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LETO

25/01/2020

Mitología griega >> Dioses griegos >> Titanes >> Leto
 

 
  Traducción

  Gentil, recatada ( lêthô )
 
 

 
  Apolo, Tityus y Leto, placa de figura roja ateniense C5th BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen LETO fue una de las Titanides (titanes femeninos), una novia de Zeus, y la madre de los dioses gemelos Apollon y Artemis. Ella era la diosa de la maternidad y, con sus hijos, una protectora de los jóvenes. Su nombre e iconografía sugieren que ella también era una diosa de la modestia y la recatada femenina. Al igual que su hermana Asteria , también puede haber sido una diosa de la noche o, alternativamente, de la luz del día.
  Cuando Leto era pregant con los gemelos, fue perseguida implacablemente por la diosa Hera , quien la condujo de tierra en tierra evitando que encontrara un lugar para descansar y dar a luz. La isla flotante de Delos finalmente le proporcionó refugio.
Más tarde, cuando viajaba a Delphoi (Delphi), el gigante Tityos (Tityus) intentó secuestrarla, pero Apollon intervino y lo mató con flechas.
  En la pintura griega en un jarrón, Leto generalmente se representaba como una mujer que levantaba su velo en un gesto de modestia. Por lo general, se la representaba acompañada de sus dos hijos. El significado exacto de su nombre es oscuro, algunos comentaristas lo relacionan con la palabra lethô , para moverse invisible, sugerente de modestia, otros lo derivan de la palabra licia para mujer, lada .
  FAMILIA DE LETO
  PADRES
  [1.1] KOIOS y PHOIBE (Hesiod Theogony 404, Apollodorus 1.9, Diodorus Siculus 5.67.1, Hyginus Preface) [1.2] KOIOS (Himno homérico III a Apollon 61, Canción procesional de Pindar en Delos, Sappho Frag 44A, Himno de Callimachus a Delos, Himno Orphic 35, Metamorfosis Ovidio 6.186, Hyginus Fabulae 140) [194590365 [194590365] [194590365] ] [1.3] PHOIBE (Aeschylus Eumenides 6 y 323)
  DESPLAZAMIENTO
  [1.1] APOLLON , ARTEMIS (por Zeus ) (Hesiod Theogony 918, Hesiod Works & Days 770, Homer Iliad 1.9 y 21.495 , Homer Odyssey 6.100 y 11.318, Himno homérico 27 ​​a Artemis, Pindar Nemean Ode 6 y 8, Canción procesional de Pindar en Delos, Aeschylus Eumenides 6 y 323, Himno órfico 35, Himno de Callimachus a Artemis y Himno a Delos, Apollodorus 1.21 y 3.46, Pausanias 8.9.1 y 8.53.1. Hyginus Fabulae 9 y 140, et al)
  ENCICLOPEDIA
  LETO (Lêtô), en latín LATONA, según Hesíodo ( Theog. 406, 921), una hija del Titán Coeus y Phoebe, una hermana de Asteria, y la madre de Apolo y Artemisa por Zeus, con quien se casó antes que Hera. Homero, quien también la llama la madre de Apolo y Artemisa por Zeus ( Il. i. 9, xiv. 327, xxi. 499, Od. xi. 318, 580), la menciona como amiga de los troyanos en la guerra con los griegos y en la historia de ‘Niobe, que pagó tan caro su conducta hacia Leto. ( Il. v. 447, xx. 40, 72, xxiv. 607; comp. Xxi. 502, Od. xi. 580, Himno en Apoll. [ 19459015] 45, & c., 89, & c.) En escritores posteriores, estos elementos de su historia se elaboran y embellecen de diversas maneras, ya que no la describen como la esposa legal de Zeus, sino simplemente como una concubina, que fue perseguida durante Su embarazo por Hera. (Apolod. I. 4, § 1; Callim. Himno en Del. 61, & c .; Schol. ad Eurip. Phoen. 232, & c .; Hygin. [19459014 ] Fab. 140.) Todo el mundo temiendo recibirla a causa de Hera, deambuló hasta que llegó a la isla de Delos, que entonces era una isla flotante, y llevaba el nombre de Asteria (Callim. [ 19459014] Himno en Dian. 35, 37, 191); pero cuando Leto lo tocó, de repente se detuvo sobre cuatro pilares. (Pind. Fragm. 38; Strab. Xi. P. 485.) Según Hyginus ( Fab. 93,140), Delos anteriormente se llamaba Ortigia, mientras que Stephanus Byzantinus ( sv Korissos) menciona una tradición, según la cual Artemisa no nació en Delos, sino en Corissus. Servio ( ad Aen. iii. 72) relata las siguientes leyendas: Zeus convirtió a Leto en una codorniz (ortux), y en este estado llegó a la isla flotante, que se llamaba Ortigia; o, Zeus estaba enamorado de Asteria, pero ella se estaba transformando, a través de sus oraciones, en un pájaro, voló a través del mar; Luego fue transformada en una roca que, durante mucho tiempo, yacía bajo la superficie del mar; pero, a pedido de Leto, se levantó y recibió a Leto, quien fue perseguido por Python. Leto luego dio a luz a Apolo, quien mató a Python. (Comp. Anton. Lib. 35; Ov. Met. vi. 370; Aristot. Hist. Anim. vi. 35; Athen. Xv. 701; Apollon. Rhod. Ii . 707; Iamblich. Vit. Pyth. 10; Strab. Xiv. P. 639: en cada uno de estos pasajes encontramos la tradición modificada de una manera particular.) Pero a pesar de las muchas discrepancias, especialmente en lo que respecta a En el lugar donde Leto dio a luz a sus hijos, la mayoría de las tradiciones coinciden en describir a Delos como el lugar. (Callim. Himno. En Apoll. init. 59, en Del. 206, 261; Aeschyl. Eum. 9; Herodes. Ii. 170.) Después del nacimiento de Apolo, su madre no pudo amamantarlo, Themis le dio néctar y ambrosía; y por su nacimiento, la isla de Delos se volvió sagrada, de modo que en adelante no era legal que ningún ser humano naciera o muriera en la isla; y todas las mujeres embarazadas fueron transportadas a la isla vecina de Rheneia, para no contaminar a Delos. (Strab. X. P. 486.)
  Pasaremos por alto las diversas especulaciones de los escritores modernos que respetan el origen y la naturaleza de esta divinidad, y mencionaremos solo lo más probable, según el cual Leto es “lo oscuro” u “oculto”, no como un poder físico, pero como divinidad aún inactiva e invisible, de quien se emite la divinidad visible con todo su esplendor y brillantez. Este punto de vista está respaldado por el relato de su genealogía dada por Hesíodo; y toda su leyenda parece indicar nada más que la salida de la oscuridad a la luz, y un retorno de lo último a lo primero. Leto generalmente era adorado solo junto con sus hijos, como en Megara (Paus. I. 44. § 2), en Argos (ii. 21. § 10), en Amphigeneia (Strab. Viii. P. 349), en Licia. (ibid. xiv. p. 665), cerca de Lete en Macedonia (Steph. Byz. sv Lêtê), en un bosque cerca de Calynda en Caria (Strab. xiv. p. 651), y otros lugares.
  Fuente: Diccionario de biografía y mitología griega y romana.
  CITAS DE LITERATURA CLÁSICA
  PADRE DE LETO
 
  Leto, Apolo y Artemisa, ánfora ateniense de figura roja C6 aC, Museo Británico Hesiod, Theogony 404 ff (trad. Evelyn-White) ( Épica griega C8th o 7th BC): “[Titanis] Phoibe (Phoebe) llegó al abrazo deseado de [el Titán] Koios (Coeus). Entonces la diosa a través del amor del dios concibió y dio a luz Leto, de tez oscura, siempre amable, amable con los hombres y con los dioses inmortales, amable desde el principio, más gentil en todos los Olympos. También tuvo a Asteria de nombre feliz, a quien Perses una vez condujo a su gran casa para llamarla su querida esposa. Y ella concibió y descubrió a Hekate (Hécate) “.
  Píndaro, Canción procesional en Delos (trad. Sandys) (letra griega C5th B.C.): “Leto, la hija de Koios (Coeus)”.
  Esquilo, Eumenides 6 y 323 y siguientes (trad. Weir Smyth) (tragedia griega C5th BC): “Phoibe (Phoebe) … le dio [el oráculo de Delphoi (Delphi) ] como regalo de cumpleaños para [su nieto] Phoibos (Phoebus) [Apollon], que lleva su nombre de Phoibe … Loxias [Apollon] es el portavoz de Zeus, su padre … El hijo de Leto (Latous) [Apollon] “.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 8 – 9 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Los Titanes (TItanes) tuvieron hijos … Los hijos de Koios ( Coeus) y Phoibe (Phoebe) fueron Asteria y Leto “.
  Diodorus Siculus, Biblioteca de Historia 5. 67. 1 (trad. Oldfather) (historiador griego C1st BC): “De Koios (Coeus) y Phoibe (Phoebe) nació Leto. ”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Prefacio (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “De Polus [Koios (Coeus)] y Phoebe [nacieron]: Latone (Latona) [ Leto], Asterie “.
  Ovidio, Metamorfosis 6. 185 ff (trad. Melville) (epopeya romana C1st BC a C1st AD): “Ese Titanis Latona [Leto], a quien Coeus engendró, sea quien sea “.
  LETO Y EL NACIMIENTO DE APOLO Y ARTEMIS
  Homero, Ilíada 1. 9 y sigs (trans. Lattimore) (griego épico C8th B.C.): “Zeus ‘hijo y Leto’s, Apollon”.
  Homero, Ilíada 14. 327 y siguientes: “[Zeus se dirige a Hera, relatando sus más grandes amores:]” amé … glorioso Leto “.
  Homer, Odyssey 11. 318 y siguientes (traducción Shewring) (griego épico C8th B.C.): “El dios [Apollon] que Zeus engendró y Leto aburrido de pelo encantador”.
  Hesíodo, Teogonía 918 y sigs. (Traducción Evelyn-White) (épica griega C8th o 7th BC): “Y Leto se unió en el amor con Zeus, quien tiene la égida, y descubrió a Apollon y Artemis deleitándose en flechas, niños encantadores sobre todo los hijos del cielo “.
  Hesíodo, Obras y días 770 y siguientes: “Para empezar, el primero, el cuarto y el séptimo [días del mes] – en el que Leto descubrió a Apollon con la hoja de oro, cada uno es un día sagrado “.
  Himno homérico 3 a Delian Apollon 2 – 148 (trad. Evelyn-White) (épica griega C7th a 4th BC): “Mientras él [Apollon] atraviesa la casa de Zeus, los dioses tiemblan ante él, y todos se levantan de sus asientos cuando él se acerca, mientras dobla su arco brillante. Pero Leto solo se queda al lado de Zeus que se deleita en los truenos; y luego ella le quita el arco y cierra su carcaj , y toma su tiro con arco de sus fuertes hombros en sus manos y los cuelga en una clavija dorada contra un pollar de la casa de su padre. Luego lo lleva a un asiento y lo hace sentarse: y el Padre le da nektar en una copa dorada de bienvenida su querido hijo, mientras que otros dioses lo hacen sentarse allí, y la reina Leto se regocija porque ella dio a luz un poderoso hijo y un arquero. Alégrate, bendito Leto, por tener hijos gloriosos, el señor Apollon y Artemis que se deleita en flechas; ella en Ortigia y él en el rocoso Delos, mientras descansabas contra la gran masa del Kynthion (Cynthian) colina dura por una palmera por los arroyos de Inopos (Inopus). ¿Debo cantar cómo en el primer Leto te descubriste [Apollon] para ser la alegría de los hombres, mientras descansaba contra el Monte Kynthos (Cynthus) en esa isla rocosa, en Delos ceñido al mar, mientras que en cualquier lado una oscura una ola rodada hacia tierra impulsada por vientos estridentes: ¿de dónde surge que gobiernas sobre todos los hombres mortales? Entre los que están en Krete (Creta), y en el municipio de Atenas, y en la isla de Aigina (Aegina) y Euboia (Euboea), famosa por los barcos, en Aigai (Aegae) y Peiresiai (Piresiae) y Peparethos cerca del mar, en Threikios [Tracia] Athos y las alturas altísimas de Pelion y Threikios (tracia) Samos y las sombrías colinas de Ida, en Skyros (Scyrus) y Phokaia (Phocaea) y la alta colina de Autokane (Autocane) e Imbros y bellas Lemnos humeantes y ricos Lesbos, hogar de Makaros (Makareus), el hijo de Aiolos (Aeolus) y Khios (Chios), la más brillante de todas las islas que se encuentran en el mar, y Mimas escarpadas y las alturas de Korykos (Corycus) y reluciente Klaros (Claros) y la colina escarpada de Aisagia (Aesagia) y regado Samos y las empinadas alturas de Mykale (Mycale), en Miletos (Mileto) y Kos (Cos), la ciudad de los hombres de Meropian, y los empinados Knidos (Cnidus) y ventoso Karpathos (Carpathus), en Naxos y Paros y Rhenaia rocosa – hasta ahora vagó Leto en tribulación con el dios que dispara lejos , para ver si alguna tierra estaría dispuesta a hacer una vivienda para su hijo. Pero temblaron y temieron mucho, y ninguno, ni siquiera el más rico de ellos, se atrevió a recibir a Phoibos (Phoebus) [Apollon], hasta que la reina Leto pisó a Delos y pronunció palabras aladas y le preguntó: ‘Delos, si estarías dispuesto ser la morada de mi hijo Phoibos Apollon y convertirlo en un rico templo–; porque nadie más te responderá, como encontrarás: y creo que serás rico en bueyes y ovejas, ni tendrás cosecha ni producirás plantas abundantemente. Pero si tienes el templo de Apollon, que dispara lejos, todos los hombres te traerán hecatombas y se reunirán aquí, y siempre surgirá el incesante sabor del rico sacrificio, y alimentarás a los que moran en ti de la mano de los extraños; porque verdaderamente tu propio suelo no es rico “. Así que habló Leto. Y Delos se regocijó y respondió y dijo: ‘Leto, la más gloriosa hija del gran Koios (Coeus), alegremente recibiría a tu hijo, el señor lejano; porque es demasiado cierto que se me habla mal de los hombres, mientras que así debería ser muy honrado. Pero dice que temo, y no te lo voy a ocultar, Leto. Dicen que Apollon será muy altivo y lo dominará enormemente entre los dioses y los hombres de toda la tierra fructífera. Por lo tanto, temo mucho de corazón y espíritu que tan pronto como vea la luz del sol, despreciará esta isla, porque realmente no tengo más que un suelo duro y rocoso, y me volcará y me empujará con sus pies en las profundidades del mar; entonces el gran océano se lavará por encima de mi cabeza para siempre, y él irá a otra tierra que lo complazca, allí para hacer su templo y arboledas boscosas. Entonces, las criaturas del mar de muchos pies harán guaridas en mí y las focas negras su morada sin molestias, porque me falta gente. Sin embargo, si te atreves a jurar un gran juramento, diosa ( thea ), que aquí primero construirá un templo glorioso para ser un oráculo para los hombres, luego déjalo luego hacer templos y bosques arbolados entre todos hombres; seguramente será muy reconocido “. Así lo dijo Delos. Y Leto advirtió el gran juramento de los dioses: ‘Ahora escucha esto, Gaia (Gea, Tierra) y los amplios Ouranos (Urano, Cielo) arriba, y soltando agua de Styx, este es el juramento más fuerte y horrible de los dioses benditos, seguramente Phoibos tendrá aquí su fragante altar y recinto, y usted lo honrará por encima de todo “. Ahora, cuando Leto había jurado y terminado su juramento, Delos estaba muy contento con el nacimiento del lejano señor, pero Leto estaba acumuló nueve días y nueve noches con dolores más allá de lo normal. Y estaban con ella todas las diosas más importantes, Dione y Rheia e Ikhnaia (Ichnaea) y Themis y Anfitrite y las otras diosas inmortales, salvo la Hemo, armada de blanco, que estaba sentada en los pasillos de Zeus. Solo Eileithyia, la diosa de los dolores de parto, no había oído hablar de los problemas de Leto, ya que estaba sentada en la cima de Olympos (Olimpo) bajo nubes doradas por el ingenioso Hera armado de blanco, que la mantenía cerca de la envidia, porque Leto con las hermosas trenzas estaba Pronto tendrá un hijo impecable y fuerte. Pero las diosas enviaron a Iris desde la isla bien establecida para traer a Eileithyia, prometiéndole un gran collar con hilos de oro, de nueve codos de largo. Y le pidieron a Iris que la llamara a un lado de Hera, armada de blanco, para que luego no la dejara venir con sus palabras. Cuando Iris, veloz y veloz como el viento, oyó todo esto, se puso a correr; y rápidamente terminando toda la distancia, llegó a la casa de los dioses, pura Olympos, e inmediatamente llamó a Eileithyia desde el pasillo hasta la puerta y le pronunció palabras aladas, diciéndole todo como las diosas que habitan en Olympos la habían ordenado. Entonces ella movió el corazón de Eileithyia en su querido pecho; y siguieron su camino, como por qué las palomas salvajes en su camino. Y tan pronto como Eileithyia, la diosa de los dolores de parto, pisó a Delos, los dolores de parto se apoderaron de Leto, y ella anhelaba dar a luz; así que rodeó una palmera con los brazos y se arrodilló en el prado suave mientras la tierra [de Delos] se reía de alegría debajo. Entonces la niña saltó hacia la luz, y todas las diosas lanzaron un grito. Directamente, gran Phoibos, las diosas te lavaron pura y limpiamente con agua dulce y te envolvieron en una prenda blanca de textura fina, recién tejida, y te ataron una banda dorada. Ahora Leto no le dio a Apolo, portador de la espada dorada, su pecho; pero Themis vertió debidamente nektar y ambrosía con sus manos divinas; y Leto se alegró porque había tenido un hijo fuerte y un arquero. Pero tan pronto como probaste esa divina comida celestial, oh Phoibos, ya no podías ser sostenido por cuerdas de oro ni confinado con bandas, pero todos sus extremos estaban deshechos. Inmediatamente, Phoibos Apollon habló entre las diosas inmortales: “La lira y el arco curvo siempre me serán queridos, y declararé a los hombres la voluntad infalible de Zeus”. Así lo dijo Phoibos, el dios de pelo largo que dispara a lo lejos y comienza a caminar sobre la tierra de ancho camino; y todas las diosas estaban asombradas de él. Luego, con oro, todo Delos estaba cargado, contemplando al hijo de Zeus y Leto, de alegría porque el dios la eligió por encima de las islas y la costa para hacer su morada en ella: y ella lo amaba aún más en su corazón floreció como lo hace una montaña. parte superior con flores del bosque “.
 
  Leto y Apolo, Hydria de figura roja ateniense C5th BC, Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Florencia Himno homérico 3 a Delian Apollo 177 ff: “Apollon, dios del arco plateado, a quien Leto de pelo rico desnudo “.
  Himno homérico 3 al Pythian Apollo 183 y siguientes: “El hijo glorioso de Leto [Apollon]”.
  Himno homérico 27 ​​a Artemisa 14 y siguientes: “Los niños desnudos de Leto con el tobillo limpio [Apolón y Artemisa] supremos entre los inmortales, tanto en pensamiento como en acción”.
  Theognis, Fragmento 1. 5 (trad. Gerber, Vol. Griego Elegiac) (elegía griega C6th a. C.): “Lord Phoibos (Phoebus) [Apollon], cuando la augusta diosa Leto te dio a luz, la más bella de los inmortales, mientras apretaba la palmera con sus delgados brazos al lado del lago circular, todo Delos estaba lleno de un extremo a otro con un aroma ambrosial, la vasta tierra radiante y la profunda extensión de la el mar de capa blanca se regocijó “.
  Pindar, Nemean Ode 6. 36 ss (trad. Conway) (letra griega C5th B.C.): “Los hijos de Leto, diosa del huso de oro”.
  Píndaro, Canción procesional en Delos (trad. Sandys) (letra griega C5th BC): “Salve. Oh isla construida por el cielo [de Delos], el más hermoso vástago de los hijos de Leto de cabello brillante, oh hija del mar, maravilla inmóvil de la tierra espaciosa, por hombres mortales llamados Delos, pero por los dioses benditos de Olympos (Olympus) conocidos como la estrella vista ( astra ) de la tierra azul oscuro …
Durante mucho tiempo, esa isla fue arrojada sobre las olas por todo tipo de vientos giratorios; pero, cuando Leto, la hija de Koios (Coeus), en el frenesí de sus inminentes dolores de parto, la pisó, fue que cuatro pilares elevados surgieron de las raíces de la tierra, y en sus capiteles levantaron la roca. con sus bases adamantinas. Allí fue que ella dio a luz y contempló a su bendita descendencia ”
  Pindar, Dirges Fragment 139: “Los hijos de Leto de la rueca dorada”.
  Safo, Fragmento 44A (trad. Campbell, Vol. Griego Lírica I) (C6a a. C.): “Phoibos de pelo dorado (Febo) [Apolo], quien es la hija de Koios ( Coeus) [Leto] aburrido, acostado con el hijo de Kronos (Cronus) [Zeus], ​​dios de las nubes altas “.
  Bacchylides, Fragment 11 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th B.C.): “Hijo nacido de Delos de Leto de cintura delgada”.
  Griego Lyric V Scholia, Fragment 886 (trad. Campbell) (BC): “En Delos Leto tuvo hijos una vez, Phoibos (Phoebus) de pelo dorado, señor Apollon y el venado -la cazadora Artemis, que tiene un gran poder sobre las mujeres “.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 21 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “De las hijas de Koios (Coeus), Asteria en forma de una codorniz arrojó a sí misma en el mar mientras huía de una unión sexual con Zeus. polis originalmente se llamaba Asteria después de ella: más tarde se convirtió en Delos. La otra hija Leto tuvo relaciones con Zeus, por lo que fue perseguida por Hera all sobre la tierra. Finalmente llegó a Delos y dio a luz a Artemisa, quien inmediatamente la ayudó a liberar a Apollon “.
  Callimachus, Himno 3 a Artemis 22 ff (trad. Mair) (poeta griego C3rd BC): “Yo [Artemis] visitaré cuando las mujeres molestas por los agudos dolores del parto me llamen en su ayuda, incluso en la hora en que nací, los Moirai (Moirae, Fates) ordenaron que yo fuera su ayudante, ya que mi madre no sufrió dolor ni cuando me dio a luz ni cuando me llevó en su vientre, pero sin trabajo me sacó de su cuerpo “.
  Callimachus, Himno 3 a Artemisa 73 y siguientes: “Pero tú, Doncella [Artemisa], incluso antes, cuando todavía tenías tres años, cuando Leto vino llevándote en brazos al Al pedirle a Hefesto (Hefesto) que te diera las manos [es decir, los obsequios dados al ver a un niño recién nacido por primera vez] y Brontes [el Kyklops (Cíclope)] te puso de rodillas fuertes “.
  Callimachus, Himno 4 a Delos 51 y siguientes: “Pero cuando tú [la isla de Asteria o Delos] obtuviste tierra para ser el lugar de nacimiento de Apolón, los marinos te dieron este nombre en intercambio, ya que no flotaste obscuro ( adelos ) sobre el agua, sino en medio de las olas del Mar de Aigaion (Egeo) plantaste las raíces de tus pies. Y no temblaste antes la ira de Hera, que murmuró terrible contra todas las mujeres en edad fértil que le dieron hijos a Zeus, pero especialmente contra Leto, ya que ella solo debía tener a Zeus un hijo más querido que Ares. Por lo tanto, ella misma vigilaba en el cielo , enojada en su corazón mucho y más allá de decirlo, e impidió que Leto, que estaba atrapado en los dolores del parto. Y tuviera dos vigías para vigilar la tierra. El espacio de los continentes hizo ver a Ares audaz, sentada armado en la cima alta de Thrakian Haimos (Thracian Haemus), y sus caballos wer Se detuvo junto a la cueva de siete cámaras de Boreas (el viento del norte). Y la otra vigilaba las lejanas islas, incluso Thaumantia [Iris] sentada en Mimas, donde se había apresurado. Allí se sentaron y amenazaron a todas las ciudades a las que Leto se acercó y les impidieron recibirla. Huyó de Arkadia (Arcadia), huyó de la colina sagrada de Auge, Parthenion, huyó después de que su viejo Pheneios (Pheneus), huyó de toda la tierra de Pelops que se encuentra al lado del Istmo (Istmo), excepto solo Aigialos (Egeo) y Argos. Porque en esos aspectos ella no puso sus pies, ya que Inakhos (Inachus) pertenecía a Hera. Huyeron también, Aonia [Boiotia] en el mismo curso, y Dirke (Dirce) y Strophia, tomados de la mano de su padre, Ismenos (Ismenus) de guijarros oscuros; muy por detrás siguió a Asopos (Asopus), de rodillas pesadas, porque un rayo lo estropeó. Y la ninfa de la tierra Melia se dio la vuelta y dejó de bailar, y su mejilla palideció mientras jadeaba por su roble covaval, cuando vio temblar las cerraduras de Helikon (Helicon) [i.e. los robles de las ninfas de los árboles temblaron de miedo]. . . Y Apolón, aún en el vientre de su madre, estaba muy enojado contra ellos y pronunció contra Thebe ninguna amenaza ineficaz: ‘Thebe, ¿por qué miserable, pides la condenación que será tuya anon? Oblígame a no profetizar aún contra mi voluntad. Todavía no me importa el asiento del trípode en Pytho. . . Sin embargo, te hablaré una palabra más clara que la que se dirá desde la rama de laurel. ¡Huye! Rápidamente te alcanzaré y lavaré mi arco con sangre. Has guardado a los hijos de una mujer calumniosa [i.e. Niobe quien insultó a Leto y cuyos hijos fueron asesinados por Apollon y Artemisa]. No serás mi querida enfermera, ni Kithairon. Soy puro y puedo ser el cuidado de los que son puros “. Así que habló. Y Leto se volvió y volvió. Pero cuando las ciudades de Akhaian la rechazaron cuando ella vino, Helike, la compañera de Poseidón y Bura, el jefe de Dexamenos, el hijo de Oikeus, volvió los pies hacia Tesalia. Y Anauros (Anaurus) huyó y la gran Larisa y los acantilados de Kheiron (Quirón); Huyó también, Peneios (Peneus), enroscándose a través de Tempe. Pero tu corazón, Hera, aún era despiadado y no te rompiste ni tuviste compasión, cuando ella [Leto] extendió ambos brazos y habló en vano: ‘Ye Nymphai de Tesalidas (Ninfas de Tesalia), descendencia de un río [Peneios (Peneus)], dile a tu padre que silencie su gran corriente. Entrelaza tus manos con su barba y suplica que los hijos de Zeus nazcan en sus aguas. Phtiotian Peneios, ¿por qué ahora compites con los vientos? Oh señor, no andas a caballo. ¿Son siempre rápidos los pies, o son rápidos solo para mí, y hoy te han hecho volar repentinamente? Pero él no la oyó. Burden Oh carga mía, ¿a dónde te llevaré? Los desventurados tendones de mis pies están gastados. Oh Pelión, cámara nupcial de Philyra, quédate, oh quédate, ya que en tus colinas incluso las leonas salvajes a menudo dejan su trabajo de parto prematuro “. Luego, derramando lágrimas, Peneios le respondió:” Leto, Ananke (Necesidad ) es una gran diosa. No soy yo quien se niega, oh Señora, ellos hacen el trabajo; porque sé de otros que han lavado la tierra del nacimiento en mí, pero Hera me ha amenazado en gran medida. Mira qué tipo de vigilante vigila en la cima de la montaña, quien me arrastraría ligeramente desde las profundidades. ¿Qué debo idear? ¿O es algo agradable para ti que Peneios perezca? Deja que mi día destinado siga su curso. Soportaré por tu bien, incluso si debo vagar cada vez más con inundaciones menguantes y sedientas, y solo ser llamado de menor honor entre los ríos. ¡Aqui estoy! ¿Qué necesita más? No invoques sino a Eileithyia. ” Habló y mantuvo su gran corriente. Pero Ares estaba a punto de levantar los picos de Pangaion (Pangaeum) de su base y arrojarlos en sus aguas turbulentas y ocultar sus corrientes. Y desde lo alto hizo un estruendo de trueno y golpeó su escudo con la punta de su lanza, y sonó con un ruido guerrero. Y las colinas de Ossa temblaron y la llanura de Krannon (Crannon), y las faldas azotadas por el viento de Pindos (Pindus), y toda Tesalia (Tesalia) bailaron por miedo: un estruendo resonante resonó desde su escudo. . . Pero Peneios (Peneus) no se retiró, sino que permaneció en su terreno, firme como antes, y mantuvo sus corrientes veloces hasta que la hija de Koios (Coeus) [Leto] lo llamó: ‘¡Sálvate, adiós! Sálvate a ti mismo; no por mi causa sufras mal por esta tu compasión; tu favor será recompensado. ” Así que ella habló y después de mucho trabajo llegó a las Islas ( Nesoi ) del mar. Pero no la recibieron cuando ella vino, ni las Ekhinades (Echinades) con su anclaje suave para barcos, ni Kerkyra (Corcyra), que es de todas las otras islas más hospitalarias, ya que Iris en la alta Mimas estaba enojada con todas ellas y se lo impidió por completo. ellos. Y ante su reprensión huyeron todos juntos, todos a los que ella acudió, a lo largo de las aguas. Luego llegó al primitivo Kos (Cos), la isla de Merops, el retiro sagrado de la heroína Khalkiope (Chalciope), pero la palabra de su hijo [i.e. Apollon en el útero] la contuvo: ‘No me soportes, madre, aquí. No culpo a la isla ni tengo rencor, ya que es una isla brillante y rica en pastos como cualquier otra. Pero se le debe a ella desde el Moirai (Moirae, Fates) otro dios. . . Alabarás grandemente en todos los días por ser el que profetizó mientras aún estaba en el vientre de su madre. Pero fíjate, madre: en el agua se ve una pequeña isla que deambula por los mares. Sus pies no permanecen en un solo lugar, pero en la marea nada incluso como tallos de asphodel, donde sopla el Viento del Sur o el Viento del Este, a donde sea que la lleve el mar. Ahí me llevan miles. Porque ella dará la bienvenida a tu llegada. ” Cuando él había hablado tanto, las otras islas en el mar se escaparon. Pero tú, Asteria, amante de la canción, bajaste de Euboia (Euboea) para visitar las Kyklades (Cícladas) redondas, no hace mucho tiempo, pero aún detrás de ti seguías las algas marinas de Geraistos (Geraestus). . ((laguna)) ya que su corazón se encendió al ver a la infeliz dama en los dolores de parto: ‘Hera, hazme lo que quieras. Porque no atiendo a las amenazas. Cruza, cruza, Leto, hacia mí. ” Así hablaste, y ella dejó de alegrarse de su doloroso vagabundeo y se sentó junto a la corriente de Inopos (Inopus), que la tierra envía en la inundación más profunda en la temporada cuando el Neilos (Nilo) desciende en todo el torrente desde el empinado Aithiopian (Ethiopian). Y se soltó la faja y se recostó en los hombros contra el tronco de una palmera, oprimida por la angustia grave, y el sudor se derramó sobre su carne como la lluvia. Y ella habló en su debilidad: ‘¿Por qué, hija, pesas a tu madre? Allí, querido hijo, está tu isla flotando en el mar. Nazca, nazca, hija mía, y salga gentilmente del útero. ” Oh Esposa de Zeus, Dama de gran enojo, no ibas a estar por mucho tiempo sin noticias: tan rápido mensajero se apresuró hacia ti. Y, aún respirando con dificultad, habló, y su discurso se mezcló con miedo: ‘Honrado Hera, de las diosas más excelentes hasta ahora. . . Leto se está desabrochando el cinturón y la isla. All the others spurned her and received her not; but Asteria called her by name as she was passing by–Asteria that evil scum of the sea : thou knowest it thyself . . .’ And Hera was grievously angered and spake to her [Iris] : ‘So now, O shameful creatures of Zeus, may ye all wed in secret and bring forth in darkness, not even where the poor mill-women bring forth in difficult labour, but where the seals of the sea bring forth, amid the desolate rocks. But against Asteria am I no wise angered for this sin, nor can I do to her so unkindly as I should–for very wrongly has she done a favour to Leto. Howbeit I honour her exceedingly for that she did not desecrate my bed, but instead of Zeus preferred the sea.’ She spake: and with music the swans, the gods’ own minstrels, left Maionian Paktolos (Maeonian Pactolus) and circled seven times round Delos, and sang over the bed of child-birth, the Mousai’s (Muses’) birds, most musical of all birds that fly. Hence that child in after days strung the lyre with just so many strings–seven strings, since seven times the swans sang over the pangs of birth. No eight time sang they: ere that the child leapt forth and the Nymphai Deliades (Delian Nymphs), offspring of an ancient river, sang with far-sounding voice the holy chant of Eileithyia. And straightway the brazen sky echoed back the far-reaching chant and Hera grudged it not, because Zeus had taken away her anger. In that hour, O Delos, all thy foundations became of gold: with gold thy round lake flowed all day, and golden foliage thy natal olive-tree put forth and with gold flowed coiled Inopos in deep flood. And thou thyself [Delos] didst take up the child from the golden earth and lay him in thy lap and thou [the baby Apollon] . . . and the child drew the sweet breast.”
 
  Leto, Artemis and Apollo, Athenian red-figure volute krater C5th B.C., Museum of Fine Arts Boston Strabo, Geography 10. 5. 2 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “From olden times, beginning with the times of the heroes, Delos has been revered because of its gods, for the myth is told that there Leto was delivered of her travail by the birth of Apollon and Artemis : ‘for aforetime,’ says Pindaros (Pindar), ‘it was tossed by the billows, by the blasts of all manner of winds, but when [Leto] the daughter of Koios (Coeus) in the frenzied pangs of childbirth set foot upon it, then did four pillars, resting on adamant, rise perpendicular from the roots of the earth, and on their capitals sustain the rock. And there she gave birth to, and beheld, her blessed offspring.’”
  Strabo, Geography 14. 1. 20 : “On the same coast [i.e. near Ephesos (Ephesus) in Asia Minor], slightly above the sea, is also Ortygia, which is a magnificent grove of all kinds of trees, of the cypress most of all. It is traversed by the Kenchrios (Cenchrius) River, where Leto is said to have bathed herself after her travail. For here is the mythical scene of the birth, and of the nurse Ortygia, and of the holy place where the birth took place, and of the olive tree near by, where the goddess is said first to have taken a rest after she was relieved from her travail. Above the grove lies Mount Solmissos, where, it is said, the Kouretes (Curetes) stationed themselves, and with the din of their arms frightened Hera out of her wits when she was jealously spying on Leto, and when they helped Leto to conceal from Hera the birth of her children.”
  Strabo, Geography 10. 5. 3 : “Aratos (Aratus) [Greek poet C3rd B.C.] also points out the poverty of the island of [Gyaros] in his Katalepton ( Catalepton ) : ‘O Leto, shortly thou wilt pass by me [i.e. in her search for a place to give birth to Apollon], who am like either iron Pholegandros or worthless Gyaros.’”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 18. 5 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “[At Athens] is a temple of Eileithyia, who they say came from the Hyperboreans to Delos and helped Leto in her labour; and from Delos the name spread to other peoples.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 31. 1 : “At Zoster [in Attika (Attica)] is an altar . . . to Apollon, to Artemis and to Leto. The story is that Leto did not give birth to her children here, but loosened her girdle with a view to her delivery, and place received its name from this incident.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 53. 1 : “Apollon and Artemis, they say, throughout every land visited with punishment all the men of that time who, when Leto was with child and in the course of her wanderings, took no heed of her when she came to their land.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 11. 21 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “Xanthos’ stream, [in Lykia (Lycia)] the stream revealed to men by Leto, bride of Thunderer Zeus, when Lykia’s stony plain was by her hands uptorn mid agonies of travail-throes wherein she brought to light mid bitter pangs those babes of birth divine.”
  Aelian, On Animals 4. 4 (trans. Scholfield) (Greek natural history C2nd A.D.) : “Wolves are not easily delivered of their young, only after twelve days and twelve nights, for the people of Delos maintain that this was the length of time that it took Leto to travel from the Hyperboreoi (Hyperboreans) to Delos.”
  Aelian, Historical Miscellany 5. 4 (trans. Wilson) (Greek rhetorician C2nd to 3rd A.D.) : “Note the Delian tradition that the trees which flourish on Delos are the olive and the palm. When Leto took hold of them she immediately gave birth, which she had not been able to do before.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 53 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Though Jove [Zeus] loved Asterie (Asteria), daughter of Titan, she scorned him. Therefore she was transformed in to the bird ortyks , which we call a quail, and he cast her into the sea. From her an island sprang up, which was named Ortygia. This was floating. Later Latona [Leto] was borne there at Jove’s command by the wind Aquilo [Boreas], at the time when the Python was pursuing her, and there, clinging to an olive, she gave birth to Apollo and Diana [Artemis]. This island later was called Delos.” [N.B. Boreas probably transported Leto to Delos from Hyperborea.]
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 140 : “Python, offspring of Terra [Gaia, Earth], was a huge draco (Dragon)who, before the time of Apollo, used to give oracular responses on Mount Parnassus. Death was fated to come to him from the offspring of Latona [Leto]. At that time Jove [Zeus] lay with Latona, daughter of Polus [Koios (Coeus)]. When Juno [Hera] found this out, she decreed that Latona should give birth at a place where the sun did not shine. When Python knew that Latona was pregnant by Jove, he followed her to kill her. But by order of Jove [Zeus] the wind Aquilo [Boreas] carried Latona away, and bore her to Neptunus [Poseidon]. He protected her, but in order not to make voice Juno’s decree, he took her to the island Ortygia, and covered the island with waves. When Python did not find her, he returned to Parnassus. But Neptunus [Poseidon] brought the island of Ortygia up to a higher position; it was later called the island of Delos. There Latona, clinging to an olive tree, bore Apollo and Diana [Artemis], to whom Vulcanus [Hephaistos (Hephaestus)] gave arrows as gifts. Four days after they were born, Apollo exacted vengeance for his mother. For he went to Parnassus and slew Python with his arrows. Because of this deed he is called Pythian. He put Python’s bones in a cauldron, deposited them in his temple, and instituted funeral games for him which are called Pythian.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 185 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “That Titanis (Titaness), whom Coeus sired, whoever he may be, Latona [Leto] whom the great globe once refused the smallest spot to give her children birth. Not earth, nor sky, nor water would accept your goddess, outcast from the world, until Delos took pity on her wanderings and said, ‘You roam the land and I the sea, homeless,’ and gave her drifting refuge there. She bore two children.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 332 ff : “Her [Leto] whom once the Queen of Heaven ( Coniunx Regia ) [Hera] barred from the world, whom drifting Delos scarcely dared consent to harbour, when that island swam the sea. There, leaning on a palm, Pallas’ [Athena’s] tree, Latona [Leto] in spite of Juno [Hera] bore her twins; from there again she fled the wife of Jove [Zeus], hugging her new-born infants, both divine.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 13. 634 ff : “The city’s [Delos’] sights, the famous shrine and the two trees to which Latona [Leto] once had clung when she gave birth [to Apollon].”
  Virgil, Georgics 3. 6 ff (trans. Fairclough) (Roman bucolic C1st B.C.) : “Who [among the poets] has not told of . . . Latona’s Delos?”
  Seneca, Hercules Furens 452 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) : “But he [Apollon] did not in exile roam o’er all the world. What? He whom an exiled mother [Leto] brought forth on a roaming isle?”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 4. 166 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “Even Hera, goddess though she is and queen of the heavens, grudges Zeus his bastard wives on earth . . . she spared not even goddesses; because his mother was anry, Ares persecuted Leto with child in her birthpangs.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 8. 80 ff : “You [Hera] persecuted Apollon in the womb of his mother Leto.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 8. 135 ff : “My [Hera’s] husband [Zeus] whom Leto a goddess could not steal . . . Even the goddess did not have a smooth course for her wedding; she also, Leto herself, carried the unborn babe by many a turn and twist, while she gazed at the shifting slopes of many a floating island, and the flood of the inhospitable sea that never stood still. Hardly at last she espied the wild olive-tree which harboured her childbed. All that Leto suffered, and her mate [Zeus] could not help her.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 9. 206 ff : “Leto the divine was chased about and brought forth Apollon on the sly; Leto brought forth Phoibos (Phoebus) [Apollon].”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 27. 259 ff : “[Zeus addresses Apollon :] ‘She [Hera] always cherishes jealousy and resentment for my loves, and attacks my children. I will not remind you of your mother’s tribulation in childbirth, when Leto carried her twin burden and had to wander over the world, tormented with the pangs of childbirth; when the stream of Peneios (Peneus) fled from her, when Dirke (Dirce) refused your mother, when Asopos (Asopus) himself made off dragging his lame leg behind him–until Delos gave help to her labour, until the old palm-tree played midwife for Leto with her poor little leaves.’”
  LETO & THE LYCIAN PEASANTS
 
  Leto, Artemis, Apollo and Asteria as Delos, Athenian red-figure calyx krater C5th B.C., Regional Archaeological Museum Antonio Salinas Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 35 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Leto, after giving birth to Apollon and Artemis on the isle of Asteria, went to Lykia (Lycia), taking her children with her, to the baths of [the River] Xanthos (Xanthus). As soon as she arrived in that land, she came first upon the spring of Melite and wanted very much to bathe her children there before going on to Xanthos.
But some herdsmen drove her away so that their own cattle could drink at the spring. Leto made off and left Melite. Wolves came out to met her and, wagging their tails, led the way, guiding her to the River Xanthos.
She drank the water and bathed the babes and consecrated the Xanthos to Apollon while the land which had been called Tremilis she renamed Lykia (Wolf Land) from the wolves that had guided her.
Then she returned to the spring to inflict a penalty on the herdsmen who had driven her away. They were then still washing their cattle besides the spring. Leto changed them all into frogs whose backs and shoulders she scratched with a rough stone. Throwing them all into the spring she made them live in water. To this day they croak away by rivers and ponds.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 313 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “In Lycia’s fertile fields once, long ago, the peasants scorned Latona [Leto]–not unscathed. It’s not a thing well known–the men of course being low-born louts–but marvellous all the same. I saw with my own eyes the lake and place famed for the miracle. For my old father, too old by then, too worn to take the road, had charged me to retrieve some special steers and given me a Lycian for a guide. With him I traversed those far pasture-lands, when, standing in the middle of a mere, and black with ash of sacrifice, behold and ancient altar, ringed with waving reeds. My guide stood still and muttered anxiously ‘Be gracious to me!’ and I muttered too ‘Be gracious!’ ; then I asked him if the altar was built to Faunus [Pan] or the Naiads or some local god, and he gave this reply. ‘Not so, my lad, no Mountain-God ( Numen Montanum ) enjoys this altar; it is claimed by her [Leto] whom once the Queen of Heaven ( Coniunx Regia ) [Hera] barred from the world, whom drifting Delos scarcely dared consent to harbour, when that island swam the sea. There, leaning on a palm, Pallas’ [Athena’s] tree, Latona [Leto] in spite of Juno [Hera] bore her twins; from there again she fled the wife of Jove [Zeus], hugging her new-born infants, both divine. And now in Lycia, the Chimaera’s (Chimera’s) land, the flaming sun beat down upon the fields; the goddess, tired by her long toil, was parched with thirst, so hot heaven’s torrid star; the babes had drained their mother’s milk and cried for more. She chanced to see, down in the dale below, a mere of no great size. Some farmfolk there were gathering reeds and leafy osiers and sedge that marshes love. Reaching the edge, Titania [Leto] knelt upon the ground to drink the cooling water, knelt to drink her fill. The group of yokels stopped her. “Why?” said she, “Why keep me from the water? Everyone has right to water. Nature never made the sunshine private more the air we breathe, nor limpid water. No! A common right I’ve reached. Even so I ask, I humbly ask, please give it me. I do not mean to wash, or bathe my weary limbs, only to quench my thirst. My mouth is dry, as I am speaking, my throat is parched, words hardly find a way. A drink of water–nectar it will be, and life, believe me, too; life you will give with water. And these babies here, who stretch their little arms, must touch your hearts.” It chanced the twins stretched out their arms. Whom could those words, those gentle words the goddess spoke, not touch? Despite her pleas they stopped her, adding threats unless she went away, and insults too. And, not contents with that, they even stirred the pond with hands and feet, and on the bottom kicked the soft mud about in spiteful leaps. Her thirst gave way to anger. Of such boors she’d asked no favour now, nor speak again in tones beneath a goddess. Raising her hands to heaven, “Live in that pool of yours,” she cried, “For evermore!” And what she wished came true. They love to live in water; sometimes all their bodies plunge within the pool’s embrace; sometimes their heads pop up; often they swim upon the surface, often squat and rest upon the swampy bank and then jump back to the cool pond; but even now they flex their squalid tongues in squabbling, and beneath the water try to croak a watery curse. Their voice is harsh, their throats are puffed and swollen; their endless insults stretch their big mouths wide; their loathsome heads protrude, their necks seem lost; their backs are green; their bodies’ biggest part, their bellies, white; and in the muddy pond they leap and splash about–new-fangled frogs.’”
  LETO & THE GIANT TITYUS
 
  Apollo, Tityus, Leto and Artemis, Athenian red-figure krater C5th B.C., Musée du Louvre Homer, Odyssey 11. 580 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “I [Odysseus in Haides] saw Tityos (Tityus) also, son of the mighty goddess Gaia (Gaea, Earth); he lay on the ground, his bulk stretched out over nine roods. Two vultures, one on each side of him, sat and kept plucking at his liver, reaching down to the very bowels; he could not beat them off with his hands. And this was because he had once assaulted a mistress of Zeus himself, the far-famed Leto, as she walked towards Pytho through the lovely spaces of Panopeus.”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 23 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Tityos (Tityus) saw Leto when she came to Pytho and in a fit of passion tried to embrace her. But she called out to her children, who shot him dead with arrows. He is being punished even in death, for vultures feast on his heart in Hades’ realm.”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1. 758 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “[Amongst the scenes embroidered on the cloak of Jason crafted by Athena :] And here was Phoibos (Phoebus) Apollon, pictured as a sturdy youth shooting an arrow at the gigantic Tityos (Tityus), who was boldly dragging off his mother Leto by her veil. Tityos was lady Elare’s (Elara’s) son; but he was nursed and born by Mother Gaia (Gaea, Earth).”
  Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis 109 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) : “Artemis, Lady of Maidenhood, Slayer of Tityos (Tityus).”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 10. 11. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “The Knidians (Cnidians) brought the following images to Delphoi (Delphi) : . . . Leto, and Apollon and Artemis shooting arrows at Tityos (Tityus), who has already been wounded in the body.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 3. 390 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “As lay Tityos (Tityus), who sought to force Queen Leto, when she fared to Pytho : swiftly in his wrath Apollon shot, and laid him low, who seemed invincible : in a foul lake of gore there lay he, covering many a rood of ground, on the broad earth, his mother; and she moaned over her son, of blessed Gods abhorred; but Lady Leto laughed.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 55 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Because Latona [Leto] had lain with Jove [Zeus], Juno [Hera] ordered Tityus, a creature of immense size, to offer violence to her. When he tried to do this he was slain by the thunderbolt of Jove. He is said to lie stretched out over nine acres in the Land of the Dead, and a serpent is put near him to eat out his liver, which grows again with the new moon.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 4. 331 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “The city of Tityos (Tityus) [in Phokis (Phocis)], where that bold son of Gaia (Gaea, Earth) marching through the fair-leafy woods of Panopeus lifted the sacred robe of Leto and attempted violence.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 20. 35 ff : “In Olympos (Olympus) I shrink from Leto, still a proud braggart, when she holds up at me the arrow that defended her bed and slew Tityos (TItyus) the lustful giant.”
  For MORE information on this giant see TITYOS
  LETO & THE GIANT TYPHOEUS
  Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 28 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Typhon felt an urge to usurp the rule of Zeus and not one of the gods could withstand him as he attacked. In panic they fled to Aigyptos (Egypt), all except Athena and Zeus, who alone were left. Typhon hunted after them, on their track. When they fled they had changed themselves in anticipation into animal forms.
Apollon became a hawk [i.e. the Egyptian god Horus] … Artemis a cat [i.e. the Egyptian Neith or Bastet] . . . and Leto a shrew mouse [i.e. the Egyptian Wadjet].”
  For MORE information on this giant see TYPHOEUS
  LETO COMPANION OF ARTEMIS & APOLLO
  Homer, Odyssey 6. 100 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “Artemis the huntress ranges the mountain-side–on lofty Taygetos (Taygetus), it may be, or it may be on Erymanthos–taking her pleasure among the boars and the running deer; country Nymphai (Nymphs), maidens of Zeus who holds the aigis, are all around her and share her pastime; Leto her mother is glad at heart.”
  Homeric Hymn 3 to Pythian Apollo 186 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th to 4th B.C.) : “Gold-tressed Leto and wise Zeus, rejoice in their great hearts as they watch their dear son playing among the undying gods.”
  Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae 114 (trans. O’Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C.) : “Praise Artemis too, the maiden huntress, who wanders on the mountains and through the woods . . . celebrate the everlasting happiness of the chaste Artemis, the mighty daughter of Leto! . . . and Leto and the tones of the Asiatic lyre, which wed so well with the dances of the Phrygian Kharites (Charites, Graces) . . . I do honor to the divine Leto and to the lyre, the mother of songs of male and noble strains. The eyes of the goddess sparkle while listening to our enthusiastic chants. Honor to the powerful Phoebus! Hail! blessed son of Leto.”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 707 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “‘Be gracious to us, King [Apollon],’ he [Orpheus] sang, ‘and may thy tresses for ever be unshorn, intact for ever! That is their due, the locks that only Leto strokes with her fond hands.’”
  Statius, Achilleid 1. 344 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “When [Artemis] returns wearied to her sire [Zeus] and brother [Apollon] from Therapnae, haunt of maidens, her mother [Leto] bears her company as she goes, and with her own hand covers her shoulders and bared arms, herself arranges the bow and quiver, and pulls down the girt-up robe, and is proud to trim the disordered tresses.”
  LETO, ARTEMIS & THE GIANT ORION
  Hesiod, Astronomy Frag 4 (from Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Catastasthenes 32) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) : “Orion went away to Krete (Crete) and spent his time hunting in company with Artemis and Leto. It seems that he threatened to kill every beast there was on earth, whereupon, in her anger, Ge (Gaea, Earth) sent up against him a scorpion of very great size by which he was stung and so perished. After this Zeus, at the prayer of Artemis and Leto, put him among the stars.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 26 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “[Constellation] Scorpio . . . Orion since he used to hunt, and felt confident that he was most skilled of all in that pursuit, said even to Diana [Artemis] and Latona [Leto] that he was able to kill anything the produced. Terra (Earth) [Gaia], angered at this, sent the scorpion which is said to have killed him. Jove [Zeus], however, admiring the courage of both, put the scorpion among the stars . . . Diana, then, because of her affection for Orion, asked Jove to show to her request the same favour.”
  Ovid, Fasti 5. 539 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Tellus (Earth) [Gaia] unleashed a scorpion. Its urge was to stab the goddess of twins with its hooked stingers. Orion blocked it [and died]. Latona [Leto] joined him to the bright stars, and said, ‘Receive your reward for service.’”
  LETO, APOLLO & THE SLAYING OF THE CYCLOPES
  Hesiod, Catalogues of Women & Eoiae Fragment 92 (from Philodemus, On Piety 34) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) : “But Hesiod (says that Apollon) would have been cast by Zeus into Tartaros (Tartarus) [for killing the Kyklopes (Cyclopes)] : but Leto interceded for him, and he became bondman to a mortal.”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 118 – 122 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “[Zeus slew Apollon’s son Asklepios (Asclepius) with a thunderbolt :] This angered Apollon, who slew the Kyklopes (Cyclopes), for they designed the thunderbolt for Zeus. Zeus was about to throw Apollon into Tartaros (Tartarus), but at the request of Leto he ordered him instead to be some man’s servant for a year.”
  LETO & THE PUNISHMENT OF NIOBE
 
  Apollo, Tityus and Leto, Athenian red-figure krater C5th B.C., Musée du Louvre Homer, Iliad 24. 602 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “[Niobe] whose twelve children were destroyed in her palace, six daughters, and six sons in the pride of their youth, whom Apollon killed with arrows from his silver bow, being angered with Niobe, and shaft-showering Artemis killed the daughters; because Niobe likened herself to Leto of the fair colouring and said Leto had borne only two, and herself had borne many; but the two, though they were only two, destroyed all those others.”
  Aeschylus, Niobe (lost play) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) : This lost drama described the story of Niobe whose fourteen children were slaughtered by the gods Apollon and Artemis to punish her for boasts which had insulted their mother Leto. According to Weir Smyth (L.C.L.) : “The place and progress of the action of this famous drama cannot be determined with any certainty. Sources other than the text inform us that Aeschylus gave Niobe fourteen children, a number adopted by Euripides and Aristophanes.”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 46 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Wither her fine brood [of children] Niobe claimed to be more blest with children than Leto. Leto was annoyed by this, and urged Artemis and Apollon against Niobe’s children. Artemis killed all the females in the house with her arrows, and Apollon all the males as they were hunting together on Kithairon. Of the males only Amphion was spared, and of the females only Khloris (Chloris).”
  Parthenius, Love Romances 33 (trans. Gaselee) (Greek poet C1st B.C.) : “From the Lydiaka ( Lydiaca ) of Xanthos (Xanthus) [Greek historian C5th B.C.], the second book of Neanthes [poet of Kyzikos (Cyzicus)] , and Simmias of Rhodes [Alexandrian Greek poet]: The story of Niobe is differently told by various authorities; some, for instance, say that she was not the daughter of Tantalos (Tantalus), but of Assaon, and the wife of Philottos (Philottus); and for having had her dispute with Leto about the beauty of their children, her punishment was as follows: Philottos perished while hunting; Assaon, consumed with love for his own daughter, desired to take her to wife; on Niobe refusing to accede to his desires, he asked her children to a banquet, and there burned them all to death. As a result of this calamity, she flung herself from a high rock; Assaon, when he came to ponder upon these his sins, ma de away with himself.”
  Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 74. 3 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “Niobe became the mother of seven sons and an equal number of daughters, maids of exceeding beauty. And since she gave herself haughty airs over the number of her children ,she frequently declared in boastful way that she was more blest in her children than was Leto. At this, so the myths tell us, Leto in anger commanded Apollon to slay with his arrows the sons of Niobe and Artemis the daughters. And when these two hearkened to the command of their mother and slew with their arrows the children of Niobe at the same time, it came to pass that immediately this woman was both blest with children and childless.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 21. 9 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “[At Argos] is the sanctuary of Leto; the image is the work of Praxiteles. The statue of the maiden beside the goddess they call Khloris (Chloris, Pale), saying that she was a daughter of Niobe, and that she was called Meliboia (Meliboea) at the first. When the children of Amphion were destroyed by Apollon and Artemis, she alone of her sisters, along with Amyklas (Amyclas) escaped; their escape was due to their prayers to Leto. Meliboia was struck so pale by her fright, not only at the time but also for the rest of her life, that even her name was changed Meliboia to Khloris (Chloris). Now the Argives say that these two built originally the temple to Leto, but I think that none of Niobe’s children survived.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 5. 9 : “It is also said that Amphion [husband of Niobe] is punished in Haides for being among those who made a mock of Leto and her children.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 9 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Amphion took in marriage Niobe . . . by whom he had seven sons and as many daughters. These children Niobe placed above those of Latona [Leto], and spoke rather contemptuously against Apollo and Diana [Artemis] because Diana was girt in man’s attire, and Apollo wore long hair and a woman’s gown. She said, too, that she surpassed Latona in muber of children. Because of this Apollo slew her sons with arrows as they were hunting in the woods on Mount Sipylus, and Diana shot and killed the daughters in the palace, all except Chloris.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 149 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Much made her [Niobe] haughty. Yet her husband’s [Amphion King of Thebes‘] skill, the high birth of them both, their kingdom’s power, though all indeed gave pleasure, none could give such pleasure as her children. Niobe must have been thought the happiest of mothers, had she not thought so too. The prophetess Manto daughter of Teiresias (Tiresias), had been spurred by heavenly promptings. Through the city’s streets she cried her holy call : ‘Women of Thebes, come in your throngs, with bay wreaths round your hair, and give Latona [Leto] and her children twain incense and reverent worship. Through my lips Latona calls!’ And, in obedience, all the Theban women wreathe their brows and bring their prayers and incense to the holy shrine. But here, escorted by a multitude of courtiers, comes Niobe, superb in a shining Phrygian gown of woven gold . Lovely she was, as far as rage allowed, tossing her graceful head and glorious hair that fell upon her shoulders either side. She stopped, and in her full height cast her gaze, her haughty gaze around. ‘What lunacy makes you prefer a fabled god,’ she said, ‘To gods you see? Latona [Leto], why should her shrine be revered, when my divinity lacks incense still? My father’s Tantalus, the only mortal gods in heaven allowed to share their banquet-board. My mother ranks as sister of the Pleiades. That great giant, Atlas, whose shoulders bear the circling sky, is one grandfather; Juppiter [Zeus] the other, my husband’s father too I’m proud to say. The Phrygian nation fears me. I am mistress of Cadmus’ royal house; our city’s walls, built by my husband’s music, and our people ruled by him and me. Enormous wealth I see throughout my home wherever I turn my gaze; and godlike beauty too is mine. Then add my seven sons and seven daughters and soon my sons’ wives and my son-in-laws. Now ask yourselves the reason for my pride, and dare prefer me to that Titanis, whom Coeus sired, whoever he may be, Latona whom the great globe once refused the smallest spot to give her children birth. Not earth, nor sky, nor water would accept your goddess, outcast from the world, until Delos took pity on her wanderings and said, “You roam the land and I the sea, homeless,” and gave her drifting refuge there. She bore two children; so her womb was worth a seventh part of mine [i.e. Niobe had fourteen children]. O happy me! (Who would deny it?) And happy I’ll remain (Who could doubt that?). My riches make me safe. Yes, I’m too great to suffer Fortuna’s blows; much she may take, yet more than much she’ll leave. My blessings banish fear. Suppose some part of this my clan of children could be lost, and I bereft, I’ll never be reduced to two, Latona’s litter–near enough childless! Away with you! Enough of this! Remove those laurels from your hair!’ With wreaths removed, they left the ritual unfinished. They worshipped, as they might, in silent words. The goddess [Leto] was outraged; upon the peak of Cynthus she addressed her pair of twins : ‘I, here, your mother, proud to have borne you both, I, who will give no goddess precedence save Juno [Hera], find that my divinity is doubted and unless you children help I’m barred from shrines and altars evermore. Nor is this all that hurts. To injury Tantalis [i.e. Niobe, daughter of Tantalos] adds insult. Yes, she dares set her own children above you, and calls me childless–may that fall on her own head! Her wicked tongue shows her paternity!’ To this sad tale Latona had in mind to add to her entreaties, when ‘Enough!’ said Phoebus [Apollon], ‘Long complaints do but delay the punishment,’ and Phoebe [Artemis] said the same. Then clothed in cloud they glided swiftly down and reached the citadel of Cadmeia [Thebes] . . . [and there Apollon slew the seven sons of Niobe with his arrows.] Rumours of havoc, sorrow in the streets, her household’s tears brought Niobe the news, news of her sudden ruin. She was shocked that it could happen, angry that the gods had dared so far, that they possessed such power. The father, Amphion, had already plunged a dagger in his heart and by his death ended both life and grief. Ah, Niobe! Alas! How unlike now that Niobe who drove the Thebans from Latona’s shrine, who walked her city’s streets with head so high, the envy of her friends–whom now her foes, even her foes, must pity! On the cold corpses she threw herself and gave her last kisses convulsively to all her sons. Then raising her bruised arms to heaven, she cried ‘Feast, cruel Latona, feast upon my grief! Yes, glut your savage heart! On seven biers I’m borne. Exult! Triumph in victory! Even so, why victory? My wretchedness still gives me more than you your happiness: after so many deaths I triumph still!’ Hard on her words a bowstring twanged, and all were terrified, save only Niobe. Disaster made her bold . . . [Artemis then slew Niobe’s seven daughters with her arrows and Niobe herself is turned to stone.] Then every man and woman, all of them, dreaded the goddess’ [Leto’s] wrath mad manifest, and worshipped more devoutly the divine power of the mother of the heavenly pair.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 395 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “[Nemesis, goddess of retribution, addresses Artemis:] ‘If some prolific wife provokes your mother Leto, let her weep for her children, another Niobe of stone. Why should not I make another stone on Sipylos? . . . But if some woman is persecuting you as one did your mother Leto, I will be the avenger of the offended Archeress.’ . . . [Artemis] broke in and said to the goddess who saves men from evil : ‘. . . I have suffered just as my mother did: we are both alike–in Phrygia Niobe offended Leto the mother of twins, in Phrygia again impious Aura offended me. But Niobe paid for it by passing into a changeling form, that daughter of Tantalos (Tantalus) whose children were her sorrow, and she still weeps with stony eyes.’”
  LETO & THE SEX-CHANGE OF LEUCIPPE
  Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 17 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “When Galateia [of Phaistos (Phaestus) in Krete (Crete)] became pregnant, Lampros (Lamprus) [her husband] prayed to have a son and said plainly to wife that she was to expose her child if it was a daughter. When Lampros had gone off to tend his flocks, Galateia gave birth to a daughter. Feeling pity for her babe, she counted on the remoteness of their house and–backed by dreams and seers telling her to bring up the girl as a boy–deceived Lampros by saying she had given birth to a son and brought the child up as a boy, giving it the name Leukippos (Leucippus). As the girl grew up she became unutterably beautiful. Because it was no longer possible to hide this, Galateia, fearing Lampros, fled to the temple of Leto and many a prayer to her that the child might become a boy instead of a girl . . . Leto took pity on Galateia because of her unremitting and distressing prayers and changed the sex of the child into a boy’s. In memory of this change the citizens of Phaistos still sacrifice to Leto Phytie (Phytia, the Grafter) because she had grafted organs on the girl and they give her festival the name of Ekdysia (Ecdysia, Stripping) because the girl had stripped off her maidenly peplos . It is now an observance in marriages to lie down beforehand beside the statue of Leukippos.” [N.B. This story also appears in Ovid’s Metamorphoses but the agent of the transformation is the Egyptian goddess Isis.]
  LETO IN THE TROJAN WAR
 
  Leto, Chariclo, Hestia, Demeter and Iris, Athenian black-figure dinos C6th B.C., British Museum Homer, Iliad 5. 445 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “Apollon caught [the wounded] Aineias (Aeneas) now and away from the onslaught [of the battle], and set him in the sacred keep of Pergamos (Pergamus) where was built his own temple. There Artemis of the showering arrows and Leto within the great and secret chamber healed his wound and cared for him.”
  Homer, Iliad 20. 38 ff : “[The gods arrayed themselves against each other in conflict over the Trojan War :] But Ares of the shining helm went over to the Trojans. And with him went Phoibos (Phoebus) [Apollon] of the unshorn hair, and the lady of arrows Artemis, and smiling Aphrodite, Leto and Xanthos . . . Against Hera stood . . . Artemis [and] . . . Opposite Leto stood the strong one, generous Hermes.”
  Homer, Iliad 21. 493 ff : “[In the conflict of the gods over Troy, Hera boxes Artemis around the head with her own bow :] She [Artemis] got free and fled in tears . . . So she left her archery on the ground, and fled weeping. Meanwhile the Guide, Argeiphontes [Hermes], addressed him to Leto : ‘Leto, I will not fight with you; since it is a hard thing to come to blows with the brides of Zeus who gathers the clouds. No sooner you may freely speak among the immortal gods, and claim that you were stronger than I, and beat me.’ So he spoke, but Leto picked up the curved bow and the arrows which had fallen in the turn of the dust one way and another. When she had taken up the bow she went back to her daughter.”
  LETO MYTHS MISCELLANY
  Praxilla, Frag 753 (from Pausanias, Description of Greece) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th B.C.) : “Praxilla’s version is that Karneios (Carneus) was the son of Europa and Zeus, and that Apollon and Leto brought him up.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 13. 5 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “The poetess Praxilla represents Karneios (Carneus) as the son of Europa, Apollon and Leto being his nurses.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 10. 13. 7 : “The Mantineans [of Arkadia (Arcadia)] dedicated a bronze Apollon [at Delphoi (Delphi), Phokis] . . . Herakles (Heracles) and Apollon are holding on to the tripod, and are preparing to fight about it. Leto and Artemis are calming Apollon, and Athene (Athena) is calming Herakles.”
  Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 20 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “[Klinis (Clinis) of Babylon] arranged by the altar a hecatomb of asses [in the manner of the Hyperboreans]. Apollon appeared and threatened him with death if he did not cease from this sacrifice and did not offer up to him the usual goats, sheep and cattle . . . Now Lykios (Lycius) and Harpasos (Harpasus) heard their father [telling them to desist from the sacrifice of asses] but went on telling him to sacrifice the asses . . . they undid the halters of he asses and set to driving towards the altar. The god inflected the asses with a madness and they began to eat up the children, their servants, Klinis (Clinis) too. As they were perishing they cries out to the gods for help . . . Leto and Artemis saw fit to save Klinis, Artemikhe (Artemiche) and Ortygios (Ortygius) for they had not been the cause of these impieties.
Apollon granted this favour to Leto and Artemis and changed them all into birds before they could be killed. Klinis became a hypaietos (an under-eagle) . . . Lykios was changed into a raven that was white but later by the wish of Apollon, he became of a sable colour, because he had been the first to announce the marriage of Koronis (Coronis), daughter of Phlegyas, to Alkyoneus (Alcyoneus). Artemikhe became a lark, a bird that gods and humans are fond of. Ortygios became a billy-tit because he had urged his father to sacrifice billy-goats instead of asses to Apollon.”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 4. 60 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “Latona [Leto] and Diana [Artemis] together stood mournful-eyed before Jove [Zeus], and Apollo thus supplicating speaks : ‘Until what other Alcides [Herakles] come, until what time indeed, great king, dost thou put off the old man of Caucasus [Prometheus]? Grantest thou no end at all of punishment and misery? The whole race of mankind beseeches thee, ay, the very mountains, worthy sire, and weary ridges with their forests supplicate thee. Sufficiently hast thou punished the theft of fire and safeguarded the secrets of the ethereal board.’ . . . He [Zeus] moved by the goddesses’ tears and Phoebus’ [Apollon’s] high renown sends down swift Iris on her rosy cloud. ‘Go,’ he says, ‘let Alcides [Herakles] . . . rescue the Titan from the dreadful Bird.’”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 24. 94 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “All the denizens of Olympos (Olympus) who cared for their beloved oaks, rescued Hadryas Nymphai (Hadryad Nymphs) [when the Indian River Hydaspes tried to drown them with the rest of the army of Dionysos]; and most especially laurel-Apollon appeared and saved the Daphnaiai (Laurel-Nymphs); and Leto his mother stood by her son and helped them [the palm-tree Dryades], for she still honoured the tree which helped her childbirth [the Delian palm].”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 36. 5 ff : “The gods who dwell in Olympos ranged themselves in two parties to direct the warfare [between the forces of Dionysos and the Indians] on both sides, these supporting Deriades [king of the Indians], those Lyaios (Lyaeus) [Dionysos] . . . Hermes rod in hand came to conflict with Leto.”
  SACRED ANIMALS & BIRDS
  Aelian, On Animals 4. 29 (trans. Scholfield) (Greek natural history C2nd A.D.) : “I learn that the Cock is the favourite bird of Leto. The reason is, they say, that he was at her side when she was so happily brought to bed of twins. That is why to this very day a Cock is at hand when women are in travail, and is believed somehow to promote an easy delivery.”
  Aelian, On Animals 10. 47 : “The Ichneumon (mongoose) is both male and female in the same individual, partaking of both sexes, and nature has enabled each single same animal both to procreate and to give birth . . . Ichneumons are said to be sacred to Leto and the Eileithyiai (Goddesses of Birth), and the people of Heraklepolis (Heracleopolis) worship them, so they say.”
  HYMNS TO LETO
  Orphic Hymn 35 to Leto (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) : “To Leto, Fumigation from Myrrh. Dark-veiled Leto, much invoked queen, twin-bearing Goddess, of noble mien; Koiantis (Coeantis) (Daughter of Koios) great, a mighty mind is thine, offspring prolific, blest, of Zeus divine : Phoibos (Phoebus) [Apollon] proceeds from thee, the God of light, and Artemis fair, whom winged darts delight; she in Ortygia’s honoured regions born, in Delos he, which lofty mounts adorn. Hear me, O queen, and favourably attend, and to this consecration divine afford a pleasing end.”
  LETO NAME ETYMOLOGY
  Plato, Cratylus 400d & 406d (trans. Lamb) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) : “[Plato constructs philosophical etymologies for the names of the gods :] Sokrates (Socrates) : Let us inquire what thought men had in giving them [the gods] their names . . . The first men who gave names [to the gods] were no ordinary persons, but high thinkers and great talkers . . . Leto [is named] from her gentleness, because whatever is asked of her, she is willing ( ethelêmôn ). But perhaps her name is Letho, as she is called by many foreigners; and those who call her by that name seem to do so on account of the mild and gentle ( leion , lêthô ) kindness of her character.”
 
  ANCIENT GREEK ART
 
 
 
 
  T14.6 Leto, Apollo, Artemis
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C6th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T14.4 Leto, Tityus, Apollo
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T14.3 Leto, Tityus, Apollo
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T14.5 Leto, Tityus, Apollo
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  P21.8 Leto, Chariclo, Hestia, Demeter
  Athenian Black Figure Vase Painting C6th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T14.1 Leto Holding Veil
  Lucanian Red Figure Vase Painting C4th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T14.2 Leto, Apollo, Artemis
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T14.7 Leto, Delos, Apollo, Artemis
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T14.8 Leto & Seated Apollo
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 

  SOURCES (ALL LETO PAGES)
  GRIEGO
  Homer, The Iliad – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Homer, The Odyssey – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Hesiod, Theogony – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  Hesiod, Works and Days – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  Hesiod, Catalogues of Women Fragments – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  Hesiod, Astronomy Fragments – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  The Homeric Hymns – Greek Epic C8th – 4th B.C.
  Epic Cycle, The Aethiopis Fragments – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Pindar, Odes – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Pindar, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric I Sappho, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric III Simonides, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th – 5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric IV Praxilla, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric IV Scholia, Fragments – Greek Lyric B.C.
  Greek Elegaic Theognis, Fragments – Greek Elegaic C6th B.C.
  Aeschylus, Eumenides – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Aeschylus, Fragments – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae – Greek Comedy C5th – 4th B.C.
  Plato, Cratylus – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Apollodorus, The Library – Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Apollonius Rhodius, The Argonautica – Greek Epic C3rd B.C.
  Callimachus, Hymns – Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  Parthenius, Love Romances – Greek Mythography C1st B.C.
  Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History – Greek History C1st B.C.
  Strabo, Geography – Greek Geography C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Pausanias, Description of Greece – Greek Travelogue C2nd A.D.
  The Orphic Hymns – Greek Hymns C3rd B.C. – C2nd A.D.
  Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses – Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Aelian, On Animals – Greek Natural History C2nd – 3rd A.D.
  Aelian, Historical Miscellany – Greek Rhetoric C2nd – 3rd A.D.
  Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae – Greek Rhetoric C3rd A.D.
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy – Greek Epic C4th A.D.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca – Greek Epic C5th A.D.
  ROMAN
  OTHER SOURCES
  Other references not currently quoted here: Servius on Virgil’s Aeneid 3.72, Orphica Argonautica 975.

  BIBLIOGRAFÍA
  A complete bibliography of the translations quoted on this page.