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KHEIRON

25/01/2020

Mitología griega >> Bestiario >> Centauros >> Chiron (Kheiron)
 

 
  Traducción

  Experto con las manos
 
 

 
  Centauro Quirón, dinosaurios atenienses de figura negra C6º a. C., Museo Británico KHEIRON (Quirón) era el mayor y el más sabio del Kentauroi (Centauros ), una tribu tesaliana de hombres de medio caballo. A diferencia de sus hermanos, Kheiron era un hijo inmortal del Titán Kronos (Cronus) y medio hermano de Zeus. Cuando Rhea interrumpió la cita de Kronos con la ninfa Philyra, se transformó en un caballo para escapar de la atención y el resultado fue este hijo de dos formas.
  El resto de los Kentauroi (Centauros) fueron engendrados por la nube Nephele en las laderas del Monte Pelion en Magnesia donde fueron amamantados por las hijas de Kheiron.
  Kheiron fue un maestro reconocido que fue mentor de muchos de los más grandes héroes del mito, incluidos los argonautas Jason y Peleus, el médico Asklepios (Asclepius) , el semidiós Aristaios (Aristaeus) [19459004 ] y Akhilleus (Aquiles) de Troya.
  El viejo Kentauros fue herido accidentalmente por Herakles cuando el héroe estaba luchando contra otros miembros de la tribu. La herida, envenenada con veneno de Hydra, era incurable y sufría un dolor insoportable, Kheiron renunció voluntariamente a su inmortalidad. Zeus luego lo colocó entre las estrellas como la constelación Sagitario o Centauro.
  En la pintura griega en un jarrón griego, Kheiron a menudo se representaba con una forma bastante distinta de la del otro Kentauroi: tenía el cuerpo completo de un hombre, de pies a cabeza, con un cuerpo de caballo parcial unido a su grupa, y estaba vestido con un chitón y botas de cuerpo entero. Esta forma inusual podría simplemente reflejar su aparición en el drama griego, donde las limitaciones de vestuario requerían una simplificación de la forma de centaurina. Los otros Kentauroi, que no aparecen en el drama ateniense, fueron representados sin ropa y con formas completamente equinas debajo de la cintura.
  El nombre de Kheiron se derivaba de la palabra griega para mano ( kheir ) y significaba algo así como “hábil con las manos”. En el mito también estaba estrechamente asociado con la palabra kheirourgos “cirujano”.
  FAMILIA DE CHIRON
  PADRES
  [1.1] KRONOS y PHILYRA (Titanomachia Frag 6, Pindar Pythian Ode 3, Apollodorus 1.8, Apollonius Rhodius 2.1231, Hyginus Faulaeb 138, Hyginus Astronomi, 2.38, Hyginus Astronomy Metamorfosis 6.126 y 7.352, Ovid Fasti 5.379, Virgil Georgics 3.92 y 3.549, Plinio Historia Natural 7.197)
  DESPLAZAMIENTO
  [1.1] LOS PELIONIDOS DE NYMPHAI (por Khariklo ) (Pindar Pythian Ode 5) [2.1] ENDEIS] [1945900 (Hyginus Fabulae 14) [3.1] MELANIPPE (Euripides Melanippe Frag, Callimachus Frag, Hyginus Astronomica 2.18) [1945903945 [3.2] ] OKYRRHOE (por Khariklo ) (Metamorfosis de Ovidio 2.635) [4.1] KARYSTOS (por Khariklo] [9454] [9] 19459036] (Scholiast en Pindar’s Pythian 4.181, Eustathius en Homer 281)
  ENCICLOPEDIA
  CHEIRON (Cheirôn), el más sabio y justo de todos los centauros. (Hom. Il. xi. 831.) Era el instructor de Aquiles, cuyo padre Peleo era amigo y pariente de Cheiron, y recibió en su boda con Thetis la pesada lanza que posteriormente utilizó Aquiles. . ( Il. xvi. 143, xix. 390.) Según Apolodoro (i. 2. § 4), Quirón era el hijo de Crono y Philyra. Vivía en el monte Pelión, del cual él, como los otros centauros, fue expulsado por los lapitas; pero los Magnesios le ofrecieron sacrificios allí hasta un período muy tardío, y la familia de los Cheironidae en ese vecindario, que se distinguieron por su conocimiento de la medicina, fueron considerados como sus descendientes. (Plut. Sympos. iii. 1; Müller, Orchom. p. 249.) El propio Cheiron había sido instruido por Apollo y Artemis, y era conocido por su habilidad en la caza, la medicina , música, gimnasia y el arte de la profecía. (Xen. Cyneg. 1; Philostr. Her. 9, Icon. ii. 2; Pind. Pyth. ix. 65.) Todos los más distinguidos Los héroes de la historia griega son, como Aquiles, descritos como los alumnos de Cheiron en estas artes. Su amistad con Peleo, que era su nieto, es particularmente celebrada. Cheiron lo salvó de las manos de los otros centauros, que estaban a punto de matarlo, y también le devolvió la espada que Acastus había ocultado. (Apollod. Iii. 13. § 3, & c.) Cheiron le informó además de qué manera podría obtener la posesión de Thetis, quien estaba condenado a casarse con un mortal. También está relacionado con la historia de los argonautas, a quienes recibió amablemente cuando llegaron a su residencia en su viaje, ya que muchos de los héroes eran sus amigos y alumnos. (Apollon. Rhod. I. 554; Orph. Argon. 375, & c.) Heracles también estaba conectado con él por amistad; Sin embargo, una de las flechas envenenadas de este héroe fue la causa de su muerte, ya que durante su lucha con el jabalí ermitaño, Heracles se involucró en una pelea con los centauros, que huyeron a Cheiron, en el vecindario de Malea. Heracles disparó entonces, y una de sus flechas golpeó a Cheiron, quien, aunque inmortal, no viviría más, y le dio su inmortalidad a Prometeo. Según otros, Cheiron, al mirar una de las flechas, la dejó caer sobre su pie y se hirió. (Ovidio. Rápido. v. 397; Hygin. Poeta. Astr. ii. 38.) Zeus colocó a Cheiron entre las estrellas. Se había casado con Nais o Chariclo, y su hija Endeis era la madre de Peleo. (Apolo. Iii. 12. § 6.) Cheiron es el espécimen más noble de una combinación de formas humanas y animales en las antiguas obras de arte; mientras que los centauros generalmente expresan las características sensuales y salvajes de un hombre combinado con la fuerza y ​​la rapidez de un caballo, Cheiron, que posee el último igualmente, combina con él una leve sabiduría. Fue representado en el trono de Apolo de Amyclaean, y en el cofre de Cypselus. (Paus. Iii. 18. § 7, v. 19. § 2.) Todavía existen algunas representaciones de él, en las que los jóvenes Aquiles o Erotes están montados sobre su espalda. ( Mus. Pio-Clement. i. 52.)
  Fuente: Diccionario de biografía y mitología griega y romana.
  CITAS DE LITERATURA CLÁSICA
  PADRE Y NACIMIENTO DE CHIRON
 
  Quirón y nereida, cáliz rojo ateniense krater C5th BC, Museo de Bellas Artes de Boston Eumelus de Corinto o Arctinus de Mileto, Titanomachia Frag 6 (de Scholiast en Apolonio Rodio 1. 554) (trad. Evelyn-White) (griego épico C7th o C6th BC): “El autor de la Guerra de los Gigantes ([19459028 ] Gigantomakhia ) dice que Kronos (Cronus) tomó la forma de un caballo y se acostó con Philyra, la hija de Okeanos (Oceanus). Por esta causa Kheiron (Chiron) nació como Kentauros (Centauro): su esposa era Khariklo (Chariclo) “.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 8 – 9 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Los Titanes (Titanes) tuvieron hijos … Kheiron (Quirón), un Kentauros (Centauro) de doble formación, nació de Kronos (Cronus) y Philyra “.
  Apolonio Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 1231 ff (trans. Rieu) (griego épico C3rd BC): “Al caer la noche ellos [los Argonauts] estaban pasando la Isla de Philyra [en el este fin del Mar Negro]. Aquí fue donde Kronos (Cronus) hijo de Ouranos (Urano), engañando a su consorte Rea, se acostó con Philyra hija de Okeanos (Oceanus) en los días en que gobernó a los Titanes (Titanes) en Olympos y Zeus todavía era un niño, tendido en la cueva de Kretan (Cretense) por los Kouretes (Curetes) de Ida. Pero Kronos y Philyra se sorprendieron en el acto mismo de la diosa Rea. Con lo cual Kronos saltó de la cama y salió galopando en forma de un semental de crin larga, mientras Philyra en su vergüenza abandonó el lugar, abandonando sus antiguas guaridas, y llegó a las largas crestas pelasgianas. Allí dio a luz al monstruoso Kheiron (Quirón), mitad caballo y mitad divino, la descendencia de un amante en forma cuestionable “.
  Callimachus, Himno 4 a Delos 104 ff (trad. Mair) (poeta griego C3rd BC): “Los acantilados de Kheiron (Chiron) [en el Monte Pelion]… O Pelion , cámara nupcial de Philyra “.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 138 (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “Cuando Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)] estaba cazando a Jove [Zeus] por toda la tierra, asumiendo la forma de un corcel se acostó con Philyra, hija de Oceanus. Por él ella dio a luz a Chiron el Centauro, quien se dice que fue el primero en inventar el arte de la curación. Después de que Philyra vio que había dado a luz una especie extraña, le preguntó Jove [Zeus] la cambió a otra forma, y ​​ella se transformó en el árbol que se llama tilo “.
  Ovidio, Metamorfosis 6. 126 ff (trans. Melville) (epopeya romana C1st BC a C1st AD): “Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)], como un caballo engendró al centauro Quirón “.
  Ovidio, Metamorfosis 7. 352 y siguientes: “El pico de la sombra Pelion, el hogar de [Kheiron (Quirón)], el viejo hijo de Philyreia (Philyra)”.
  Plinio el Viejo, Historia Natural 7. 197 (trad. Rackham) (enciclopedia romana C1st A.D.): “Quirón, hijo de Saturno [Kronos (Cronus)] y Philyra”.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 77 ss. (Trans. Rouse) (griego épico C5th A.D.): “Pelion … [y] la cueva de Philyre”.
  CHIRON INVENTOR DE MEDICINA Y CIRUGÍA
  Homero, Ilíada 11. 832 y sigs (trans. Lattimore) (griego épico C8th BC): “[Eurypylos se dirige a Patroklos (Patroclus) en la Guerra de Troya:] ‘Corta la flecha de mi muslo … y le puse medicamentos amables, buenos, que dicen que Akhilleus (Aquiles) te ha contado, desde que Kheiron (Quirón), el más justo de los Kentauroi (Centauros), le contó sobre ellos. ‘”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 175 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Phoinix (Phoenix) había sido cegado por su padre … Peleo llevó a Phoinix a Kheiron (Quirón), quien curó sus ojos “.
  Aelian, On Animals 2. 18 (trad. Scholfield) (Historia natural griega C2nd AD): “En Homero, la habilidad para tratar a los heridos y las personas que necesitan medicamentos se remonta hasta ahora como la tercera generación de alumnos y maestros [véase Ilíada 11. 832 arriba]. Así, Patroklos (Patroclus), hijo de Menoitios (Menoetius), Akhilleus (Aquiles) y Akhilleus le enseñan el arte curativo. hijo de Peleo, es enseñado por Kheiron (Quirón), hijo de Kronos (Cronos). Y los héroes e hijos de los dioses aprendieron sobre la naturaleza de las raíces, el uso de diferentes hierbas, la preparación de drogas, hechizos para reducir las inflamaciones, el manera de detener la sangre y todo lo que sabían “.
  Ptolomeo Hephaestion, New History Book 1 (resumen de Photius, Myriobiblon 190) (trans. Pearse) (mitógrafo griego C1st a C2nd AD): “Kokytos (Cocytus) era el nombre de un alumno a quien Kheiron (Quirón) le había enseñado medicina y que se preocupaba por Adonis cuando fue herido por el jabalí “.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 274 (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “Inventores y sus inventos … Quirón, hijo de Saturno [Kronos (Cronus)], utiliza hierbas por primera vez en el arte médico de la cirugía “.
  Virgil, Georgics 3. 549 y sigs. (Trans. Fairclough) (bucólico romano C1st BC): “[Una gran escasez es seguida por el hambre y la enfermedad:] En esta tierra de los enfermos una vez llegó al cielo una estación lamentable que brillaba con el calor pleno del otoño … los maestros en el arte [de la medicina] fracasan, Chiron Phyllyrides (hijo de Phillyra) y Melampus, el hijo de Amythaon “.
  Propiedad, Elegías 2. 1 (trans. Goold) (elegía romana C1 aC): “La medicina puede curar todos los dolores humanos … Quirón, hijo de Phillyra, curó la ceguera de Fénix.”
  Plinio el Viejo, Historia Natural 7. 197 (trad. Rackham) (enciclopedia romana C1st AD): “[Sobre los inventos:] La ciencia de las hierbas y las drogas fue descubierta por Quirón el hijo de Saturno [Kronos (Cronus)] y Philyra “.
  Statius, Silvae 1. 4. 98 (trad. Mozley) (poesía romana C1st AD): “Si hubiera alguna hierba [para curar esta enfermedad] en la salud de Chiron de dos formas -giving cave “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 35. 60 ff (trans. Rouse) (griego épico C5th AD): “¿Qué cresta de los arbolados bosques debo atravesar para convocar a Kheiron (Quirón) que trajo vida vieja? ¿ayudar a su herida? ¿O dónde puedo encontrar medicinas, los secretos del arte de painassuaging [Asklepios ‘(Asclepius’)] de Paieon the Healer? Ojalá tuviera lo que ellos llaman la hierba Kentaurida (Del Centauro), para poder atar la flor sin dolor en tus extremidades, y te traerá de vuelta a salvo y viviendo de Haides, de donde no regresa ninguno. ¿De tu lado herido? ¡Tendría aquí a mi lado la fuente de la vida, para poder derramar sobre tus extremidades esa agua dolorosa y calmar tu adorable herida, para devolverte incluso tu alma! ”
  Ver también Mentor Quirón de Asclepio (abajo)
  CHIRON MENTOR DE ASCLEPIUS
 
  Quirón tutoría Aquiles, fresco grecorromano fresco de Herculano C1st AD, Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Nápoles Homero, Ilíada 4. 215 ff (trans. Lattimore ) (Épica griega C8th BC): “En habilidad él [Makhaon (Machaon)] le puso medicinas curativas [la herida del héroe] que Kheiron (Chiron) en amistad le había dado a su padre hace mucho tiempo [Asklepios ( Asclepio)] “.
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 3. 1 ff (trad. Conway) (letra griega C5th BC): “¿Sería ese Kheiron (Chiron), el hijo de Philyre (Philyra) – si así sea, que mis labios deben pronunciar la oración que vive en cada corazón: si pudiera recuperar la vida que dejó hace mucho tiempo, ese hombre de gran poder, el hijo de Kronos (Cronus) hijo de Urano (Urano), y que La criatura salvaje de los bosques, ese amante de la humanidad, todavía era el señor de los valles de Pelión; como lo fue cuando hace mucho tiempo cuidó al gentil Asklepios (Asclepius), ese artesano de nueva salud para los miembros cansados ​​y desterrador del dolor, el sanador divino de enfermedad mortal “.
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 3. 43 y siguientes: “En una zancada [Apollon] estaba allí, y agarró al bebé [Asklepios (Aclepius)] de la criada muerta [Koronis (Coronis) ]; y a su alrededor, las llamas ardientes abrieron un camino.
Luego llevó al niño al Kentauros Magnetiano (Centauro Magnesio) [i.e. Kheiron (Quirón)], que le enseña a ser un sanador para la humanidad de todas sus enfermedades y males ”
  Píndaro, Pythian Ode 3. 61 y siguientes: “Ahora bien, si Kheiron (Quirón) el sabio aún viviera dentro de su cueva, y si algún hechizo para encantar su alma yacía en la dulce dulzura de mis canciones, entonces seguramente podría persuadirlo para que los hombres de mente noble les otorguen un médico de enfermedades febriles, algún hijo de Apollon, o incluso el propio hijo de Zeus “.
  Pindar, Nemean Ode 3. 52 y siguientes: “El sabio Kheiron (Quirón) … a Asklepios (Asclepius) le enseñó las habilidades de la medicina”.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 118 – 122 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Mientras ella [Koronis (Coronis)] estaba siendo consumida en su pira funeraria , él [Apollon] arrebató a su bebé [Asklepios, Asclepius] del fuego y lo llevó al Kentauros Kheiron (Centauro Quirón), quien lo crió y le enseñó medicina y caza “.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 38 (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “Chiron, hijo de Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)] y Philyra, que no superó solo los otros centauros (centauros), pero también hombres de justicia, y se cree que crió a Esculapio (Asclepio) y Aquiles “.
  Ovidio, Metamorfosis 2. 628 ff (trans. Melville) (epopeya romana C1st BC a C1st AD): “Phoebus [Apollon] … arrebató a su hijo [Asklepios (Asclepius) ] fuera del vientre de su madre [mientras ella yacía muerta en su pira funeraria], fuera de las llamas y lo llevó a la cueva de Quirón de dos formas … El centauro estaba encantado con ese niño de celestial cepa, su honorable cargo. Un día La hija del Centauro [Quirón] vino … Ocyroe (Flujo rápido) … En el estado de ánimo místico de la profecía, cuando se escondió en su corazón el fervor celestial brilló, fijó sus ojos en el niño [Asklepios] [y predijo su futuro] “.
  CHIRON MENTOR DE ARISTAEUS & ACTAEON
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 9. 26 ff (trad. Conway) (letra griega C5th BC): “Una vez que ella [Kyrene (Cyrene) madre de Aristaios (Aristaeus)] luchaba con un león temible, solo, sin lanza, Apolón, dios lejano del carcaj ancho, la golpeó; e inmediatamente llamó desde su morada Kheiron (Quirón) y se dirigió a él: ‘Hijo de Philyre, ven de tu santo cueva, y maravíllese con el espíritu de una mujer y su poderoso vigor; con esa mente desalentada lucha, una joven doncella con un corazón que cabalga sobre cada trabajo, y un espíritu nunca sacudido por las frías tormentas de miedo. ¿Esta criada? ¿Y de qué raza de hombres se ha refugiado, para habitar en los oscuros dells de estas montañas nubladas? Porque su alma genera una riqueza ilimitada de valor. Es correcto poner sobre ella el toque de una mano ennoblecedora, o incluso para arrancar la flor del amor, más dulce que la miel? ‘ Luego habló el inspirado Kentauros (Centauro), gentl La risa que brillaba bajo sus bonitas cejas y de su sabiduría hizo inmediatamente esta respuesta: ‘El secreto, gran Phoibos (Phoebus) [Apollon], son las claves de la persuasión sabia (Peitho) para las verdaderas santidades del amor; Tanto los dioses como los hombres, con reverente modestia, son capaces de saborear a la luz del día los primeros frutos dulces del amor. Sin embargo, tú, para quien incluso saborear la falsedad es un sacrilegio, el arte dirigido por ellos desea el deleite para disimular. ¿Preguntas, rey, de qué raza es la doncella? Tú que conoces bien el destino de todas las cosas, a dónde conducirán todos los caminos, quién sabe la cantidad de hojas que la tierra produce para encontrar la primavera, cuántos granos de arena la marejada o los vendavales lanzan rodando abajo junto a las orillas del río; ¡Tú que ves claramente lo que será, y de dónde será! Sin embargo, si necesito rivalizar con mi sabiduría contra la tuya, así hablaré: en este claro llegaste a ser el esposo de esta doncella, con la intención de llevarla lejos del mar, a un jardín selecto del gran Zeus . . . ” Entonces Kheiron habló y decretó por el dios el querido cumplimiento de su novia”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 30 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “De Autonoe y Aristaios (Aristaeus) nació un hijo Aktaion (Actaeon), quien fue criado por Kheiron (Quirón) y entrenado como cazador, pero luego fue comido en Kithairon (Cithaeron) por sus propios perros … Dicen que la diosa [Artemisa] lo transformó [Aktaion] en un ciervo, y condujo su cincuenta perros de caza en un frenesí para que involuntariamente se lo comieran. Cuando ya no estaba, buscaron a su amo con grandes aullidos y bahías, llegando en el curso de su búsqueda a la cueva de Kheiron. Se asemejó a Aktaion, lo que tranquilizó su pena “.
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 512 ff (trans. Rieu) (griego épico C3rd BC): “Apollon dejó a Kyrene (Cyrene) en Libia en señal de su el amor la convirtió en una ninfa y cazadora con el don de una larga vida. Pero se llevó a su hijo pequeño [Aristaios (Aristaeus), su hijo de Kyrene] para que Kheiron (Quirón) lo criara en su cueva. Cuando el niño tuvo crecido, el divino Mousai (Musas) le encontró una novia, le enseñó las artes de la curación y la profecía, y lo convirtió en el pastor de todos sus rebaños que pastaban en la llanura de Atamantia en Phthia, alrededor del monte Othrys y en el valle de lo sagrado. Río Apidanos. Sin embargo, llegó un momento en que Aristaios emigró “.
  CHIRON MENTOR DE JASON
  Hesíodo, Teogonía 993 y sigs. (Traducción Evelyn-White) (griego épico C8th o C7th BC): “[Medeia] dio a luz un hijo Medeus [a Iason (Jason)] a quien Kheiron (Quirón) el hijo de Philyra criado en las montañas “.
  Hesiod, Catálogos de mujeres Fragmento 13: “Iason (Jason), pastor del pueblo, a quien Kheiron (Quirón) crió en Pelion leñoso”.
  Pindar, Nemean Ode 3. 52 ff (trad. Conway) (letra griega C5th BC): “Esta historia también de hombres de edad tiene I. Kheiron (Quirón) de corazón sabio cuidó al gran Iason (Jason) bajo su techo “.
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 4. 101 y siguientes (traducción Conway) (letra griega C5th BC): “Con un corazón audaz y palabras amables [Iason (Jason)] le respondió así: “Kheiron (Quirón) fue mi maestro, esto lo probaré. Desde Khariklo (Chariclo), digo, y la cueva de Philyra vengo, donde las castas hijas de los Kentauros (Centauro) cuidaron mis jóvenes días. Durante todos mis veinte años no les dio palabras groseras ni hechos apresurados …
Para ellos [los padres de Iason], cuando vi por primera vez la luz, temiendo el orgullo despiadado y cruel de ese líder, desplegaron dentro de la casa túnicas oscuras de luto, como si su bebé estuviera muerto; y en medio de lamentos, las mujeres me enviaron en secreto, envueltas en pañales morados, para que solo la oscuridad de la noche conociera mi camino, y me dieron a Kheiron, el hijo de Kronos (Cronus), para que fuera mi guardián “.
  Pindar, Nemean Ode 3. 53 ff (traducción Conway) (letra griega C5th BC): “El sabio Kheiron (Chiron) cuidó al gran Iason (Jason) bajo su techo “.
  Apolonio Rhodius, Argonautica 1. 32 ff (trans. Rieu) (griego épico C3rd BC): “Iason (Jason) actuando en una palabra de Kheiron (Chiron), lo inscribió [ Orfeo] como socio en su empresa [es decir, el viaje de los argonautas] “.
  CHIRON, PELEUS Y LA TREACHERY OF ACASTUS
  Pindar, Nemean Ode 4. 55 ff (traducción Conway) (letra griega C5th BC): “Cuando él [Peleus] había frustrado a Hippolyte, la novia de Akastos y Acastus”, y ella engaño traicionero [es decir, ella lo acusó de intentar tirar para seducirla]. Luego [Akastos] buscó al hijo de Pelias [Peleus], ​​robando su espada, la espada de la magia de Daidalos (Daedalus), para inventar su muerte por emboscada; salvado por La mano de Kheiron (Quirón), el destino destinado por Zeus se hizo suyo “.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 167 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Después de que él [Peleus] se hubiera dormido en Pelion, Akastos (Acastus) se escondió su daga … y regresó a su hogar, abandonando a Peleo. Cuando se despertó y comenzó a buscar su daga, fue llevado por los Kentauroi (Centauros), y estaba a punto de perecer cuando Kheiron (Quirón) lo libró. también buscó y le devolvió su daga “.
  Diodoro Siculus, Biblioteca de Historia 6 Fragmento 7 (trad. Oldfather) (historiador griego C1st BC): “En un momento posterior, ya que Kheiron (Chiron) le confirió benefacciones [Peleus ] y compartió su propio país con él él … se convirtió en rey de la ciudad de Iolkoi (Iolcus) “.
  Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 38 (trad. Celoria) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Él [Peleus] se encomendó a Akastos (Acastus) cuya conducta amorosa de la esposa llevó a que él quedara abandonado. solo en el monte Pelión. En sus andanzas se encontró con Kheiron (Quirón), el Kentauros (Centauro), buscó su ayuda y fue recibido en su cueva “.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 14 (trad. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd A.D.): “Peleus y Telamon, hijos de Aeacus y Endeis, hija de Chiron”.
  CHIRON, PELEUS Y LA CURACIÓN DE PHOENIX
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 175 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Phoinix (Phoenix) había sido cegado por su padre … Peleo llevó a Phoinix a Kheiron (Quirón), quien curó sus ojos “.
  Propiedad, Elegías 2. 1 (trans. Goold) (elegía romana C1 aC): “La medicina puede curar todos los dolores humanos … Quirón, hijo de Phillyra, curó la ceguera de Fénix.”
 
  Quirón y los dioses que asistieron a la boda de Peleo y Tetis, dinos atenienses de figura negra C6 aC, Museo Británico CHIRON Y EL MATRIMONIO DE PELEUS Y THETIS
  Homero, Ilíada 19. 390 ss (trans. Lattimore) (griego épico C8th BC): “Él [Akhilleus (Aquiles)] sacó de su lugar de pie la lanza de su padre [Peleus], ​​enorme, pesado, grueso, que nadie más de todos los Akhaianos (aqueos) podía manejar, pero Akhilleus solo sabía cómo manejarlo, la lanza de ceniza Pelian que Kheiron (Chiron) había traído a su padre desde lo alto Pelion, para ser la muerte de los luchadores en la batalla “.
  Stasinus de Chipre o Hegesias de Aegina, Fragmento 5 de Chipia (de Scholiast en la Ilíada 17. 140) (traducción. Evelyn-White) (épica griega C7th o C6th BC): ” Porque en el matrimonio de Peleo y [la Nereida] Thetis, los dioses se reunieron en el [Monte] Pelión para darse un banquete y trajeron los regalos de Peleo. Kheiron (Quirón) le dio un fuerte tronco ceniciento que había cortado por una lanza, y Atenea, se dice, lo pulió, y Hephaistos (Hephaestus) le puso una cabeza “.
  Píndaro, Nemean Ode 3. 52 y sigs. (Trans. Conway) (letra griega C5th BC): “Esta historia también de hombres de la antigüedad tengo … para la hija de Nereus [ Thetis] glorioso en su fruto, él [Kheiron (Chiron)] preparó la fiesta de bodas “.
  Píndaro, Isthmian Ode 8. 38 ss. (Trans. Conway) (letra griega C5th BC): “[La diosa Themis se dirige a Zeus:] ‘Concédele a ella [The Nereid Thetis’ ] el matrimonio sea por un honor otorgado del cielo a Peleo, el hijo de Aiakos (Aeacus) … Y a la cueva inmortal de Kheiron (Quirón) deje que su voluntad tome su camino rápidamente [es decir, deje que Kheiron instruya a Peleo en la captura de Thetis ]. ‘”
  Alcaeus, Fragment 42 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (letra griega C6th BC): “[Thetis] a quien el noble hijo [Peleus] de Aiakos (Aeacus) , invitando a todos los dioses benditos a la boda, casados, llevándola de los pasillos de Nereus a la casa de Kherronos [Kheiron (Chiron)] “.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 170 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Zeus quería casarla [la Nereid Thetis] con un mortal. Kheiron ( Quirón) advirtió a Peleo que agarrara a Thetis y aguantara mientras ella cambiaba su forma … Se casaron en [el monte] Pelion, y los dioses celebraron el matrimonio con himnos y un banquete. Kherion le dio a Peleo una lanza de madera de fresno “.
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 1. 592 ff (trans. Way) (griego épico C4th AD): “Él [Akhilleus (Aquiles)] se balanceó en su mano poderosa y aceleró la larga lanza que mata a los guerreros, forjada por Kheiron (Quirón) “.
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 1. 130 ff (trans. Mozley) (epopeya romana C1st AD): “Argos agrega pinturas [al casco del barco Argo] de variada gracia. Frente a esto hay un fuego y un lecho de hojas verdes, un banquete y vinos, y en medio de los Dioses del Mar, el hijo de Aeacus [Peleus] con su esposa [Thetis], ellos han bebido, y ahora Chiron [ Kheiron] está tocando la lira “.
  Statius, Achilleid 1. 105 ff (trans. Mozley) (epopeya romana C1st AD): “Su elevada casa [de Kheiron (Chiron)] aburre profundamente en la montaña, debajo de la larga , la bóveda global de Pelion; parte había sido vaciada por el trabajo, parte desgastada por su propia edad. Sin embargo, se muestran las imágenes y sofás de los dioses, y los lugares que cada uno había santificado por su reclinación y su presencia sagrada [en el fiesta de matrimonio de Peleo y Tetis “.
  Statius, Silvae 1. 2. 215 ff (trad. Mozley) (poesía romana C1st AD): “Peleus [fue llevado] a Thessalian Tempe, cuando Chiron estaba en lo alto del cuerpo de su caballo miró hacia delante y vio a Thetis acercarse a la hebra hemónica [y le aconsejó cómo capturarla como su novia] “.
  Colluthus, violación de Helen 29 y siguientes (traducción de Mair) (poesía griega C5th a C6th AD): “[Los dioses asisten a la boda de Peleus y Thetis:] Viniendo a los bosques de los Kentauros (Centauro) … Pero Eris (Lucha) hizo que Kheiron (Quirón) se fuera sin honrar: Kheiron no la miró y Peleo no le hizo caso “.
  CHIRON MENTOR DE AQUILES
 
  Chiron and boy Achilles, Athenian red-figure amphora C6th B.C., Musée du Louvre Homer, Iliad 11. 832 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “[Eurypylos addresses Patroklos (Patroclus) during the Trojan War :] ‘Cut the arrow out of my thigh . . . and put kind medicines on it, good ones, which they say you have been told of by Akhilleus (Achilles), since Kheiron (Chiron), most righteous of the Kentauroi (Centaurs), told him about them.'”
  Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Fragment 68 (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “Kheiron (Chiron) was tending the son of Peleus, swift-footed Akhilleus (Achilles), pre-eminent among men, on woody Pelion; for he was still a boy.”
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 6. 19 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “On your right hand you set him, and thus fulfil the charge, given of old they say, by Kheiron (Chiron) on his hill to Akhilleus (Achilles), far from home, the strong-armed son of Peleus :–‘To Kronos’ son [Zeus], first of all gods, I bid you to deep-voiced Zeus, lord of the lightnings and the thunder, your worship in full measure pay; then to your parents while their life shall last, like honour never fail to render.’”
  Pindar, Nemean Ode 3. 43 ff : “Fair-haired Akhilleus (Achilles) dwelling in Philyra’s halls, while yet a child made mighty deeds his play; many a time his hand brandished the sort tipped javelin, like to the wind in speed, and with wild lions he fought, and dealt them death. Boars too he slew, shoe panting frames, the first in his sixth year and then through all his days–he brought to the Kentauros (Centaur), Kronos’ (Cronus’) son . . . This tale too of men of old have I. Wise-hearted Kheiron (Chiron) nursed the great Iason (Jason) under his roof, and to Asklepios (Asclepius) taught the soft-fingered skills of medicine’s lore. For Nereus’ daughter [Thetis] glorious in her fruit, he set the marriage feast, and reared her peerless son, and taught him all the crafts of battle, stirring his eager soul to high endeavour.”
  Bacchylides, Fragment 27 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “The wise son of Philyra [Kheiron (Chiron)] often says of him, touching his [Akhilleus (Achilles)] blond head: he declares that he will crimson the eddying Skamandros as he kills the battle-loving Trojans . . . and will lie [be burried] in a foreign land.”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 172 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “[The Nereid Thetis] deserted her infant son [Akhilleus (Achilles)] and went off to join the Nereides. Peleus took the boy to Kheiron (Chiron), who accepted him and nourished him on the entrails of lions and wild boars and on the marrow of bears. He named him Akhilleus–his original name was Ligyron)–because he had not touched breasts with his lips.”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1. 551 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “Kheiron (Chiron) son of Philyra came down from the high ground [of Mount Pelion] to the sea and wading out into the grey surf waved his great hand again and again and wished the travellers [the Argonauts sailing off in their ship] a happy home-coming. His wife came too. She was carrying Peleus’ little boy Akhilleus (Achilles) on her arm, and she held him up for his dear father to see.”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 812 ff : “[Hera addresses Thetis :] ‘Your son Akhilleus (Achilles), who is now with Kheiron the Kentauros (Centaur Chiron) and is fed by Water-Nymphai (Nymphs) though he should be at your breast.’”
  Plato, Hippias Minor 371d (trans. Fowler) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) : “[Akhilleus (Achilles)] the son of Thetis, pupil of the most wise Kheiron (Chiron).”
  Plato, Republic 391c (trans. Shorey) : “Akhilleus (Achilles), the son of a goddess and of Peleus the most chaste of men, grandson of Zeus, and himself bred under the care of the most sage Kheiron (Chiron).”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 18. 10 – 16 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “[Amongst the scenes illustrated on the throne of Apollon at Amyklai (Amyclae) near Sparta :] There is also Peleus handing over Akhilleus (Achilles) to be reared by Kheiron (Chiron), who is also said to have been his teacher.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 19. 8 – 9 : “[Amongst the scenes depicted on the chest of Kypselos (Cypselus) dedicated at Olympia :] There is a Kentauros (Centaur) with only two of his legs those of a horse; his forelegs are human. Next come two-horse chariots with women standing in them. The horses have golden wings, and a man is giving armour to one of the women. I conjecture that this scene refers to the death of Patroklos (Patroclus); the women in the chariots, I take it, are Nereides, and Thetis is receiving the armour from Hephaistos (Hephaestus). And moreover, he who is giving the armour is not strong upon his feet, and a slave follows him behind, holding a pair of fire-tongs. An account also is given of the Kentauros (Centaur), that he is Khiron (Chiron), freed by this time from human affairs and held worthy to share the home of the gods, who has come to assuage the grief of Akhilleus (Achilles) [perhaps in his constellation fo rm].”
  Aelian, On Animals 2. 18 (trans. Scholfield) (Greek natural history C2nd A.D.) : “In Homer skill in treating the wounded and persons in need of medicine goes back as far as the third generation of pupil and master [see Iliad 11. 832 above]. Thus Patroklos (Patroclus), son of Menoitios, is taught the healing art by Akhilleus (Achilles), and Akhilleus, son of Peleus, is taught by Kheiron (Chiron), son of Kronos (Cronus).”
  Aelian, Historical Miscellany 12. 25 (trans. Wilson) (Greek rhetorician C2nd to 3rd A.D.) : “[On wise counsellors :] Odysseus benefited from Alkinous (Alcinous), Akhilleus (Achilles) from Kheiron (Chiron), Patroklos (Patroclus) from Akhilleus.”
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2. 2 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) : “[Ostensibly a description of an ancient Greek painting at Neapolis (Naples) :] The Education of Akhilleus (Achilles). A fawn and a hare–these are the spoils of hunting of Akhilleus as he is now . . . the exploits here depicted, done at Kheiron’s (Chiron’s) home, seem to deserve apples and honey as rewards, and you are content with small gifts . . . This Akhilleus, a child not yet conscious of valour, whom Kheiron still nourishes upon milk and marrow and honey, he has offered to the painter as a delicate, sport-loving child and already light of foot. Kheiron flatters him by saying that he catches hares like a lion and vies with fawns in running; at any rate, he has just caught a fawn and comes to Kheiron to claim his reward, and Kheiron, delighting to be asked, stands with fore-legs bent so as to be on a level with the boy and offers him apples fair and fragrant from the fold of his garment–for their very fragrance seems to be depicted–and with his hand he offers him a honeycomb dripping with honey, thanks to the diligent foraging of the bees. For when bees find good meadows and become big with honey, the combs get filled to overflowing and their cells pour it forth. Now Kheiron is painted in every aspect like a kentauros (centaur); yet to combine a horse and human body is no wondrous deed, but to gloss over the juncture and make the two into one whole and, by Zeus, cause on to end and the other to begin in such wise as to elude the eye of the observer who should try to detect where the human body ends, this seems to me to demand an excellent painter. That the expression seen in the eye of Kheiron is gentle is the result of his justice, but the lyre also does its part, through whose music he has become cultured; but now there is also something of cozening in his look, no doubt because Kheiron knows that this soothes children and nurtures them better than milk. This is the scene at the entrance of the cave; and the boy out on the plain, the one who is sporting on the back of the kentauros (centaur) as if it were a horse, is still the same boy; for Kheiron is teaching Akhilleus to ride horseback and to use him exactly as a horse, and he measures his gait to what the boy can endure, and turning around he smiles at the boy when he laughs aloud with enjoyment, and all but says to him, ‘Lo, my hoofs paw the ground for you without use of spur; lo, I even urge you on; the horse is indeed a spirited animal and gives no ground for laughter. For although you have been taught by me thus gently the art of horsemanship, divine boy, and are suited to such a horse as I, some day you shall ride on Xanthos and Balios; and you shall take many cities and slay many men, you merely running and they trying to escape you.’ Such is Kheiron’s prophecy for the boy, a prophecy fair and auspicious and quite unlike that of Xanthos.” [N.B. in the Iliad the horse Xanthos foretells Akhilleus’ death.]
  Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Book 6 (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 190) (trans. Pearse) (Greek mythographer C1st to C2nd A.D.) : “The master of Kheiron (Chiron) was called Akhilleus (Achilles) and it of him that the name came which Kheiron gave to the son of Peleus.”
  Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Book 6 (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 190) : “Thetis burned in a secret place the children she had by Peleus; six were born; when she had Akhilleus (Achilles), Peleus noticed and tore him from the flames with only a burnt foot and confided him to Kheiron (Chiron). The latter exhumed the body of the Gigante (Giant) Damysos who was buried at Pallene–Damysos was the fastest of all the Gigantes (Giants)–removed the astragale and incorporated it into Akhilleus’ foot using ‘ingredients’. This astragale fell when Akhilleus was pursued by Apollon and it was thus that Akhilleus, fallen, was killed.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 38 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Chiron, son of Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)] and Philyra, who surpassed not only the other Centauri, but also men in justice, and is thought to have reared Aesculapius and Achilles.”
  Ovid, Fasti 5. 379 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “There’s cave of ancient rock [of Mount Pelion], where, they record, the good old man [Kheiron (Chiron)] resided. He is believed to have detained in lyric song the hands [Achilles] destined to send Hector to death. Alcides [Heracles] arrived with his labours partly complete . . . Achilles’ hands could not resist the brazen impulse to touch the shaggy skin [of Herakles’ cape] and its bristles. While the old man [Chiron] fingers the foul, poisoned shafts, an arrow slips out and stabs his left foot . . . The blood of Lerna’s Hydra and he Centaur’s blood mingled, and gave no time for rescue. Achilles stood tar-soaked, as if before his sire: the dying Peleus would be mourned like this. His loving hands often stroked Chiron’s frail hands (rewarding the teacher with values learnt). He kissed him often, and said to him where he lay : ‘Live, I beg you; don’t leave me, dear father!’ The ninth day arrived, when you, righteous Chiron [died and was placed amongst the stars].”
  Seneca, Troades 830 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) : “Here, reclining at full length within his hollowed mountain cave, Chiron, tutor of a youth [Akhilleus (Achilles)] already pitiless, with his quill striking out tinkling chords, even then whetted the boy’s mighty passions by songs of war.”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 1. 255 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “And now [when the Argonauts prepared to begin their voyage] speeding down from the mountain-tops came Chiron, holding up to view Achilles who called to his sire from afar. As soon as the child saw Peleus start at the well-known voice and stretch out his arms in wide embrace, he sprang forward and hung long on his dear neck . . . Peleus in joy clasps his son and kisses him eagerly, and looking up to the heavens he cries : ‘. . . Ye gods, do ye preserve his [Achilles’] life. All else do thou, Chiron, vouchsafe. Let my little son marvel to hear thee speak of clarions and of wars; do thou teach him to wield his boyish weapons in the chase, and ere long to grasp my spear.’”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 1. 406 ff : “Also Actor’s son [Menoitios (Menoetius) upon departing with the Argonauts] leaves his child [Patroklos (Patroclus)] in Chiron’s cave, side by side with his dear Achilles, to study the chords of the harp, and side by side to hurl a boy’s light javelins, and to learns to mount and ride upon the back of the genial master.”
  Statius, Achilleid 1. 105 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “[Thetis witnesses the arrival of Paris and Helene at Troy :] She wearies her mind with schemes essayed, and taught cunning by her devoted love seeks out the aged Chiron. His lofty home bores deep into the mountain, beneath the long, overarching vault of Pelion; part had been hollowed out by toil, part worn away by its own age. Yet the images and couches of the gods are shown, and the places that each had sanctified by his reclining and his sacred presence [at the marriage-feast of Peleus and Thetis]; within are the Centaurus’ (Centaur’s) wide and lofty stalls, far different from those of his wicked brethren. Here are no spears that have tasted human blood, nor ashen clubs broken in festal conflict, nor mixing-bowls shattered upon kindred foemen, but innocent quivers and mighty hides of beasts. These did he take while yet in the prime of age; but now, a warrior no more, his only toil was to learn the herbs that bring health to creatures doubting of their lives, or to describe to his pupil upon his lyre the heroes of old time. On the threshold’s edge he awaited his return from hunting, and was urging the laying of the feast and brightening his abode with lavish fire: when far off the Nereis was seen climbing upward from the shore; he burst forth from the forests–joy speeds his going–and the well-known hoof-beat of the sage rang on the now unwonted plain. Then bowing down his horse’s shoulders he leads her with courtly hand within his humble dwelling and warns her of the cave. Long time has Thetis been scanning every corner with silent gaze : then, impatient of delay, she cries : ‘Tell me, Chiron, where is my darling? Why spends the boy any time apart from thee? Is it not with reason that my sleep is troubled, and terrible portents from the gods and fearful panics–would they were false!–afflict his mother’s heart? For now I behold swords that threaten to pierce my womb, now my arms are bruised with lamentation, now savage beasts assail my breasts [i.e. prophecy of the death of her son at Troy] . . . but ’tis long to recount all, and I am forbidden; give him to me rather.’ Thus spoke his mother in lying speech–nor would he have given him up, had she dared to confess to the old man the soft raiment and dishonourable garb [i.e. Thetis’ plain to disguise her son as a girl]. Then he replies : ‘Take him, I pray, O best of parents, take him, and assuage the gods with humble entreaty. For thy hopes are pitched too high, and envy needs much appeasing. I add not to thy fears, but will confess the truth: some swift and violent deed–the forebodings of a sire deceive me not–is preparing, far beyond his tender years. Formerly he was wont to endure my anger, and listen eagerly to my commands nor wander far from my cave: now Ossa cannot contain him, nor mighty Pelion and all the snows of Thessalia (Thessaly). Even the Centauri (Centaurs) often complain to me of plundered homes and herds stolen before their eyes, and that they themselves are driven from field and river; they devise violence and fraud, and utter angry threats. Once when the Thessalian pine bore hither the princes of Argo, I saw the young Alcides [Heracles] and Theseus–but I say no more.’ Cold pallor seized the daughter of Nereus: lo! he [Achilles] has come . . . He has stricken a lioness lately delivered and had left her in the empty lair, but had brought her cubs and was making them show their claws. Yet when he sees his mother on the well-known threshold, away he throws them, catches her up and binds her in his longing arms, already violent in his embrace and equal to her in height. Patroclus follows him, bound to him even then by a strong affection . . .
Straightway with rapid bound he hies him to the nearest river, and freshens in its waters his steaming face and hair . . . The old man [Chiron] marvels as he adorns him, caressing how his breast, and now his strong shoulders: her very joy pierces his mother’s heart. Then Chiron prays her to taste the banquet and the gifts of Bacchus [Dionysos], and contriving various amusements for her beguiling at last brings forth the lyre and moves the care-consoling strings, and trying the chords lightly with his finger gives them to the boy. Gladly he sings of the mighty causes of noble deeds . . . lastly [he sung] of his mother’s marriage-feast and Pelion trodden by the gods. Then Thetis relaxed her anxious countenance and smiled. Night draws them on to slumber: the huge Centaurus lays him down on a stony couch, and Achilles lovingly twines his arms about his shoulders–though his faithful parent is there–and prefers the wonted breast. But Thetis, standing by night upon the sea-echoing rocks, this way and that divides her purpose, and ponders in what hiding-place she will set her son, in what country she shall choose to conceal him . . . Then in her own arms she carries Achilles [to the island of Skyros], his body utterly relaxed in the boy’s slumber, from the rocks of the Haemonian cave down to the placid waters and the beach . . . Chiron escorts the goddess, and careless of the sea entreats her speedy return, and hides his moistened eyes and high upon his horse’s body gazes out towards them as suddenly they are whirled away, and now–and now are lost to view, where for a short while the foamy marks of their going gleam white and the wake dies away into the watery main. Him destined never more to return to Thessalian Tempe now mournful Pholoe bewails, now cloudy Othrys, and Spercheos with diminished flood and the silent grotto of the sage.”
  Statius, Achilleid 1. 478 ff : “Whom else [but Akhilleus (Achilles)] did the Centaurus [Kheiron (Chiron)] take in hand and shape his rude beginnings and tender years?”
  Statius, Achilleid 2. 96 ff : “[The young Akhilleus (Achilles) addresses Odysseus after his discovery on the island of Skyros (Scyrus) :] Even in my years of crawling infancy, when the Thessalian sage [Kheiron (Chiron)] received me on his stark mountain-side, I am said to have devoured no wonted food, nor to have sated my hunger at the nourishing breast, but to have gnawed the tough entrails of lions and the bowels of a half-slain she-wolf. That was my first bread, that the bounty of joyous Bacchus [Dionysos, i.e. wine], in such wise did that father of mine [Kheiron (Chiron)] feed me. Then he taught me to go with him through pathless deserts, dragging me on with mighty stride, and to laugh at sight of the wild beasts, nor tremble at the shattering of rocks by rushing torrents or at the silence of the lonely forest. Already at that time weapons were in my hand and quivers on my shoulders, the love of steel grew apace within me, and my skin w as hardened by much sun and frost; nor were my limbs weakened by soft couches, but I shared the hard rock with my master’s mighty frame. Scarce had my youth turned the wheel of twice six years, when already he made me outpace the swift hinds and Lapith steeds and running overtake the flung dart; often Chiron himself, while yet he was swift of foot, chased me at full gallop with headlong speed o’er the plains, and when I was exhausted by roaming over the meads he praised me joyously and hoisted me upon his back. Often too in the first freezing of the streams he would bid me go upon them with light step nor break the ice. These were my boyhood’s glories . . . Never would he suffer me to follow unwarlike does through the pathless glens of Ossa, or lay low timid lynxes with my spear, but only to drive angry bears from their resting-places, and boars with lightning thrust; or if anywhere a mighty tiger lurked or a lioness with her cubs in some secret lair upon the mountain-side, he himself, seated in his vast cave, awaited my exploits, if perchance I should return bespattered with dark blood; nor did he admit me to his embrace before he had scanned my weapons. And already I was being prepared for the armed tumults of neighbouring folk, and no fashion of savage warfare passed me by . . . Scarce could I recount all my doings, successful though they were; now he instructs me to climb and grasp the airy mountain-peak, with what stride to run upon the level, how to catch flung stones in mimic battle on my shielded arm, to pass through burning houses, and to check flying four-horse teams on foot. Spercheus, I remember, was flowing with rapid current, fed full with constant rains and melted snows and carrying on its flood boulders and living trees, when the sent me in, there where the waves rolled fiercest, and bade me stand against them and hurl back the swelling billows that he himself could scarce have borne, though he stood to face them with so many a limb. I stove to stand, but the violence of the stream and the dizzy panic of the broad spate forced me to give ground; he loomed o’er me from above and fiercely threatened, and flung taunts to shame me. Nor did I depart till he gave me word, so far did the lofty love of fame constrain me, and my toils were not too hard with such a witness. For to fling the Oebalian quoit far out of sight into the clouds, or to practise the holds of the sleek-wrestling bout, and to scatter blows with the boxing-gloves were sport and rest to me: nor laboured I more therein that when I struck with my quill the sounding strings, or told the wondrous fame of heroes of old. Also did he teach me of juices and the grasses that succour disease, what remedy will staunch to fast a flow of blood, what will lull to sleep, what will close gaping wounds; what plague should be checked with a knife, what will yield to herbs; and he implanted deep within my heart the precepts of divine justice, whereby he was wont to give revered laws to the tribes that dwell on Pelion, and tame his own twy-formed folk [the Kentauroi (Centaurs)]. So much do I remember, friends, of the training of my earliest years, and sweet is their remembrance.”
  Statius, Silvae 2. 1. 88 (trans. Mozley) (Roman poetry C1st A.D.) : “Often do alien or adopted children creep further into our hearts that our own kindred . . . Thus by his winning ways the half-beast Chiron supplanted Haemonian Peleus in young Achilles’ favour.”
  CHIRON MENTOR OF OTHER GODS & HEROES
  Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Book 4 (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 190) (trans. Pearse) (Greek mythographer C1st to C2nd A.D.) : “Dionysos was loved by Kheiron (Chiron), from whom he learned chants and dances, the bacchic rites and initiations.”
  Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Book 1 (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 190) : “He [Ptolemy Hephaestion] then pretends that the sense of the passage discussed by Euphorion [Greek grammarian C3rd B.C.] in his Hyakinthia , ‘Only Kokytos (Cocytus) washed the wounds of Adonis’, was as follows : Kokytos was the name of a pupil to whom Kheiron (Chiron) had taught medicine and who cared for Adonis when he was wounded by the wild boar.’”
  CHIRON & HIS DAUGHTER MELANIPPE
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 18 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Euripides [playwright C5th B.C.] in his Melanippe , says that Melanippe, daughter of Chiron the Centaurus (Centaur), was once called Thetis. Brought up on Mount Helicon, a girl especially fond of hunting, she was wooed by Aeolus, son of Hellen, and grandson of Jove [Zeus], and conceived a child be him. When her time drew near, she fled into the forest, so that her father, who supposed her a virgin, might not see that she had given birth to a grandchild. And so when her father was looking for her, she is said to have begged the power of the gods not to let her father see her in childbirth. After the child was born, by the will of the gods she was changed into a mare which was placed among the stars. Some say that she was a prophetess, and because she used to reveal the plans of the gods to men, she was changed into a mare. Callimachus [poet C3rd B.C.] says that because she ceased hunting and worshipping Diana [Artemis], Diana changed her into the shape we have mentioned. For the reason above, too, she is said to be out of sight of the Centaurus, sho come say is Chiron, and to show only half her body, since she didn’t want her sex to be known.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 2. 636 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “One day the Centaurus’ [Kheiron’s (Chiron’s)] daughter came, her auburn hair falling upon her shoulders, whom the Nympha Chariclo once had borne upon the bank beside a flowing river, and had named Ocyroe (Swift-Flowing). The girl was not content to know her father’s art: she prophesied fate’s dark secrets. In the mystic mood of prophecy, when hidden in her heart the heavenly fervour glowed, she fixed her eyes upon the child [Asklepios (Asclepius), then in the care of Kheiron]. ‘Grow strong, dear boy,’ she said [and prophesises his future] . . . You too, dear father [Kheiron], you, immortal now and destined by your birthright to live on through all eternity, will long to die when you are tortured by the serpent’s blood [poisoned by an arrow coated with Hydra’s blood], that agonizing poison in your wounds; and, saved from immortality, the gods shall put y ou in death’s power, and the three Goddesses ( Deae Triplices ) [Moirai, Fates] shall unloose your threads of fate.’ More prophecies remained, but then she sighed, sighed deeply, and as tears rolled down her cheeks she cried, ‘Fate forestalls me! I’m forbidden to tell you more. My power of speech is stopped. My arts–oh! never worth so much!–have brought Heaven’s wrath upon me.’ [And she was transformed into a mare by the gods.] . . . Philyreius [Kheiron (Chiron)], the centaur half-divine, invoked, weeping, the lord of Delphi [Apollon], but in vain. Apollo had no power to countermand great Jove’s [Zeus’] decrees and, had he had the power, he was not there.”
  THE DEATH OF CHIRON & THE CONSTELLATION SAGITTARIUS
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 83 – 87 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Herakles (Heracles) turned back [the Kentauroi (Centaurs) of Mount Pholoe] with a volley of fire-brands; he sent arrows after the others and chased them as far as Malea. There they took refuge with Kheiron (Chiron), who, after the Lapithai (Lapiths) had driven him from Mount Pelion, settled on Malea. Herakles let loose an arrow at the kentaroi as they huddled round Kheiron, which penetrated the arm of Elatos and landed in Kheiron’s knee. In horror Herakles ran to him, pulled out the arrow and dressed the wound with a salve that Kheiron handed him. The festering wound was incurable, however, and Kheiron moved into his cave, where he yearned for death, but could not die because he was immortal. Prometheus thereupon proposed Herakles to Zeus, to become immortal in place of Kheiron: and so Kheiron died.”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 119 : “[Herakles] released Prometheus; and he offered Zeus Kheiron (Chiron), who was willing to die in Herakles’ place.”
  Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 12. 8 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “[As Herakles was slaying the Kentauroi (Centaurs) of Mount Pholoe with his arrows :] Herakles unwittingly by a shot from his bow killed the Kentauroi Kheiron (Centaur Chiron), who was admired for his knowledge of healing.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 5. 9 – 10 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “The Anigros [river of Elis] descends from the mountain Lapithos in Arkadia (Arcadia), and right from its source its water does not smell sweet but actually stinks horribly . . . Some Greeks say that Khiron (Chiron), other that Pylenor another Kentauros (Centaur), when shot by Herakles fled wounded to this river and washed his hurt in it, and that it was the Hydra’s poison which gave the Anigros its nasty smell.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 38 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “[Consellation] Centaurus. He is said to be Chiron, son of Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)] and Philyra, who surpassed not only the other Centauri, but also men in justice, and is thought to have reared Aesculapius and Achilles. By his conscientiousness and diligence, therefore, he won inclusion among the stars. When Hercules [Heracles] was once visiting Chiron, and while sitting with him was examining his arrows, one of them is said to have fallen on the foot of Chiron, and thus brought about his death. Others say that when the Centaurus wondered at his being able to kill such huge creatures as Centauri (Centaurs) with such slight arrows, he himself tried to draw the bow, and the arrow, slipping from his hand, fell on his foot. [N.B. This myth is usually told of the centaur Pholos.] For this reason Jupiter [Zeus], pitying him, put him among the constellations with a victim which he seems to hold above the altar for sacrifice. Others have sais that he is Pholus the Centaurus (Centaur), who was more skilled in augury that the rest. Consequently, by the will of Jove [Zeus], he was represented coming to the altar with a victim.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 2. 649 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “[Kheiron (Chiron)], you, immortal now and destined by your birthright to live on through all eternity, will long to die when you are tortured by the serpent’s blood [i.e. poisoned by an arrow coated with Hydra’s blood], that agonizing poison in your wounds; and, saved from immortality, the gods shall put you in death’s power, and the three Goddesses [Moirai, Fates] shall unloose your threads of fate.”
  Ovid, Fasti 5. 379 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Chiron displays his stars, that hybrid man mixed with a tawny horse. Mount Pelion of Haemonia faces south; the summit greens with pines, the rest with oak. Philyra’s son claimed it. There’s cave of ancient rock, where, they record, the good old man resided. He is believed to have detained in lyric song the hands [Akhilleus (Achilles)] destined to send Hector to death. Alcides [Heracles] arrived with his labours partly complete; little but the final tasks remained. You would have seen by chance the two death-fates of Troy, the Aecides boy [Achilles] and Jupiter’s son [Heracles]. Philyra’s hero welcomes the young man warmly, and asks the cause of his coming. He’s told. He gazes at the club and lion spoils, and says : ‘The man deserves the arms, the arms the man.’ Achilles’ hands could not resist the brazen impulse to touch the shaggy skin and its bristles. While the old man fingers the foul, poisoned shafts, an arrow slips out and stabs his left foot. Chiron groaned and hauled the iron from his flesh; Alcides [Heracles] groans and Haemonia’s boy. Chiron blends picked herbs from the Pagasean hills, and soothes the wound with different treatments. The corrupting poison swamped the treatments; disease penetrated bones and body. The blood of Lerna’s Hydra and he Centaur’s blood mingled, and gave no time for rescue. Achilles stood tar-soaked, as if before his sire: the dying Peleus would be mourned like this. His loving hands often stroked Chiron’s frail hands (rewarding the teacher with values learnt). He kissed him often, and said to him where he lay : ‘Live, I beg you; don’t leave me, dear father!’ The ninth day arrived, when you, righteous Chiron, encircled yourself with twice seven stars [i.e. took on the form of the constellation Centaurus or Saggitarius].”
  CHIRON POETIC MISCELLANY
  Homer’s Epigrams 14 (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “[A curse :] Let Kheiron (Chiron) also come and bring many Kentauroi (Centaurs) [i.e. to cause harm].”
  Seneca, Hercules Furens 970 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) : “[The Aloadai giants pile three Thessalian mountains, home of the Kentauroi (Centaurs), upon the other to reach heaven :] I’ll snatch up ridges full of Centauri (Centaurs). Now with twin mountains I’ll construct a pathway to the realms above; Chiron shall see his own Pelion ‘neath Ossa, and Olympus.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 77 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “[During the War of the Giants :] [The Giant] Peloreus took up [Mount] Pelion with hightowering peak as a missile in his innumberable arms, and left the cave Philyre bare: as the rocky roof of his cave was pulled off, old Kheiron (Chiron) quivered and shook, that figure of half a man growing into a comrade horse.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 14. 49 ff : “[Rheia summoned rustic gods to join the army of Dionysos in his war against the Indians :] After them came also the gentle tribe of twiform Kentauroi (Centaurs). Beside Pholos in horse’s form was Kheiron (Chiron), himself of that strange nature, untamed, with mouth unbridled.”
 
  ANCIENT GREEK & ROMAN ART
 
 
 
 
  K15.1 Chiron & Wedding of Peleus
  Athenian Black Figure Vase Painting C6th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K15.4 Chiron & Nereid Nymph
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K15.3 Chiron & Achilles
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C6th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K15.5 Chiron, Peleus, Achilles
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  P12.1 Chiron, Peleus, Thetis
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  F15.1 Chiron & Achilles
  Greco-Roman Herculaneum Fresco C1st A.D.
 
 
 
 

  SOURCES
  GRIEGO
  Homer, The Iliad – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Fragments – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  The Homeric Hymns – Greek Epic C8th – 4th B.C.
  Epic Cycle, Titanomachia Fragments – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Epic Cycle, The Cypria Fragments – Greek Epic C7th – 6th B.C.
  Pindar, Odes – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric I Alcaeus, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Euripides, Fragments – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Plato, Hippias Minor – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Plato, Republic – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Apollodorus, The Library – Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Apollonius Rhodius, The Argonautica – Greek Epic C3rd B.C.
  Callimachus, Hymns – Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  Lycophron, Alexandra – Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History – Greek History C1st B.C.
  Pausanias, Description of Greece – Greek Travelogue C2nd A.D.
  Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses – Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Aelian, On Animals – Greek Natural History C2nd – 3rd A.D.
  Aelian, Historical Miscellany – Greek Rhetoric C2nd – 3rd A.D.
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines – Greek Rhetoric C3rd A.D.
  Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History – Greek Mythography C1st – 2nd A.D.
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy – Greek Epic C4th A.D.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca – Greek Epic C5th A.D.
  Colluthus, The Rape of Helen – Greek Epic C5th – 6th A.D.
  ROMAN
  Hyginus, Fabulae – Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Hyginus, Astronomica – Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Ovid, Metamorphoses – Latin Epic C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Ovid, Fasti – Latin Poetry C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Virgil, Georgics – Latin Bucolic C1st B.C.
  Propertius, Elegies – Latin Elegy C1st B.C.
  Pliny the Elder, Natural History – Latin Encyclopedia C1st A.D.
  Seneca, Hercules Furens – Latin Tragedy C1st A.D.
  Seneca, Troades – Latin Tragedy C1st A.D.
  Valerius Flaccus, The Argonautica – Latin Epic C1st A.D.
  Statius, Achilleid – Latin Epic C1st A.D.
  Statius, Silvae – Latin Poetry C1st A.D.
  OTHER SOURCES
  Other references not currently quoted here: Argonautica Orphica 452, Eustathius on Homer’s Iliad 281, Scholiast on Pindar’s Pythian 4.181.

  BIBLIOGRAFÍA
  A complete bibliography of the translations quoted on this page.