, Vol. Greek Elegiac) (Greek elegy C6th B.C.) : “Mousai (Muses) and Kharites (Charites, Graces), daughters of Zeus, who came once to the wedding of Kadmos (Cadmus) and sang the lovely verse, ‘What is beautiful is loved, what is not beautiful is not loved.’ This is the verse that went through your immortal lips.”
  Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 72. 5 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “To the Kharites (Charites, Graces) was given . . . the beautifying of each part of the body with an eye to making it more comely and pleasing to the gaze.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 6. 24. 6 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “[Statues of the Kharites (Charites) in their temple at Elis :] One of them holds a rose, the middle one a die, and the third a small branch of myrtle . . . As for the die, it is the plaything of youths and maidens, who have nothing of the ugliness of old age.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 5. 70 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “Out of the sea was rising lovely-crowned Kypris (Cypris) [Aphrodite] . . . and [around her] danced the Kharites (Charites, Graces) lovely-tressed.”
  Orphic Hymn 60 to the Charites (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) : “Kharites (Charites, Graces) . . . all lovely to the view, pleasure abundant, pure, belongs to you: various, for ever flourishing and fair, desired by mortals, much invoked in prayer; circling, dark-eyed, delightful to mankind.”
  Anonymous, Epithalamion Fragment (trans. Page, Vol. Select Papyri III, No. 139) (Greek poetry C4th A.D.) : “Bridegroom, the sweet Kharites (Charites, Graces) and glory attend you; gracious Harmonia has bestowed honour upon your wedding. Dear bride, great and abiding joy be yours; worthy is the husband you have found yea worthy.”
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass 10. 30 ff (trans. Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) : “The Gratiae (Graces) [Kharites] at their most graceful.”
  Suidas s.v. Aigles Kharites (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) : “Aigles Kharites (Radiant Graces): They have plausibly traced the lineage of the Kharites (Charites, Graces). Helios is also from Aigle (Aegle), since, it seems, the Kharites are radiant [i.e. beautiful].”
  II) GODDESSES OF PERSONAL ADORNMENT
  Hesiod, Works and Days 69 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) : “The divine Kharites (Charites, Graces) and queenly Persuasion (Seduction) put necklaces of gold upon her [Pandora the first woman].”
  Homeric Hymn 5 to Aphrodite 58 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th to 4th B.C.) : “The Kharites (Charites, Graces) bathed her [Aphrodite] with heavenly oil such as blooms upon the bodies of the eternal gods–oil divinely sweet, which she had by her, filled with fragrance.”
  Pindar, Paean 3 (trans. Sandys) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “Hail holy Kharites (Charites, Graces) . . . enthroned in splendour.”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 425 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “A purple robe which the divine Kharites (Charites, Graces) had made with their own hands for Dionysos in sea-girt Dia.”
  Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 72. 5 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “To the Kharites (Charites, Graces) was given the adornment of personal appearance and the beautifying of each part of the body with an eye to making it more comely and pleasing to the gaze.”
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 10 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) : “His hair is lovely . . . but it is lovelier still where it is held by the headband–the headband ‘wrought by the Kharites (Charites, Graces), a most lovely ornament,’ as the poets of the Secret Verses say.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 33. 4 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “[Pasithea] one of the swiftshoe Kharites (Charites, Graces) was gathering the shoots of the fragrant reeds in the Erythraian garden, in order to mix the flowing juice of Assyrian oil with Indian flowers in the steaming cauldrons of Paphos, and make ointment [or perfume] for her Lady [Aphrodite].”
  Suidas s.v. Hai Kharites gumnai (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) : ” Hai Kharites gumnai (the Graces are naked): because it is necessary for them to give delight easily and openly; or because those who lack the gifts of the Kharites (Charites) are deprived of their own adornment.”
  V) GODDESSES OF ARTISTIC BEAUTY
  Bacchylides, Fragment 10 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th B.C.) : “Truly the skilled man [poet or artisan] prospers in golden hope, whether he has won honour from the Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  See also Charis wife of Hephaestus (below)
  CHARITES GODDESSES OF FESTIVITY, DANCE & SONG
 
  The Graces Eudaemonia, Harmonia and Paedia, Athenian red-figure hydria C5th B.C., National Archaeological Museum of Florence I) GODDESSES OF FESTIVE DANCE
  Hesiod, Theogony 53 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) : “There [on Olympos] are their [the Muses’] bright dancing-places and beautiful homes, and beside them the Kharites (Charites, Graces) and Himeros (Desire) live in delight.”
  Homeric Hymn 3 to Pythian Apollo 186 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th to 4th B.C.) : “[Apollon] speeds from earth to Olympos, to the house of Zeus, to join the gathering of the other gods: then straightway the undying gods think only of the lyre and song, and all the Mousai (Muses) together, voice sweetly answering voice, hymn . . . Meanwhile the rich-tressed Kharites (Charites, Graces) and cheerful Horai (Horae, Hours) dance with Harmonia (Harmony) and Hebe (Youth) and Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus, holding each other by the wrist.”
  Homeric Hymn 27 to Artemis 14 ff : “The lovely dance of the Mousai (Muses) and Kharites (Charites, Graces) . . . [Artemis] leads the dances, gracefully arrayed, while all they utter their heavenly voice, singing.”
  Pindar, Olympian Ode 14. 5 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “You Kharites (Charites, Graces) three . . . in your gift are all our mortal joys . . . Nor even can the immortal gods order at their behest the dance and festals, lacking the Kharites’ aid.”
  Sappho, Fragment 208 (from Himerius, Orations) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (C6th B.C.) : “[Apollon] dances with the Mousai (Muses) and Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 4. 128 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “[At the wedding of Peleus and Thetis was seen :] The ravishing dance twined by the Kharites’ (Charites, Graces) feet . . . the chant the Mousai (Muses) raised.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 5. 70 ff : “[At the birth of Aphrodite] danced the Kharites (Charites, Graces) lovely-tressed.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 24. 261 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “The dancers of Orkhomenos (Orchomenus) [the Kharites].”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 34. 36 ff : “There are three Kharites (Charites, Graces), the dancers of Orkhomenos (Orchomenus), handmaids of Phoibos (Phoebus) [Apollon].”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 212 ff : “[The Kharites (Charites)] the dancing maidens of Orkhomenos (Orchomenus), handmaids of the Paphian [Aphrodite], drew from the horsehoof fountain of imagination [Hippokrene (Hippocrene)], dear to the nine Mousai (Muses).”
  II) GODDESSES OF FESTIVE SONG
  See Charites Goddesses of Charming Song (below)
  III) GODDESSES OF FESTIVITY
  Homeric Hymn 3 to Pythian Apollo 186 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th to 4th B.C.) : “[At the festivities on Olympos :] The rich-tressed Kharites (Charites, Graces) and cheerful Horai (Horae, Seasons) dance with Harmonia (Harmony) and Hebe (Youth) and Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus, holding each other by the wrist.”
  Pindar, Olympian Ode 14. 5 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “You Kharites (Charites, Graces) three . . . in your gift are all our mortal joys . . . Nor even can the immortal gods order at their behest the dance and festals, lacking the Kharites’ aid; who are the steward of all rites of heaven [i.e. festivals] . . . look on our songs of revel, on light feet stepping to grace this happy hour.”
  The Anacreontea, Fragment 38 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C5th B.C.) : “Let us be merry and drink wine and sing of Bakkhos (Bacchus) [Dionysos], the inventor of the choral dance, the lover of all songs, leading the same life as the Erotes (Loves), the darling of Kythere (Cytherea) [Aphrodite]; thanks to him Methe (Drunkenness) was brought forth, the Kharis (Charis, Grace) was born, Lupa (Pain) takes rest and Ania (Trouble) goes to sleep.”
  Bacchylides, Fragment 5 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th B.C.) : “Rest your righteous mind in ease from its cares and come! turn your thoughts this way: with the help of the slim-waisted Kharites (Charites, Graces) your guest-friend, the famous servant of Ourania (Urania).”
  Orphic Hymn 60 to the Charites (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) : “Illustrious Kharites (Charites, Graces) . . . whom joys delight: mothers of mirth; all lovely to the view, pleasure abundant, pure, belongs to you.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 428 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “[At the wedding of the doomed Tereus and Prokne (Procne) :] When they were married, Juno [Hera] was not there to bless the rite, nor Hymenaeus (Wedding God) nor the Gratia (Grace) [Kharis].”
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass 6. 24 ff (trans. Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) : “[At the wedding of Cupid (Eros) and Psyche (Psykhe) :] The Horae (Seasons) brightened the scene with roses and other flowers, the Gratiae (Graces) [Kharites] diffused balsam.”
  CHARITES GODDESSES OF CHARMING SONG & SPEECH
  I) GODDESSES OF CHARMING SONG
  Homeric Hymn 27 to Artemis 14 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th to 4th B.C.) : “The lovely dance of the Mousai (Muses) and Kharites (Charites, Graces) . . . [Artemis] leads the dances, gracefully arrayed, while all they utter their heavenly voice, singing.”
  Pindar, Olympian Ode 7. 11 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “Kharis’ (Charis’, Beauty’s) refreshing grace shines with the rich notes of the lyre and the far-echoing flute.”
  Pindar, Olympian Ode 14. 5 ff : “You Kharites (Charites, Graces) three . . . in your gift are all our mortal joys . . . whose thrones are set at Pytho beside Apollon of the golden bow, and who with everlasting praise [song] worship the Father, lord of great Olympos.
Euphrosyne, lover of song, and Aglaia (Aglaea) revered, daughters of Zeus the all-highest, hearken, and with Thalia, darling of harmony, look on our songs of revel.”
  Bacchylides, Fragment 19 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th B.C.) : “The Pierian Mousai (Muses) and whose songs are clothed with honour by the violet-eyed maidens, the garland-bearing Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  Theognis, Fragment 1. 15 (trans. Gerber, Vol. Greek Elegiac) (Greek elegy C6th B.C.) : “Mousai (Muses) and Kharites (Charites, Graces), daughters of Zeus, who came once to the wedding of Kadmos (Cadmus) and sang the lovely verse.”
  Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 970 ff (trans. O’Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C.) : “I also pray Hermes, the god of the shepherds, and Pan and the beloved Kharites (Charites, Graces) to bestow a benevolent smile upon our songs.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 212 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “[The Kharites (Charites)] drew from the horsehoof fountain of imagination [Hippokrene (Hippocrene)], dear to the nine Mousai (Muses).”
  See Charites Goddesses of Praise and Glory (below)
  II) GODDESSES OF CHARMING SPEECH
  Pindar, Nemean Ode 4. 6 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “If that man with the Kharites’ (Charites’, Graces’) favour haply bring forth the heart’s deep mood to live upon the tongue.”
  Pindar, Eulogies Fragment 123 (trans. Sandys) : “I ween that even in Tenedos Peitho (Suasion) and Kharis (Charis, Charm) dwelt in the soul of the son of Hagesias.”
  Simonides, Fragment 10D (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (C6th to 5th B.C.) : “When you dedicated this statue to Hermes you did not escape the notice of the fair-tressed Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  Bacchylides, Fragment 15 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th B.C.) : “Menelaus spoke with spell-binding words, making partners of the fair-robed Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  CHARITES GODDESSES OF PRAISE AND GLORY
  Pindar, Olympian Ode 1. 30 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “For Kharis (Charis, Beauty), goddess who fashions all things that lovely are for mortal men, her shower of glory many a time enriched that which deserves no firm belief to be a trusted tale.”
  Pindar, Olympian Ode 2. 50 ff : “And for his brother alike, the impartial Kharites (Charites, Graces) at Pytho and the Isthmos gave his four-horsed chariot on the twelve lap course their crown of flowers [i.e. the victor received the glory of praise].”
  Pindar, Olympian Ode 6. 75 ff : “Those who came first [in the chariot-race], driving the twelve-lap course, on whom the divine grace of Kharis (Charis, Beauty) has shed the dewdrops of her fame most fair.”
  Pindar, Olympian Ode 9. 21 ff : “Now with the glowing fires of song shall I exalt the name of this dear city [i.e. the city of the victor]; and swifter than a well-bred steed or a ship’s wingèd sails, my message [i.e. the poet’s praise] shall go speeding far and wide, if fate’s decree grant’s that my hand may till the precious beauty of the Kharites’ (Charites, Graces) garden. For of their gift is every joy, and from divine power are noble and wise hearts endowed to man.”
  Pindar, Olympian Ode 14. 5 ff : “You Kharites (Charites, Graces) three . . . in your gift are all our mortal joys, and every sweet thing, be it wisdom, beauty, or glory, that makes rich the soul of man . . . who with everlasting praise worship the Father, lord of great Olympos . . . I come to praise [the Olympian victor] Asopikhos (Asopichus), whose Minyan house, Thalia, now of your favour wears the pride of the Olympian victor.”
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 5. 45 ff : “Your name shines with the glory lit by the Kharites (Charites, Graces) of the lovely hair.”
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 9. 89 ff : “Now would I to both sing songs of triumph, who served me in good stead, answering my prayer; and may I never lose the pure light of the sweet-singing Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  Pindar, Nemean Ode 5. 52 ff : “Twice crowned at Epidauros, boxer Pankratiast, and at Aiakos’ (Aeacus’) city gate wreathed with fresh flowers, gift of the fair-haired Kharites (Charites, Graces) [i.e. the victor’s chaplet].”
  Stesichorus, Fragment 212 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (C7th to 6th B.C.) : “Such public songs [i.e. songs of praise] of the lovely-haired Kharites (Charites) must we sing.”
  Bacchylides, Fragment 9 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th B.C.) : “Kharites (Charites, Graces) of the golden-distaff, grant the fame that convinces mortals; for the god-inspired spokesman [i.e. the poet] of the violet-eyed Mousai (Muses) is ready to sing the praises of Phlios and the luxuriant ground of Zeus Nemeios (Nemean).”
  Bacchylides, Fragment 10 : “Truly the skilled man [i.e. the poet or artisan] prospers in golden hope, whether he has won honour from the Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  Bacchylides, Fragment 19 : “The Pierian Mousai (Muses) and whose songs are clothed with honour by the violet-eyed maidens, the garland-bearing Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 72. 5 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “To the Kharites (Charites, Graces) was given . . . the privilege of being the first to bestow benefaction and, on the other hand, of requiting with appropriate favours (kharites) such men as have performed good acts.”
  CHARITES GODDESSES OF ROSES & GARLANDS
  Pindar, Nemean Ode 5. 54 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “Wreathed with fresh flowers, gift of the fair-haired Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  Sappho, Fragment 81 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (C6th B.C.) : “The blessed Kharites (Charites, Graces) look rather on what is adorned with flowers and turn away from the ungarlanded.”
  The Anacreontea, Fragment 35 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C5th B.C.) : “The soft rose. It is the breath of the gods and the joy of mortals, the glory of the Kharites (Charites, Graces) in spring-time, the delight of the Erotes (Loves) with their rich garlands and of Aphrodite; it is a subject for poetry and the graceful plant of the Mousai (Muses).”
  The Anacreontea, Fragment 46 : “See how the Kharites (Charites) swell the rosebuds now that spring has appeared.”
  Ibycus, Fragment 284 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (C6th B.C.) : “Among lovely buds of roses, Kharis (Charis, Grace), you nurtured him [a beautiful boy] about the temple of Aphrodite. I must call the garland fragrant, all the flowers from which she tinged the boy, flattering him. And the goddesses bestowed tender beauty.”
  Bacchylides, Fragment 19 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th B.C.) : “The garland-bearing Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  Aristophanes, Birds 1088 ff (trans. O’Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C.) : “In spring I [a bird] despoil the gardens of the Kharites (Charites, Graces) and gather the white, virgin berry on the myrtle bushes.”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 210 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “On Paros they sacrifice to the Kharites (Charites, Graces) without benefit of flutes or garlands [contrary to the usual custom].”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 6. 24. 6 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “[The statues of the Kharites (Graces) in their temple at Elis :] One of them holds a rose, the middle one a die, and the third a small branch of myrtle.”
  Orphic Hymn 43 to the Horae (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) : “[The Horai (Horae, Seasons)] attending Persephone, when back from night the Moirai (Fates) and Kharites (Charites, Graces) [as goddesses of spring flowers] lead her up to light; when in a band harmonious they advance, and joyful found her form the solemn dance.”
  Ovid, Fasti 5. 217 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “As soon as the dewy frost is cast from the leaves and sunbeams warm the dappled blossom, the Horae (Seasons) assemble, hitch up their coloured dresses and collect these gifts of mine [Flora-Chloris, goddess of flowers] in light tubs. Suddenly the Charites (Graces) burst in, and weave chaplets and crowns to entwine the hair of gods.”
  Statius, Silvae 1. 2. 19 (trans. Mozley) (Roman poetry C1st A.D.) : “Nor do winsome Amor (Love) [Eros] and Gratia (Grace) [Kharis] grow weary in scattering countless blossoms and cloudy perfumes [during the wedding] o’er thee [the bridegroom] and as thou holdest close-locked the snow-white limbs of thy longed-for bride. And now roses, now lilies mixed with violets dost thou receive upon thy brow, as thou shieldest the fair face of thy mistress.”
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass 4. 2 ff (trans. Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) : “I saw at some distance a valley shaded by a leafy wood. Glinting among diverse smaller plants and the most luxuriant shrubbery were some bright roses of ruddy hue . . . that grove seemed to me to be the abode of Venus [Aphrodite] and the Gratiae (Graces) [Kharites]; in its shady recesses that delightful blossom shone out with its brightness of royal crimson.”
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass 10. 30 ff : “They [the Gratiae-Kharites] were appeasing the goddess [Aphrodite] by strewing wreaths and single blossoms before her, and they formed a most elegant chorus-line as they sought to please the Mistress of pleasures with the foliage of spring.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 31. 203 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “Assyrian Aphrodite seated in a solitary spot upon Libanos [Lebanon], alone, for the Kharites (Charites, Graces), those dancers of Orkhomenos (Orchomenus), had been sent away to gather the various flowers of spring in the gardens–one to gather Kilikian (Cicilian) crocus, one eager to bring balsam and sprouts of the Indian reed, another for the fragrant petals of the rose.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 33. 4 ff : “[Pasithea] one of the swiftshoe Kharites (Charites, Graces) was gathering the shoots of the fragrant reeds in the Erythraian garden, in order to mix the flowing juice of Assyrian oil with Indian flowers in the steaming cauldrons of Paphos, and make ointment [or perfume] for her Lady [Aphrodite]. While she plucked all manner of dew-wet plants she gazed all around the place.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 34. 112 ff : “Blushing anemone [i.e. the flower] never-fading, which the Kharites (Charites, Graces) tend and the winds never destroy.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 47. 456 ff : “[The wedding of Dionysos and Ariadne :] The wedding dance resounded . . . about the bridal bed all flowers grew; the dancers of Orkhomenos (Orchomenus) [i.e. the Kharites] surrounded Naxos with foliage of spring.”
  Suidas s.v. Anthemidon (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) : “Anthemidon (on blossoms) : ‘And Artemis, let the running Kharites (Charites, Graces) tread this grove, their light sandals on the blossoms.’ Meaning flowers.’”
 
  Poseidon, Amphitrite and the Charites, Athenian black-figure dinos C6th B.C., British Museum CHARITES COMPANIONS OF APOLLO & THE MUSES
  Hesiod, Theogony 53 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) : “There [on Olympos] are their [the Mousai’s (Muses’)] bright dancing-places and beautiful homes, and beside them the Kharites (Charites, Graces) . . . live in delight.”
  Homeric Hymn 3 to Pythian Apollo 186 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th to 4th B.C.) : “[Apollon] speeds from earth to Olympos, to the house of Zeus, to join the gathering of the other gods : then straightway the undying gods think only of the lyre and song, and all the Mousai (Muses) together, voice sweetly answering voice, hymn . . . Meanwhile the rich-tressed Kharites (Charites, Graces) and cheerful Horai dance with Harmonia (Harmony) and Hebe (Youth) and Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus, holding each other by the wrist.”
  Homeric Hymn 27 to Artemis 14 ff : “[Artemis] goes to the great house of her dear brother Phoibos Apollon (Phoebus Apollo), to the rich land of Delphoi (Delphi), there to order the lovely dance of the Mousai (Muses) and Kharites (Charites, Graces). There she hangs up her curved bow and her arrows, and heads and leads the dances, gracefully arrayed, while all they utter their heavenly voice, singing.”
  Pindar, Paean 3 (trans. Sandys) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “Hail holy Kharites (Charites, Graces), companions of the Moisai (Muses), enthroned in splendour.”
  Sappho, Fragment 208 (from Himerius, Orations) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (C6th B.C.) : “[Apollon] the Leader of the Mousai (Muses) (Mousagetos) himself as he appears when Sappho and Pindar in their songs deck him out with golden hair and lyre and send him drawn by swans to Mount Helikon (Helicon) to dance there with the Mousai (Muses) and Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  Sappho, Fragment 103 : “Hither, holy Kharites (Charites, Graces) and Pierides Moisai (Pierian Muses).”
  Sappho, Fragment 128 : “Hither now, tender Kharites (Charites, Graces) and lovely-haired Moisai (Muses).”
  Bacchylides, Fragment 19 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th B.C.) : “The Pierian Mousai (Muses) and whose songs are clothed with honour by the violet-eyed maidens, the garland-bearing Kharites (Charites).”
  Theognis, Fragment 1. 15 (trans. Gerber, Vol. Greek Elegiac) (Greek elegy C6th B.C.) : “Mousai (Muses) and Kharites (Charites, Graces), daughters of Zeus, who came once to the wedding of Kadmos (Cadmus) [and Harmonia] and sang the lovely verse, ‘What is beautiful is loved, what is not beautiful is not loved.’ This is the verse that went through your immortal lips.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 4. 128 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “[At the wedding of Peleus and Thetis was seen] the ravishing dance twined by the Kharites’ (Charites, Graces) feet . . . the chant the Mousai (Muses) raised.”
  CHARITES ATTENDANTS OF APHRODITE
  The Kharites (Charites), as goddesses of beauty and personal adornment, were naturally described as companions of Aphrodite and the Erotes (Loves).
  Homeric Hymn 3 to Pythian Apollo 186 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th to 4th B.C.) : “[Apollon] speeds from earth to Olympos, to the house of Zeus, to join the gathering of the other gods : then straightway the undying gods think only of the lyre and song, and all the Mousai (Muses) together, voice sweetly answering voice, hymn . . . Meanwhile the rich-tressed Kharites (Charites, Graces) and cheerful Horai (Horae) dance with Harmonia (Harmony) and Hebe (Youth) and Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus, holding each other by the wrist.”
  Homeric Hymn 5 to Aphrodite 58 ff : “She [Aphrodite] went to Kypros (Cyprus), to Paphos, wher her precinct is and fragrant altar, and passed into her sweet-smelling temple. There she went in and put to the glittering doors, and there the Kharites (Charites, Graces) bathed her with heavenly oil such as blooms upon the bodies of the eternal gods–oil divinely sweet, which she had by her, filled with fragrance.”
  Homeric Hymn 6 to Aphrodite 2 ff : “Sea-set Kypros (Cyprus) . . . and there the gold-filleted Horai (Horae) [here largely indistinguishable from the Kharites (Charites)] welcomed her [the new-born Aphrodite] joyously. They clothed her with heavenly garments: on her head they put a fine, well-wrought crown of gold, and in her pierced ears they hung ornaments of orichale and precious gold, and adorned her with golden necklaces over her soft neck and snow-white breats, jewels the gold-filleted Horai wear themselves whenever they go to their father’s house to join the lovely dances of the gods. And when they had fully decked her, they brought her to the gods, who welcomed her when they saw her.”
  Sappho, Fragment 194 (from Himerius, Orations) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (C6th B.C.) : “[Poetical description of the rites of Aphrodite :] And brings in Aphrodite herself on the Kharites’ (Charites, Graces) chariot with her chorus of Erotes (Loves) to join in the fun.”
  The Anacreontea, Fragment 5 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C5th B.C.) : “Erotes (Loves) unarmed and laughing Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  The Anacreontea, Fragment 19 : “The Mousai (Muses) tied Eros (Love) with garlands and handed him over to [the Charis] Kalleis (Calleis, Beauty). And now Kythereia (Cytherea) [Aphrodite] brings a ransom and seeks to have him released.”
  Ibycus, Fragment 284 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (C6th B.C.) : “Kharis (Charis, Grace), you nurtured him [a beautiful boy] about the temple of Aphrodite . . . and bestowed tender beauty.”
  Ibycus, Fragment 288 : “Euryalos (Euryalus), offshoot of the blue-eyed Kharites (Charites, Graces), darling of the lovely-haired Horai (Horae, Seasons), Kypris (Cypris) [Aphrodite] and soft-lidded Peitho (Suasion) nursed you among rose-blossoms [i.e. made him beautiful].”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 6. 24. 6 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “[On the statues of the Kharites (Charites) in their temple at Elis :] One of them holds a rose, the middle one a die, and the third a small branch of myrtle. The reason for their holding these things may be guessed to be this. The rose and the myrtle are sacred to Aphrodite and connected with the story of Adonis, while the Kharites (Charites, Graces) are of all deities the nearest related to Aphrodite. As for the die, it is the plaything of youths and maidens, who have nothing of the ugliness of old age. On the right of the Kharites is an image of Eros (Love), standing on the same pedestal.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 5. 70 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “Out of the sea was rising lovely-crowned Kypris (Cypris) [Aphrodite], foam-blossoms still upon her hair; and round her hovered smiling witchingly Himeros (Desire), and danced the Kharites (Charites, Graces) lovely-tressed.”
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass 2. 8 ff (trans. Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) : “Venus [Aphrodite] herself, flanked by a whole choir of Gratiae (Graces) [Kharites], accompanied by the entire body of Cupides (Loves) [Erotes], wearing that belt of hers around her waist, diffusing the scent of cinnamon and bedewing the air with balsam.”
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass 4. 2 ff : “That grove seemed to me to be the abode of Venus [Aphrodite] and the Gratiae (Graces) [Kharites]; in its shady recesses that delightful blossom shone out with its brightness of royal crimson.”
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass 6. 24 ff : “[At the wedding of Cupid (Eros) and Psyche (Psykhe) :] The Horae (Seasons) brightened the scene with roses and other flowers, the Gratiae (Graces) [Kharites] diffused balsam.”
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass 10. 30 ff : “[Description of an ancient Greek play portraying the Judgement of Paris :] Each maiden representing a goddess was accompanied by her own escort . . . Next floated in charming children [attending Aphrodite], unmarried girls, representing on one side the Gratiae (Graces) [Charites] at their most graceful, and on the other the Horae in all their beauty. They were appeasing the goddess by strewing wreaths and single blossoms before her, and they formed a most elegant chorus-line as they sought to please the Mistress of pleasures with the foliage of spring.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 3. 110 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “The soil of Byblos [in Syria] where the Kharites (Charites, Graces) have their home, where Assyrian Kythereia (Cytherea) [Aphrodite] dances.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 16. 130 ff : “[Dionysos woos the nymphe Nikaia (Nicaea) :] ‘I will present you with the Kharites (Charites) of divine Orkhomenos (Orchomenus) for servants, my daughters, whom I will take from Aphrodite.’”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 24. 261 ff : “[When Aphrodite entered into a contest with Athena in weaving :] The dancers of Orkhomenos (Orchomenus) [i.e. the Kharites] who were attendants upon the Paphian [Aphrodite] had no dancing then to do; but Pasithea made the spindle run round, Peitho dressed the wool, Aglaia (Aglaea) gave thread and yarn to her mistress. And weddings went all astray in human life.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 31. 203 ff : “Assyrian Aphrodite seated in a solitary spot upon Libanos (Lebanon), alone, for the Kharites (Charites, Graces), those dancers of Orkhomenos (Orchomenus), had been sent away to gather the various flowers of spring in the gardens–one to gather Kilikian (Cilician) crocus, one eager to bring balsam and sprouts of the Indian reed, another for the fragrant petals of the rose.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 33. 4 ff : “[Pasithea] oOne of the swiftshoe Kharites (Charites, Graces) was gathering the shoots of the fragrant reeds in the Erythraian (Erythraean) garden, in order to mix the flowing juice of Assyrian oil with Indian flowers in the steaming cauldrons of Paphos, and make ointment [or perfume] for her Lady [Aphrodite].”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 6 ff : “[At Paphos were] Adonis and Kythereia (Cytherea) [Aphrodite]. There were also a troop of Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 212 ff : “[The Kharites (Charites)] the dancing maidens of Orkhomenos (Orchomenus), handmaids of the Paphian [Aphrodite], drew from the horsehoof fountain of imagination [Hippokrene], dear to the nine Mousai (Muses), delicate water to wash her [Aphrodite’s infant daughter Beroe].”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 263 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “To that place [the house of Harmonia] went Kharis (Charis), fellow-voyager [attendant] with the Foamborn [Aphrodite], and running ahead she knocked at the eastern gate of Euros (the East Wind).”
  CHARIS WIFE OF HEPHAESTUS
  Kharis (Charis), the wife of Hephaistos (Hephaesus), represented the creation of objects of beauty and artistic adornment.
  Homer, Iliad 18. 382 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “Kharis (Charis) of the shining veil . . . the lovely goddess the renowned strong-armed one [Hephaistos] had married.”
  Hesiod, Theogony 945 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) : “And Hephaistos (Hephaestus), the famous Lame One, made Aglaia (Aglaea, Magnificence), youngest of the Kharites (Charites), his buxom wife.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 35. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “Homer (he too refers to the Kharites) makes one the wife of Hephaistos (Hephaestus), giving her the name Kharis (Charis).”
  For MORE information on this Charis see AGLAIA
  CHARIS WIFE OF HYPNUS
  Homer, Iliad 14. 231 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “Hera answered him [Hypnos (Hypnus) god of sleep] : ‘. . . I will give you one of the younger ( hoploterai ) Kharites (Charites, Graces) for you to marry, and she shall be called you lady; Pasithea, since all your days you have loved her forever.’ So she spoke, and Hypnos was pleased and spoke to her in answer : ‘Come then! Swear it to me on Styx’ ineluctable water. With one hand take hold of the prospering earth, with the other take hold of the shining salt sea, so that all the undergods who gather about Kronos (Cronus) may be witnesses to us. Swear that you will give me one of the younger Kharites, Pasithea, the one whom all my days I have longed for.’”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 35. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “Homer . . . says that Hypnos (Sleep) was a lover of Pasithea, and in the speech of Hypnos there is this verse :–‘Verily that he would give me one of the younger Kharites (Charites).’ Hence some have suspected that Homer knew of older Kharites as well.”
  Statius, Thebaid 2. 285 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “Pasithea eldest of the gracious sisters.”
  For MORE information on this Charis see PASITHEA
  NAMES OF THE CHARITES
 
 
  Nombre griego
  Αγλαιη Αγλαια
  Θαλια Θαλιη Θαλεια
  Ευφροσυνη
 
 
  Transliteración
  Aglaiê, Aglaia
  Thalia, Thaliê, Thaleia
  Euphrosynê
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Aglaea
  Thalia
  Euphrosyne
 
 
  Traducción
  Glory, Beauty ( aglaios )
  Festivitiy ( thalia )
  Good Cheer, Mirth ( euphrosynos )
 
 
 
 
  Nombre griego
  Πασιθεα
  Καλλεις
  Ευθυμια
 
 
  Transliteración
  Pasithea
  Kalleis
  Euthymia
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Pasithea
  Calleis
  Euthymia
 
 
  Traducción
  Acquired Goddess
  Beauty ( kallos )
  Cheerfulness ( euthymia )
 
 
 
 
  Nombre griego
  Φαεννα
  Κλητα
  Αυξω
  Ἡγεμονη
 
 
  Transliteración
  Phaenna
  Klêta
  Auxô
  Hêgemonê
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Phaenna
  Cleta
  Auxo
  Hegemone
 
 
  Traducción
  Shining, Radiant ( phaennos )
  Fame, Glory ( klêtos )
  Growth ( auxesis )
  Queen, Leader ( hêgemonos )
 
 
 
 
  Nombre griego
  Παιδια
  Πανδαισια
  Ευδαιμονια
  Ανθεια
  Παννυχις
 
 
  Transliteración
  Paidia
  Pandaisia
  Eudaimonia
  Antheia
  Pannykhis
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Paedia
  Pandaesia
  Eudaemonia
  Anthea
  Pannychis
 
 
  Traducción
  Play ( paidia, paizô )
  Banquet ( pandaisia )
  Happiness, Prosperity
  Blossoms, Flowers ( anthos )
  Night Festivities, Parties ( pannykhis )
 
 
 
  ANCIENT GREEK & ROMAN ART
 
 
 
 
  K21.3 Charites, Poseidon, Amphitrite
  Athenian Black Figure Vase Painting C6th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K21.2 Eudaemonia, Pandaesia, Eros
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K21.1 Eudaemonia, Harmonia, Paedia
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  F21.1 Dancing Charites
  Greco-Roman Pompeii Fresco C1st A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z21.2 Charites, Adonis, Aphrodite
  Greco-Roman Madaba Floor Mosaic A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z10.4 Aphrodite, Ares, Charis
  Greco-Roman Phillipopolis Mosaic A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z21.1 Dancing Charites
  Greco-Roman Shahba Floor Mosaic A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  S21.1 Dancing Charites
  Greco-Roman Marble Statue C2nd B.C.
 
 
 
 

  SOURCES (ALL CHARITES PAGES)
  GREEK
  Homero, La Ilíada – Griego Epic C8th B.C.
  Hesíodo, Teogonía – Épica griega C8th – 7th B.C.
  Hesíodo, Obras y días – Épica griega C8th – 7th B.C.
  Hesíodo, Catálogos de fragmentos de mujeres – Épica griega C8th – 7th B.C.
  Hesíodo, Fragmentos de astronomía – Épica griega C8th – 7th B.C.
  Los himnos homéricos – Épica griega C8th – 4th B.C.
  Píndaro, Odas – Letra griega C5th B.C.
  Pindar, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric I Alcman, Fragments – Greek Lyric C7th B.C.
  Greek Lyric I Alcaeus, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric I Sappho, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
  Letra griega II Anacreontea, Fragments – Letra griega C5th – 4th B.C.
  Letra griega III Ibycus, Fragments – Letra griega C6th B.C.
  Letra griega III Simonides, Fragments – Letra griega C6th – 5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric IV Lycophronides, Fragments – Greek Lyric B.C.
  Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragments – Greek Lyric B.C.
  Griego Elegaic Theognis, Fragmentos – Griego Elegaic C6th B.C.
  Aristófanes, pájaros – Comedia griega C5th – 4th B.C.
  Apolodoro, La Biblioteca – Mitología griega C2nd A.D.
  Apolonio Rhodius, The Argonautica – Epic griego C3rd B.C.
  Callimachus, Fragments – Poesía griega C3rd B.C.
  Diodoro Siculus, La Biblioteca de Historia – Historia griega C1st B.C.
  Strabo, Geografía – Geografía griega C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Pausanias, Descripción de Grecia – Libro de viaje griego C2nd A.D.
  The Orphic Hymns – Greek Hymns C3rd B.C. – C2nd A.D.
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines – Greek Rhetoric C3rd A.D.
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy – Greek Epic C4th A.D.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca – Greek Epic C5th A.D.
  Colluthus, The Rape of Helen – Greek Epic C5th – 6th A.D.
  Papiros Griegos III Anónimos, Fragmentos – Poesía Griega C4th A.D.
  ROMAN
  Hyginus, Fabulae – Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Ovidio, Metamorfosis – Latin Epic C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Ovidio, Fasti – Poesía latina C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Statius, Thebaid – Latin Epic C1st A.D.
  Statius, Silvae – Poesía latina C1st A.D.
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass – Novela latina C2nd A.D.
  BYZANTINE
  Suidas, The Suda – Léxico griego bizantino C10th A.D.
  BIBLIOGRAPHY
  A complete bibliography of the translations quoted on this page.