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MOUSAI

25/01/2020

Mitología griega >> Dioses griegos >> Dioses del Olimpo >> Musas (Mousai)
 
 
  Nombre griego

  Μουσα Μουσαι
 
 
  Transliteración

  Mousa, Mousai
 
 
  Ortografía latina

  Musa, Musae
 
 
  Traducción

  Musa, musas, de la canción
 
 

 
  Musa con barbitón, Pakanán figura roja lekanis C4th BC, Musée du Louvre THE MOUSAI (Musas) fueron las diosas de la música, la canción y la danza, y el fuente de inspiración para los poetas. También eran diosas del conocimiento, que recordaban todas las cosas que habían sucedido. Más tarde, a los Mousai se les asignaron esferas artísticas específicas: Kalliope (Calliope), poesía épica; Kleio (Clio), historia; Ourania (Urania), astronomía; Thaleia (Thalia), comedia; Melpomene, tragedia; Polymnia (Polyhymnia), himnos religiosos; Erato, poesía erótica; Euterpe, poesía lírica; y Terpsikhore (Terpsichore), canto coral y danza.
  En la pintura del jarrón griego antiguo, las Mousai fueron representadas como hermosas mujeres jóvenes con una variedad de instrumentos musicales. En el arte posterior, a cada uno de los nueve se le asignó su propio atributo distintivo.
  Había dos conjuntos alternativos de Mousai: los tres o cuatro Mousai Titanides y los tres Mousai Apollonides .
  FAMILIA DE LAS MUSAS
  PADRES
  [1.1] ZEUS y MNEMOSYNE (Hesiod Theogony 1 y 915, Mimnermus Frag, Alcman Frag 8, Solon Frag 13, Apollodorus 1.13, Pausanias 1.2.5, Diodorus Siculus 4.7.1, Himnos órficos 76 y 77, Antoninus Liberalis 9, Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.21, Arnobius 3.37) [1.2] ZEUS (Homer Odyssey 8.457, Homérico Himnos 32, et al) [1.3] MNEMOSYNE (Pindar Paean 7, Terpander Frag 4, Aristotle Frag 842, Plato Theaetetus 191c) [2.1 ] OURANOS y GAIA (Alcman Frag 67, Mnaseas Frag, Diodorus Siculus 4.7.1, Scholiast en Pindar, Aronobius 3.37) [2.2] [ 19459035] OURANOS (Mimnermos Frag, Pausanias 9.29.1, Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.21) [2.3] ZEUS y PLOUSIA ( Tzetzes en Hesiod 35) [3.1] APOLLON (Eumelus Frag 35, Tzetzes en Hesiod 35) [4.1] PIEROS Y ANTIOPO (4.1 Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.21, Tzetzes on Hesiod 35)
  NOMBRES
  [1.1] KLEIO , EUTERPE , THALEIA , MELPOMENO , TERPSIKHORE , , POLYHYMNIA , OURANIA , KALLIOPE (Hesiod Theogony 75, Apollodorus 1.13, Diodorus Siculus 4.7.1, 76 h5, h5 or5 h5 Orphic ] [1.2] TERPSIKHORE , ERATO , KALLIOPE , OURANIA (Plato Phaedrus 259) 19459034] [1.3] POLIMATEAS (Simposio Plutarco 9.14) [2.1] MELETE, AOEDE, MNEME (Pausanias 9.39.3) [2.2] MELETE, AODE, ARKHE, THELXINOE (Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.21, Tzetzes on Hes. 23) [3.1] NETE, MESE, HYPATE (Simposio Plutarco 9.14) [3 .2] KEPHISO, APOLLONIS, BORYSTHENIS (Eumelus Frag 35, Tzetzes) [4.1] NEILO, TRITONE, ASOPO, HEPTAPORA, AKHELOIS, TIPOPLO, RHODIA [194590mis, Tetzetz. 23)
  ENCICLOPEDIA
 
  Musa con caja, Pakanán figura roja lekanis C4th B.C., Musée du Louvre MUSAE (Mousai). Las Musas, según los primeros escritores, fueron las diosas inspiradoras de la canción y, según noticus posterior, las divinidades que presidían los diferentes tipos de poesía y las artes y las ciencias. Originalmente fueron considerados como las ninfas de pozos inspiradores, cerca de los cuales fueron adorados, y llevaban diferentes nombres en diferentes lugares, hasta que la adoración traco-boeotiana de las nueve Musas se extendió desde Beocia a otras partes de Grecia, y finalmente se convirtió en general establecido. (Respetando a las Musas concebidas como ninfas, ver Schol. ad Theocrit. vii. 92; Hesych. sv Numphê; Steph. Byz. sv Torrêbos; Serv. [ 19459051] ad Virg. Eclog. vii. 21.)
  La genealogía de las musas no es la misma en todos los escritores. La noción más común era que eran las hijas de Zeus y Mnemosyne, y nacieron en Pieria, al pie del Monte Olimpo (Hes. Theog. 52, y c., 915; Hom. Il. ii. 491, Od. i. 10; Apolod. I. 3. § 1); pero algunos las llaman las hijas de Urano y Gea (Schol. ad Pind. Nem. iii. 16; Paus. ix. 29. § 2; Diod. iv. 7; Arnob. adv. Gent. iii. 37), y otras hijas de Pierus y una ninfa de Pimpleia, a quien Cicero ( De Nat. Deor. iii. 21) llama Antiope (Tzetz. [ 19459051] ad Hes. Op. Et D. p. 6; Paus. lc ), o de Apolo, o de Zeus y Plusia, o de Zeus y Moneta, probablemente una mera traducción de Mnemosyne o Mneme, de donde se llaman Mnemonides (Ov. Met. v. 268), o de Zeus y Minerva (Isid. Orig. iii. 14), o finalmente de Aether y Gea (Hygin. Fab. Praef.) Eupheme se llama la enfermera de las Musas, y al pie del Monte Helicón su estatua estaba al lado de la de Linus. (Paus. Ix. 29. § 3.)
  Con respecto al número de las Musas, se nos informa que originalmente tres fueron adoradas en el Monte Helicon en Beocia, a saber, Melete (meditación), Mneme (memoria) y Aoede (canción); y se dice que su adoración y nombres fueron introducidos por primera vez por Efialtes y Otus. (Paus. Ix. 29. § 1, & c.) Tres también fueron reconocidos en Sicyon, donde uno de ellos llevaba el nombre de Polymatheia (Plut. Sympos. ix. 14), y en Delphi, donde sus nombres eran idénticos a los del acorde más bajo, medio y más alto de la lira, a saber. Nete, Mese e Hypate (Plut. l. C. ), o Cephisso, Apollonis y Borysthenis, cuyos nombres los caracterizan como las hijas de Apolo. (Tzetz. lc; Arnob. Iii. 37; Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vii. 21; Diod. Iv. 7.) Como hijas de Zeus y Plusia encontramos mención de cuatro musas, a saber. Thelxinoe (el deleite del corazón), Aoede (canción), Arche (comienzo) y Melete. (Cic., Arnob., Tzetz. ll. Cc.; Serv. ad Aen. i. 12.) Algunos relatos, nuevamente, en los que se les llama hijas de Pierus, mencionar siete Musas, a saber. Neilo, Tritone, Asopo, Heptapora, Achelois, Tipoplo y Rhodia (Tzetz. Arnob. ll. Cc. ), y otros, por último, mencionan ocho, que también se dice que fue el número reconocido en Atenas. (Arnob. lc ; Serv. ad Aen. i. 12; Plat. De Re Publ. p. 116.) Al final, sin embargo, el número nueve parece haberse establecido en toda Grecia. Homero a veces menciona a Musa solo en singular, y a veces a Musae en plural, y solo una vez ( Od. xxiv. 60) habla de nueve Musas, aunque sin mencionar ninguno de sus nombres. Hesíodo ( Theog. 77. & c.) Es el primero que establece los nombres de todos los nueve, y estos nueve nombres en adelante se establecieron. Son Cleio, Euterpe, Thaleia, Melpomene, Terpsichore, Erato, Polymnia, Urania y Calliope. Plutarco ( l. C. ) afirma que en algunos lugares los nueve fueron designados por el nombre común Mneiae, i. mi. Recuerdos.
  Si ahora investigamos las nociones entretenidas sobre la naturaleza y el carácter de las Musas, encontramos que, en los poemas homéricos, son las diosas de la canción y la poesía, y viven en el Olimpo. ( Il. ii. 484.) Allí cantan las canciones festivas en las fiestas de los inmortales ( Il. i. 604, Himno en Apoll. Pyth. [ 19459052] 11), y en el funeral de Patroclus cantan lamentaciones. ( Od. xxiv. 60; comp. Pind. Isthm. viii. 126.) El poder que con mayor frecuencia se les asigna es el de llevar ante la mente del poeta mortal los acontecimientos que tiene que relatar; y el de conferirle el don de la canción, y de dar gracia a lo que pronuncia. ( Il. ii. 484, 491, 761, Od. i. 1, viii. 63, y c., 481, 488; Eustath. ad Hom. [19459052 ] p. 259.) Parece que no hay razón para dudar de que los primeros poetas en su invocación a la Musa o las Musas fueron perfectamente sinceros, y que realmente creían en su inspiración por las diosas; pero en tiempos posteriores entre los griegos y los romanos, así como en nuestros días, la invocación de las musas es una mera imitación formal de los primeros poetas. Thamyris, que presumía sobresalir de las Musas, fue privado de ellos del regalo que le habían otorgado y castigado con ceguera. (Hom. Il. ii. 594, & c .; Apollod. I. 3. § 3.) Las Seirens, que también se aventuraron en una competencia con ellas, fueron privadas de las plumas de sus alas, y las Musas mismas se los pusieron como adorno (Eustath. ad Hom. P. 85); y las nueve hijas de Pierus, que presumían rivalizar con las Musas, se transformaron en pájaros. (Anton. Lib. 9; Ov. Met. v. 300, & c.) Como los poetas y los bardos derivaron su poder de ellos, con frecuencia se les llama sus discípulos o hijos. (Hom. Od. viii. 481, Himno en Lun. 20; Hes. Theog. 22; Pind. Nem. iii .; Serv. ad Virg. Georg. ii. 476.) Así, a Linus se le llama hijo de Anfímaro y Urania (Paus. ix. 29. § 3), o de Apolo y Calíope, o Terpsícore. (Apolo. I. 3. § 2); Jacinto, hijo de Pierus y Cleio (Apolo. I. 3. § 3); Orfeo, hijo de Calíope o Cleio, y Thamyris, hijo de Erato. Estos y algunos otros son los casos en que las Musas se describen como madres; pero la idea más general era que, como otras ninfas, eran divinidades vírgenes. Siendo diosas de la canción, están naturalmente conectados con Apolo, el dios de la lira, a quien, como ellos, instruye a los bardos, y Homer los menciona junto con ellos. ( Il. i. 603, Od. viii. 488.) En épocas posteriores, Apolo se coloca en una relación muy estrecha con las Musas, porque se lo describe como el líder del coro de las Musas por el apellido Mousagetês. (Diod. I. 18.) Una característica adicional en el carácter de las Musas es su poder profético, que les pertenece, en parte porque eran consideradas como ninfas inspiradoras, y en parte debido a su conexión con el dios profético de Delfos. Por lo tanto, instruyeron, por ejemplo, Aristeo en el arte de la profecía. (Apollon. Rhod. Ii. 512.) Que el baile, también, era una de las ocupaciones de las Musas, puede deducirse de la estrecha conexión existente entre los griegos entre la música, la poesía y el baile. Como a las ninfas inspiradoras les encantaba vivir en el Monte Helicón, estaban naturalmente asociadas con Dioniso y la poesía dramática, y por lo tanto se las describe como las compañeras, compañeras de juego o enfermeras de Dioniso.
  La adoración de las Musas apunta originalmente a Tracia y Pieria sobre el monte Olimpo, desde donde se introdujo en Beocia, de tal manera que los nombres de montañas, grutas y pozos, relacionados con su adoración, también fueron transferidos de del norte al sur. Cerca del monte Helicón, se dice que Efialtes y Otus les ofrecieron los primeros sacrificios; y en el mismo lugar había un santuario con sus estatuas, los pozos sagrados Aganippe e Hippocrene, y en el monte Leibethrion, que está conectado con Helicon, había una gruta sagrada de las Musas. (Paus. Ix. 29. § 1, & c., 30. § 1, 31. § 3; Strab. Pp. 410, 471; Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. x. 11.) Pierus , un macedonio, se dice que fue el primero en introducir el culto de las [1] musas , desde Tracia a Thespiae, al pie del monte Helicón. (Paus. Ix. 29. § 2.) Allí tenían un templo y estatuas, y los Thespians celebraron un festival solemne de las Musas en el monte Helicon, llamado Mouseia (Paus. Ix. 27. § 4, 31. § 3; Pind. Fragm. p. 656, ed. Boeckh; Diod. Xvii. 16.) El monte Parnaso también era sagrado para ellos, con el manantial castaliano, cerca del cual tenían un templo. (Plut. De Pyth. Orac. 17.) Desde Beocia, que se convirtió así en el centro de culto de las nueve Musas, luego se extendió a las partes adyacentes y más distantes de Grecia. Así encontramos en Atenas un templo de las Musas en la Academia (Paus. I. 30. § 2); en Esparta se les ofrecieron sacrificios antes de pelear una batalla (iii. 17. § 5); en Troezene, donde su adoración había sido introducida por Ardalus, se les ofrecieron sacrificios conjuntamente con Hypnos, el dios del sueño (Paus. iii. 31. §4, & c.); en Corinto, Peirene, la primavera de Pegaso, era sagrada para ellos (Pers. Sábado Prol. 4; Stat. Silv. ii. 7. 1); en Roma tenían un altar en común con Hércules, que también era considerado como Musagetes, y poseían un templo en Ambracia adornado con sus estatuas. (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 59; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 36.) Los sacrificios que se les ofrecían consistían en libaciones de agua o leche, y de miel. (Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col. 100; Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. vii. 21.) Los diversos apellidos con los que los poetas los designan son para en su mayor parte derivan de los lugares que eran sagrados para ellos o en los que fueron adorados, mientras que algunos describen la dulzura de sus canciones.
  En las obras de arte más antiguas encontramos solo tres Musas, y sus atributos son instrumentos musicales, como la flauta, la lira o el barbitón. Los artistas posteriores le dieron a cada una de las nueve hermanas diferentes atributos, así como diferentes actitudes, de las cuales aquí agregamos una breve reseña. 1. Calliope, la musa de la poesía épica, aparece con una tableta y un lápiz, y algunas veces con un rollo de papel; 2. Cleio, la musa de la historia, aparece sentado, con un rollo de papel abierto o un cofre abierto de libros; 3. Euterpe, la musa de la poesía lírica, con flauta; 4. Melpomene, la musa de la tragedia, con una máscara trágica, el garrote de Heracles o una espada, su cabeza está rodeada de hojas de parra, y ella lleva el cothurnus; 5. Terpsichore, la musa de la danza y la canción coral, aparece con la lira y la púa; 6. Erato, la musa de la poesía erótica y la imitación de imitación, a veces también tiene la lira; 7. Polymnia, o Polyhymnia, la musa del himno sublime, generalmente aparece sin ningún atributo, en una actitud pensativa o meditativa; 8. Urania, la musa de la astronomía, con un bastón apuntando a un globo terráqueo; 9. Thaleia, la musa de la comedia y de la poesía alegre o idílica, aparece con la máscara cómica, el bastón de un pastor o una corona de hiedra. En algunas representaciones, las Musas se ven con plumas en la cabeza, aludiendo a su competencia con las Seirens.
  Fuente: Diccionario de Biografía y Mitología Griega y Romana.
  DELETREOS DE NOMBRES ALTERNATIVOS
 
 
  Nombre griego
  Μουσα Μουσαι
  Μοισα Μοισαι
  Μωσα Μωσαι
 
 
  Transliteración
  Mousa, Mousai
  Moisa, Moisai
  Môsa, Môsai
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Musa, Musae
  Musa, Musae
  Musa, Musae
 
 
  Traducción
  Musa, musas
  id. (Ortografía eólica)
  id. (Ortografía dórica)
 
 
  NOMBRES DE LOS NUEVE MUSAS
 
 
  Nombre griego
  Καλλιοπη
  ωλειω
  ωρατω
 
 
  Transliteración
  Kalliopê
  Kleiô
  Eratô
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Calliope
  Clio
  Erato
 
 
  Traducción
  Hermosa voz
  Hacer famosos
  Encantadora, amada
 
 
 
 
  Nombre griego
  Ευτερπη
  Μελπομενη
  [υρανιη
 
 
  Transliteración
  Euterpê
  Melpomenê
  Ouraniê
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Euterpe
  Melpomene
  Urania
 
 
  Traducción
  Dando placer
  Celebra con la canción
  El celestial
 
 
 
 
  Nombre griego
  Πολυμνια
  Τερψιχορη
  [αλεια
 
 
  Transliteración
  Polimnia
  Terpsikhorê
  Thaleia
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Polimnia
  Tersichore
  Thalía
 
 
  Traducción
  Muchos himnos
  Deleitándose en la danza
  Fiesta rica, floreciente
 
 
  El nombre de Kalliope se derivó de las palabras griegas kalleis “hermosa” y ops “voz”, Kleio de kleô “hacer famoso”, Erato de eratos “encantador”
Euterpe
de eu- “bien” y terpô “para deleitarse”, Melpomene de melpô “para celebrar con la canción”, Ourania de ouranos “cielo”, Polymnia de poli- “muchos” y himnos “himno”, Terpsikhore de terpsis “para deleitarse” y khoros “danza”, y Thaleia de thaleia “fiesta rica” ​​o “florecimiento”.
  CITA DE LITERATURA CLÁSICA
  NACIMIENTO, PADRES Y NOMBRES DE LAS MUSAS
 
  Musa con lira, Lekanis de figura roja de Paestan C4th BC, Musée du Louvre Homer, Iliad 2. 597 ff (traducción de Lattimore) (griego épica C8th BC): “Los Mousai (Musas), hijas de Zeus que tiene el aigis”.
  Homer, Odyssey 8. 457 ss. (Traducción Shewring) (griego épico C8th B.C.): “La Mousa (Muse) … hija del propio Zeus”.
  Hesiod, Theogony 1 ff (trad. Evelyn-White) (épica griega C8th o C7th BC): “Ellos [los Mousai (Musas)] en Pieria hicieron Mnemosyne (Memoria), quien reina sobre las colinas de Eleuther, oso de unión con el padre [Zeus], ​​el hijo de Kronos (Cronus), un olvido de los males y un descanso de la tristeza. Durante nueve noches el sabio Zeus se acostó con ella, entrando en su cama sagrada alejado de los inmortales. Y cuando pasó un año y las estaciones llegaron a medida que pasaban los meses, y muchos días se cumplieron, ella dio a luz a nueve hijas, todas con una sola mente, cuyos corazones se centraron en la canción y su espíritu libre de preocupaciones un poco lejos del pico más alto del nevado Olympos (Olimpo) .Hay sus brillantes lugares de baile y hermosas casas, y junto a ellos, los Kharites (Charites, Graces) e Himeros (Deseo) viven encantados. labios una voz encantadora, cantan las leyes de todos y los buenos caminos de los inmortales, pronunciando su voz encantadora. fueron a Olympos, deleitándose con su dulce voz, con una canción celestial, y la tierra oscura resonó a su alrededor mientras cantaban, y un sonido encantador se alzó bajo sus pies cuando fueron hacia su padre [Zeus]. Y él estaba reinando en el cielo, él mismo sosteniendo el rayo y el rayo incandescente, cuando había vencido con fuerza a su padre Kronos; y distribuyó justamente a los inmortales [incluidos los Mousai] sus porciones y declaró sus privilegios. . . Los Mousai (Musas) que habitan en Olympos, nueve hijas engendradas por los grandes Zeus, Kleio (Clio) y Euterpe, Thaleia (Thalia), Melpomene y Terpsikhore (Terpsichore), y Erato y Polymnia (Polyhymnia) y Ourania (Urania). ) y Kalliope (Calliope), que es el principal de todos “.
  Hesíodo, Teogonía 915 y siguientes: “Y de nuevo, él [Zeus] amaba a Mnemosyne (Memoria) con el hermoso cabello: y de ella nacieron los nueve Mousai (Musas) con corona de oro que se deleitan en las fiestas y los placeres de la canción “.
  Himno homérico 32 a Selene (trad. Evelyn-White) (épica griega C7th – 4th B.C.): “Dulce voz Mousai (Musas), hijas de Zeus”.
  Eumelus, Fragmento 35 (de Tzetzes, On Hesiod’s Works & Days 23) (trans. West, Vol. Greek Epic Fragments) (C8th a 7th BC): “Pero Eumelos (Eumelus ) de Korinthos (Corinto) dice que hay tres Mousai (Musas), hijas de Apollon: Kephiso (Cephiso), Apollonis y Borysthenis “.
  Pindar, Paean 7 (trad. Sandys) (letra griega C5th BC): “Le rezo a Mnamosyna (Mnemosyne, Memory), el niño de Ouranos (Urano, cielo). ) y a sus hijas [las Mousai (Musas)] “.
  Alcman, Fragment 5 (de Scholia) (trad. Campbell, Vol. Griego Lyric II) (C7th BC): “Él [Alkman (Alcman)] hizo el Mousai (Musas) las hijas de Ge (Gea, la Tierra), como lo hace Mimnermos “.
  Alcman, Fragmento 8: “Beato Mosai (Musas), a quien Mnemosyne (Memoria) le dio a Zeus por haberse acostado con él”.
  Alcman, Fragmento 67 (de Diodorus Siculus): “La mayoría de los mitógrafos, incluidos los de mayor reputación, dicen que Mousai (Musas) son las hijas de Zeus y Mnemosyne (Memoria ); pero uno o dos de los poetas, Alkman (Alcman) entre ellos, los convierten en las hijas de Ouranos (Urano, el Cielo) y Ge (Gea, la Tierra) “.
  Terpander, Fragment 4 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C7th B.C.): “The Mousai (Muses), las hijas de Mnamas (Mnemosyne, Memory)”.
  Praxilla de Sicyon, Fragmento 3 (trad. Campbell, Vol. Griego Lyric IV) (C5th BC): “Nueve Mousai (Musas) fueron creadas por los grandes Ouranos (Urano, el Cielo ), nueve de Gaia (Gea, la Tierra) para ser una alegría eterna para los mortales “.
  Aristóteles, Fragmento 842 (de Athenaeus, Scholars at Dinner) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric V) (C5th BC): “The Mousai (Musas), hijas de Mnamosyna (Mnemosyne, Memory) “.
  Mimnermus, Fragmento 13 (del papiro Oxyrhynchus) (trad. Gerber, Vol. Greek Elegiac) (elegía griega C7th BC): “En la genealogía dada por Mimnermos, el Mousai (Musas ) son hijas de Ge (Gea, la Tierra) “.
  Solón, Fragmento 13 (trad. Gerber, Vol. Griego Elegiac) (elegía griega C6º aC): “Hijas resplandecientes de Mnemosyne y Zeus Olympios (Olímpico), Mousai Pierides (Musas Pierianas) ) “.
  Platón, Theaetetus 191c (trad. Cordero) (filósofo griego C4th B.C.): “Mnemosyne (Memoria), la madre de los Mousai (Musas)”.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 13 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Mnemosyne [aburrido a Zeus] el Mousai (Musas), el mayor de los cuales fue Kalliope (Calliope), seguido de Kleio (Clio), Melpomene, Euterpe, Erato, Terpsikhore (Terpsichore), Ourania (Urania), Thaleia (Thalia) y Polymnia (Polyhymnia) “.
  Platón, Cratylus 259 (trad. Cordero) (filósofo griego C4 aC): “[El Mousai (Musas):] Terpsikhore (Terpsichore) para los bailarines … Erato para el amantes, y de los otros Mousai (Musas) para quienes los honran … Kalliope (Calliope) el Mousa (Musa) mayor y de Ourania (Urania) que está junto a ella, para los filósofos “.
  Diodorus Siculus, Biblioteca de Historia 4. 7. 1 (trad. Oldfather) (historiador griego C1st BC): “En cuanto a los Mousai (Musas) … la mayoría de los Los escritores de mitos y los que disfrutan de la mayor reputación dicen que eran hijas de Zeus y Mnemosyne (Memoria); pero algunos poetas, entre los cuales se encuentra Alkman (Alcman) [poeta lírico C7th BC] afirman que eran hijas de Ouranos ( Urano, Cielo) y Ge (Gea, Tierra). Los escritores también están en desacuerdo con respecto al número de Mousai; porque algunos dicen que no son más que tú, y otros que son nueve, pero el número nueve ha prevalecido ya que depende de la autoridad de los hombres más distinguidos, como Homer y Hesiod y otros como ellos. Homer, por ejemplo, escribe: ‘El Mousai, nueve en total, respondiendo a cada uno con voces dulces’; y Hesiod incluso da sus nombres cuando escribe: ‘ Kleio, Euterpe y Thaleia, Melpomene, Terpsikhore y Erato, y Polymnia, Ourania, Kalliope t oo, de todos ellos los más bonitos “.
  Pausanias, Descripción de Grecia 9. 39. 3 ss (trad. Jones) (cuaderno de viaje griego C2nd AD): “” El primero en sacrificar en Helikon a los Mousai (Musas) y llamar a la montaña sagrada para los Mousai fueron, dicen, Efialtes y Otos (Otus), quienes también fundaron Askra (Ascra). A esto también alude Hegesinus en su poema Atthis [Fecha incierta del poeta griego]. . . Este poema de Hegesinos (Hegesinus) no lo he leído, porque ya no existía cuando nací. Pero Kallipos (Callipus) de Korinthos (Corinto) [escritor griego C5th BC] en su Historia de Orkhomenos usa los versos de Hegesinos como evidencia en apoyo de sus propios puntos de vista, y yo también he hecho lo mismo, usando el cita del propio Kallipos. . . Los hijos de Aloeus [i.e. el Aloadai] sostuvo que los Mousai eran tres en número, y les dio los nombres de Melete (Práctica), Mneme (Memoria) y Aoede (Canción). Pero dicen que después Pieros (Pierus), un makedoniano (macedonio), después de que la montaña en Macedonia fue nombrada, llegó a Thespiai (Thespiae) y estableció nueve Mousai, cambiando sus nombres a los actuales. Pieros era de esta opinión, ya sea porque le parecía más sabio, o porque un oráculo así lo ordenó, o porque lo había aprendido de uno de los tracios (tracios). Porque los thrakianos tenían la reputación de ser viejos de ser más listos que los makedonianos, y en particular de no ser tan descuidados en asuntos religiosos. Hay quienes dicen que el propio Pieros tenía nueve hijas [las Pierides], que sus nombres eran los mismos que los de las diosas, y que los que los griegos llamaban hijos de los mousai eran hijos de las hijas de Pieros. Mimnermos [poeta griego C6th BC], que compuso versos elegíacos sobre la batalla entre los Smyrnaians y los Lydians bajo Gyges, dice en el prefacio que los mayores Mousai (Muses) son hijas de Ouranos (Urano, Sky), y que hay otros Mousai más jóvenes, hijos de Zeus “.
  Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 9 (trad. Celoria) (mitógrafo griego C2nd A.D.): “Zeus hizo el amor con Mnemosyne en Pieria y se convirtió en padre de los Mousai (Musas)”.
  Himno órfico 76 a las Musas (trans. Taylor) (himnos griegos C3rd BC a 2nd AD): “The Mousai (Musas) … hijas de Mnemosyne (Memoria) y Zeus … dulcemente hablando Nueve … Kleio (Clio), y Erato, que encanta la vista, contigo, Euterpe, ministrando deleite: Thalia floreciente, Polymnia famosa, Melpomene de habilidad en la música llamada: Terpsikhore (Terpsichore), Ourania (Urania ) celestial brillante “.
  Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3. 21 (trad. Rackham) (retórico romano C1st BC): “[Cicero expone varias tradiciones sobre las Musas:] Nuevamente el primer grupo de Musae (Musas) son cuatro, las hijas del segundo Júpiter [es decir, Ouranos, Urano], Thelixonoe, Aode, Arche y Melete; el segundo grupo es la descendencia del tercer Júpiter [es decir, Zeus Olympios] y Mnemosyne, nueve en número; el el tercer grupo son las hijas de Pierus y Antiope, y generalmente son llamadas por los poetas Peirides o Peirian Maidens; son iguales en número y tienen los mismos nombres que el siguiente grupo anterior “.
  Plinio el Viejo, Historia Natural 4. 25 (trans. Rackham) (enciclopedia romana C1st AD): “A las Musae (Musas) se les asigna un lugar de nacimiento en el bosque de Helicon [en Boiotia] “.
  Arnobio, Contra los paganos 3. 37 (retórico cristiano romano C3rd AD): “Nos dicen Mnaseas [escritor griego C3rd BC] que las Musae (Musas) son las hijas de Tellus (Tierra) [Gaia] y Coelus (Cielo) [Ouranos]; otros declaran que son de Jove por su esposa Moneta [Mnemosyne, Memory] o Mens (Mind) [Metis?]; Algunos relatan que eran vírgenes, otros que eran matronas. Por ahora deseamos tocar brevemente los puntos en los que se muestra, a partir de la diferencia de sus opiniones, para hacer diferentes declaraciones sobre la misma cosa. Ephorus [historiador C4th BB], entonces, dice que son tres en número; Mnaseas, a quien mencionamos, que son cuatro; Myrtilus presenta siete; Crates [el filósofo? C4 aC] afirma que hay ocho; finalmente Hesíodo, enriqueciendo el cielo y las estrellas con dioses, presenta nueve nombres. ”
  ENFERMERÍA DE LAS MUSAS
  Pausanias, Descripción de Grecia 9. 29. 5 (trad. Jones) (cuaderno de viaje griego C2nd AD): “A medida que avanza por el camino recto hacia la arboleda [del Mousai ( Muses) on Mount Helikon (Helicon) in Boiotia] is a portrait of Eupheme (Well Spoken) carved in relief on a stone. She was, they say, the nurse of the Mousai.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 27 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Crotus, son of Eupheme, nurse of the Musae (Muses). As Sositheus, writer of tragedies [Greek C3rd B.C.], says, he had his home on Mount Helicon and took his pleasure in the company of the Musae.”
  SINGING AT THE CELEBRATIONS OF THE GODS
 
  Ares, Aphrodite and five Muses, Athenian black-figure dinos C6th B.C., British Museum I) FEASTS OF OLYMPUS
  Homer, Iliad 1. 604 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “Thus thereafter the whole day long until the sun went under they [the gods on Olympos] feasted, nor was anyone’s hunger denied a fair portion, nor denied the beautifully wrought lyre in the hands of Apollon (Apollo) nor the anitiphonal sweet sound of the Mousai (Muses) singing.”
  Hesiod, Theogony 36 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “The Mousai (Muses) who gladden the great spirit of their father Zeus in Olympos with their songs, telling of things that are and that shall be and that were aforetime with consenting voice. Unwearying flows the sweet sound from their lips, and the house of their father Zeus the loud-thunderer is glad at the lily-like voice of the goddesses as it spread abroad, and the peaks of snowy Olympos resound, and the homes of the immortals. And they uttering their immortal voice, celebrate in song first of all the reverend race of the gods from the beginning, those whom Gaia (Gaea, Earth) and wide Ouranos (Uranus, Heaven) begot, and the gods sprung of these, givers of good things. Then, next, the goddesses sing of Zeus, the father of gods and men, as they begin and end their strain, how much he is the most excellent among the gods and supreme in power. And again, they chan t the race of men and strong Gigantes (Giants), and gladden the heart of Zeus within Olympos,–the Mousai Olympiades (Olympian Muses), daughters of Zeus the aigis-holder.”
  Hesiod, The Shield of Heracles 201 ff : “[Among the scenes depicted on the shield of Herakles (Heracles) :] There also was the abode of the gods, pure Olympos, and their assembly, and infinite riches were spread around in the gathering, the Mousai Pierides (Pierian Muses) were beginning a song like clear-voiced singers.”
  Homeric Hymn 3 to Pythian Apollo 186 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th – 4th B.C.) : “[Apollon journeys to] Olympos, to the house of Zeus, to join the gathering of the other gods :] Then straightway the undying gods think only of the lyre and song, and all the Mousai (Muses) together, voice sweetly answering voice, hymn the unending gifts the gods enjoy and the sufferings of men, all that they endure at the hands of the deathless gods, and how they live witless and helpless and cannot find healing for death or defence against old age. Meanwhile the rich-tressed Kharites (Charites, Graces) and cheerful Horai (Horae, Seasons) dance with Harmonia (Harmony) and Hebe (Youth) and Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus, holding each other by the wrist.”
  Eumelus, Fragment 1 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C8th to 7th B.C.) : “For the god of Ithome [Zeus] took pleasure in the Moisa (Muse), the pure Moisa wearing her free sandals.”
  Anacreon, Fragment 390 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C6th B.C.) : “The [Mousai, Muses] fair-haired daughters of Zeus danced lightly.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 18. 4 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “[Among the scenes depicted on the chest of Kypselos (Cypselus) dedicated at Olympia :] There are also figures of Mousai (Muses) singing, with Apollon leading the song; these too have an inscription:–This is Leto’s son, prince Apollon, far-shooting; around him are the Mousai, a graceful choir, whom he is leading.”
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 14 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) : “[From a description of an ancient Greek painting :] A cloud of fire encompassing Thebes breaks into the dwelling of Kadmos (Cadmus) as Zeus comes wooing Semele; and Semele apparently is destroyed . . . And the form of Semele is dimly seen as she goes to the heavens, where the Mousai (Muses) will hymn her praises.”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 5. 690 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “He [Zeus] renews the banquet . . . and at last sends starry night down from Olympus. Then the choir of Musae (Muses) and Apollo, striker of the lyre, whose wont it is to tell of the Phlegraean fight, appear, and the Phrygian henchman [Ganymedes] bears round the heavy bowl. They [the gods] rise when slumber calls, and turn themselves each to his own dwelling.”
  Statius, Silvae 4. 2. 53 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman poetry C1st A.D.) : “The monarch of the gods [Jove-Zeus], when he visits once more the bounds of Oceanus and the Aethiopian board, and, his face suffused with sacred nectar, bids the Musae (Muses) utter their mystic songs, and Phoebus praise the triumph of Pallene [the victory of the gods in battle with the Gigantes (Giants)].”
 
  Hermes, Apollo and four Muses, Athenian black-figure dinos C6th B.C., British Museum II) WEDDING OF CADMUS & HARMONIA
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 3. 89 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “Yet a life free from care came neither to Peleus Aiakos’ (Aeacus’) son, nor to Kadmos (Cadmus) that godlike king; though they of all men won, so men say, the highest bliss, who heard the Mousai (Muses) in golden diadems chanting their songs upon the mountain and within the seven gates of Thebes, when one took for his bride Harmonia, the dark-eyed maid, the other glorious Thetis, daughter of wise Nereus.”
  Theognis, Fragment 1. 15 (trans. Gerber, Vol. Greek Elegiac) (Greek elegy C6th B.C.) : “Mousai (Muses) and Kharites (Charites, Graces), daughters of Zeus, who came once to the wedding of Kadmos (Cadmus) [and Harmonia] and sang the lovely verse, ‘What is beautiful is loved, what is not beautiful is not loved.’ This is the verse that went through your immortal lips.”
  Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 48. 2 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “[At the wedding of Kadmos (Cadmus) and Harmonia:] Apollon played upon the lyre and the Mousai (Muses) upon their flutes.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 5. 88 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “[At the wedding of Kadmos (Cadmus) and Harmonia:] The nine Mousai (Muses) too struck up a lifestirring melody: Polymnia (Polyhymnia) nursingmother of the dance waved her arms, and sketched in the air an image of a soundless voice, speaking with hands and moving eyes in a graphic picture of silence full of meaning.”
  III) WEDDING OF PELEUS & THETIS
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 3. 89 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “Yet a life free from care came neither to Peleus Aiakos’ (Aeacus’) son, nor to Kadmos (Cadmus) that godlike king; though they of all men won, so men say, the highest bliss, who heard the Mousai (Muses) in golden diadems chanting their songs upon the mountain and within the seven gates of Thebes, when one took for his bride Harmonia, the dark-eyed maid, the other glorious Thetis, daughter of wise Nereus.”
  Pindar, Nemean Ode 5. 21 ff : “Yet for these men [Peleus and Telamon] the Mousai’s (Muses’) peerless choir glad welcome sang on Pelion [at Peleus’ marriage to Thetis], and with them Apollon’s seven-stringed lyre and golden quill led many a lovely strain. To Zeus a prelude, then sang they first divine Thetis, and Peleus.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 4. 128 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “[At the wedding of Peleus and Thetis was seen :] The ravishing dance twined by the Kharites’ (Charites, Graces) feet . . . [and heard] the chant the Mousai (Muses) raised, and how its spell enthralled all mountains, rivers, all the forest brood; how raptured was the infinite firmament, Kheiron’s (Chiron’s) fair caverns, yea, the very Gods.”
  Colluthus, Rape of Helen 22 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poetry C5th to C6th A.D.) : “[Arriving to attend the wedding of Peleus and Thetis :] Out of the land of Melisseus, from fragrant Helikon (Helicon), Apollon came leading the clear-voiced choir of the Mousai (Muses).”
  IV) WEDDING OF EROS & PSYCHE
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass 6. 24 ff (trans. Walsh) (Roman novel C2nd A.D.) : “[At the wedding of Cupid (Eros) and Psyche (Psykhe):] Vulcanus [Hephaistos (Hephaestus)] cooked the dinner, the Horae (Seasons) brightened the scene with roses and other flowers, the Gratiae (Graces) [Kharites] diffused balsam, and the Musae (Muses), also present, sand in harmony. Apollo sang to the lyre, and Venus [Aphrodite] took to the floor to the strains of sweet music, and danced prettily. She had organized the performance so that the Musae sang in chorus, a Satyrus played the flute, and a Paniscus [a Pan] sang to the shepherd’s pipes. This was how with due ceremony Psyche was wed to Cupidos (Love [Eros].”
  SINGING AT THE FUNERALS OF HEROES
 
  Symbols of the nine Muses, Greek mosaic from Elis C1st B.C., Archaeological Museum of Elis I) FUNERAL OF ACHILLES
  Homer, Odyssey 24. 60 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “[Description of the funeral of Akhilleus (Achilles) :] The daughters of the ancient sea-god [the Nereides daughters of Nereus] stood round about you [Akhilleus], wailing piteously, and clothed you with celestial garments; and nine Mousai (Muses) sang your dirge with sweet responsive voices. Not one Argive you have seen there who was not weeping, the clear notes went to their hearts. For seventeen days and seventeen nights we lamented for you, immortal beings and mortal men; on the eighteenth day we committed you to the flames.”
  Arctinus of Miletus, The Aethiopis Frag 1 (from Proclus, Cherstomathia 2) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “The Akhaians (Achaeans) then . . . lay out the body of Akhilleus (Achilles), while Thetis, arriving with the Mousai (Muses) and her sisters, bewails her son.”
  Pindar, Isthmian Ode 8. 58 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “Not even in death was he [Akhilleus (Achilles)] of songs forsaken, but the [Mousai (Muses)] maids of Helikon ( parthenoi Helikoniai ) stood by his pyre and grave, and poured o’er him their dirge in chorus. Thus even the immortals ruled that to a brave man, though he be no more, the songs of goddesses by given.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 3. 594 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “[The funeral of Akhilleus (Achilles) at Troy :] Swiftly from Helikon (Helicon) the Mousai (Muses) came heart-burdened with undying grief, for love and honour to the Nereis (Nereid) [Thetis] starry-eyed. Then Zeus with courage filled the Argive men, that-eyes of flesh might undismayed behold that glorious gathering of Goddesses [i.e. the Nereides and Mousai attending the funeral]. Then those Divine Ones round Akhilleus’ corpse pealed forth with one voice from immortal lips a lamentation. Rang again the shores of Hellespont. As rain upon the earth their tears fell round the dead man, Aiakos’ (Aeacus’) son; for out of depths of sorrow rose their moan. And all the armour, yea, the tents, the ships of that great sorrowing multitude were wet with tears from ever-welling springs of grief . . . Then plunged the sun down into Okeanos’ (Oceanus’) stream . . . But upon Thetis sleep laid not his hand: still with the deathless Nereides by the sea she sate; on either side the Mousai spake one after other comfortable words to make that sorrowing heart forget its pain.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 3. 766 ff : “[After the funeral of Akhilleus (Achilles) :] Then returned to Helikon (Helicon) the Mousai (Muses): ‘neath the sea, wailing the dear dead, Nereus’ daughters [the Nereides] sank.”
  Anonymous, Epicedeion for a Professor of the University of Berytus (trans. Page, Vol. Select Papyri III, No. 138) (Greek poetry C4th A.D.) : “As once the Mousai (Muses) nine, Olympian maids ( kourai Olympiades ) of Zeus, wailed in mourning around Thetis, daughter of Nereus, weeping for her son [Akhilleus (Achilles)], the leader of the Myrmidones.”
  II) FUNERALS OF THEIR SONS
  Pindar, Dirges Fragment 139 (trans. Sandys) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “But in another song did three goddesses [Mousai (Muses)] lull to rest the bodies of their sons. The first of these [Terpsikhore (Terpsichore)] sang a dirge over the clear-voiced Linos (Linus) [personification of the lamentation song]; and the second [Ourania (Urania)] lamented with her latest strains Hymenaios (Hymenaeus), who was seized by Moira (Fate), when first he lay with another in wedlock; while the third [Kalliope (Calliope)] sorrowed over Ialmenos (Ialmenus), when his strength was stayed by the onset of a raging malady.
But the son of Oiagros (Oeagrus) [and Kalliope], Orpheus of the golden sword.”
  Greek Lyric V Folk Songs, Frag 880 (from Scholiast b on Iliad) (trans. Campbell) (B.C.) : “Oh Linos (Linus), honoured by the gods–for you were the first to whom the immortals gave a song for men to sing with clear voice; Phoibos (Phoebus) [Apollon] killed you in anger, but the Mousai (Muses) mourn for you.”
  THE MUSES & ORPHEUS
  Aeschylus, Bassarae or Bassarides (lost play) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) : Aeschylus’ lost play Bassarae described the death of Orpheus, son of Kalliope (Calliope). Weir Smyth (L.C.L.) summarises evidence for the plot: “Eratosthenes, Catasterismoi , says of Orpheus that he paid no honour to Dionysos, but considered Helios (the Sun) to be the greatest of the gods and addressed him as Apollon; that, by making haste during the night, he reached at dawn the summit of Mt. Pangaios (Pangaeum), and waited there that he might see the rising of the sun; and that Dionysos, in his wrath, sent against him the Bassarides (as Aeschylus tells the story), who tore him to pieces and scattered his members, which were collected and buried by the Mousai (Muses) in Leibethra.” Presumably the sisters appeared with Kalliope (Calliope) at the end of the play to sing the lament.
  Callistratus, Descriptions 7 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C4th A.D.) : “On Helikon (Helicon)–the spot is a shaded precinct sacred to the Mousai (Muses)–near the torrent of the river Olmeios (Olmeius) and the violet-dark spring of Pegasos (Pegasus), there stood beside the [statues of the] Mousai a statue of Orpheus, the son of Kalliope (Calliope), a statue most beautiful to look upon . . . He was carrying the lyre, which was equipped with as many notes as the number of the Mousai.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 7 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “[The Bakkhantes (Bacchantes) slay Orpheus, son of the Muse Kalliope (Calliope) :] They slew him and dismembered his body . . . The Musae (Muses) gathered the scattered limbs and gave them burial, and as the greatest favour they could confer, they put as a memorial his lyre, pictures with stars, among the constellations. Apollo and Jove [Zeus] consented, for Orpheus had praised Apollo highly, and Jupiter [Zeus] granted this favour to his daughter.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 7 : “[Aphrodite] stirred the women in Thrace by love, each to seek Orpheus [son of the Muse Kalliope (Calliope)] for herself, so that they tore him limb from limb. His head, carried down from the mountain into the sea, was cast by the waves upon the island of Lesbos. It was taken up and buried by the people of Lesbos, and in return for this kindness, they have the reputation of being exceedingly skilled in the art of music. The lyre, as we have said, was put by the Musae (Muses) among the stars.” [Cf. An Athenian vase showing Kalliope with the head of Orpheus.]
  MUSES COMPANIONS OF APOLLO & ARTEMIS
 
  Apollo, Marsyas and the Muses, Athenian red-figure bell krater C4th B.C., British Museum I) THE BIRTH & MENTORING OF APOLLO
  Alcman, Fragment 40 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C7th B.C.) : “The saffron-robed Mousai (Muses) taught these things [music & song] to the far-shooting son of Zeus [Apollon].”
  Callimachus, Hymn 4 to Delos 248 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) : “[At the birth of Apollon on Delos :] With music the swans, the gods’ own minstrels, left Maionian Paktolos (Maeonian Pactolus) and circled seven times round Delos, and sang over the bed of child-birth [i.e. of Apollon], the Mousai’s (Muses’) birds, most musical of all birds that fly. Hence that child in after days strung the lyre with just so many strings–seven strings, since seven times the swans sang over the pangs of birth. No eight time sang they : ere that the child [Apollon] leapt forth.”
  II) FEASTS OF THE GODS
  Apollon and the choir of Mousai (Muses) performed at the feasts of the gods, together with Artemis and the Kharites (Charites, Graces).
  See The Muses & the Feasts of the Gods (above)
  III) CELEBRATIONS OF DELPHI
  Homeric Hymn 27 to Artemis 14 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th – 4th B.C.) : “[Artemis] goes to the great house of her dear brother Phoibos Apollon (Phoebus Apollo), to the rich land of Delphoi (Delphi), there to order the lovely dance of the Mousai (Muses) and Kharites (Charites, Graces). There she hangs up her curved bow and her arrows, and heads and leads the dances, gracefuly arrayed, while all they utter their heavenly voice, singing.”
  Pindar, Paean 2 (trans. Sandys) (Greek lyric lC5th B.C.) : “On both the lofty rocks of Parnassos (Parnassus) [shrine of Apollon], the bright-eyed maidens of Delphoi (Delphi) [the Mousai (Muses)] full often set the fleet-footed dance, and ring out a sweet strain with resonant voice.”
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2. 19 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) : “The Boiotian Kephisos (Boeotian Cephisus), a stream not unknown to the Mousai (Muses) . . . [on] the road which leads straight to Phokis (Phocis) and Delphoi (Delphi).”
  Statius, Thebaid 6. 355 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “Apollo was charming with his strains the Musae’s (Muses’) glorious company, and, his finger placed upon the strings, was gazing down to earth from the airy summit of Parnassus.”
  IV) CELEBRATIONS OF HELICON
  Sappho, Fragment 208 (from Himerius, Orations) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (C6th B.C.) : “[Apollon] the Leader of the Mousai (Muses) ( Mousagetos ) himself as he appears when Sappho and Pindar in their songs deck him out with golden hair and lyre and send him drawn by swans to Mount Helikon (Helicon) to dance there with the Mousai (Muses) and Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  Simonides, Fragment 578 (from Himerius, Orations) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (C6th to 5th B.C.) : “I believe what Simonides sid in his songs in praise of the Mousai (Muses). His words were along these lines : the Mousai are always dancing, and the goddesses love to busy themselves with songs and strings. but when they see Apollon beginning to lead the dance, they put their heart into their singing even more than before and send down from Helikon (Helicon) an all-harmonious sound.”
  V) JUDGES OF THE CONTEST OF APOLLO & MARSYAS
  The Mousai (Muses) were frequently depicted in Athenian vase paintings of the C5th B.C. at the contest of Apollon and Marsyas. Presumably these scenes were based on tragedy plays produced in that era, in which a chorus of Mousai presided as judges.
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 9. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “[In the temple of Apollon and Leto in Mantinea in Arkadia (Arcadia) :] On the pedestal of these [the statues of the two gods] are figures of the Mousai (Muses) together with Marsyas playing the flute.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 165 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “He [Marsyas] challenged Apollo to play the lure in a contest with him. When Apollo came there, they took the Musae (Muses) as judges. Marsyas was departing as victor, when Apollo turned his lyre upside down, and played the same tune–a thing which Marsyas couldn’t do with the pipes. And so Apollo defeated Marsyas, bound him to a tree, and turned him over to a Scythian who stripped his skin off him limb by limb.”
  VI) NURSES OF APOLLO’S SON ARISTAEUS
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 512 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “He [Apollon] took his infant son [Aristaios (Aristaeus)] away to be brought up by Kheiron (Chiron) in his cave. When the child had grown up the divine Mousai (Muses) found him a bride, taught him the arts of healing and prophecy, and made him the shepherd of all their flocks that grazed on the Athamantian plain in Phthia, round Mount Othrys and in the valley of the sacred River Apidanos.”
  VII) DEITIES ALONGSIDE APOLLO OF POETRY & SONG
  Homer, The Margites Fragment 2 (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) “A servant [bard] of the Mousai (Muses) and of far-shooting Apollon.”
  Hesiod, Theogony 92 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “It is through the Mousai (Muses) and far-shooting Apollon that there are singers and harpers upon the earth.”
  Homeric Hymn 4 to Hermes 449 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th – 4th B.C.) : “And though I [Apollon] am a follower of the Mousai Olympiades (Olympian Muses) who love dances and the bright path of song–the full-toned chant and ravishing thrill of flutes.”
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 1. 13 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “And on the immortals’ hearts your shafts [poetry and song] instil a charmed spell–by grace of Leto’s son [Apollon] and the low-girdled Mousai (Muses).”
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 1. 1 ff : “O glorious lyre, joint treasure of Apollon, and of the Mousai (Muses) violet-tressed.”
  Terpander, Fragment 4 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C7th B.C.) : “Let us pour libation to the Mousai, the daughters of Mnamas (Mnemosyne, Memory), and to the leader of the Mousai (Muses), Leto’s son [Apollon].”
  Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragments 941 (from Grammatical Extracts) : “Let us pour libation to the Mousai (Muses), daughters of Mnamas (Mnemosyne, Memory), and the leader of the Mousai, Leto’s son [Apollon].”
  Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragments 1027f (from Dionysius of Halicarnassus, On Literary Compositions) : “To you, Phoibos (Phoebus) [Apollon] and the Mousai (Muses) who share your altar.”
  Callimachus, Iambi Fragment 14 (trans. Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) : “O Mousai (Muses) fair and Apollon to whom I [the poet] make libation.”
  Strabo, Geography 10. 3. 10 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “The Mousai (Muses) are goddesses, and Apollon is leader of the Mousai.”
  Strabo, Geography 10. 3. 10 : “As for the Mousai (Muses) and Apollo, the Mousai preside over the choruses, whereas Apollon presides both over these and the rites of divination.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 2. 5 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “They call Apollon Mousegetes (Musagetes, Leader of the Mousai).”
  Oppian, Halieutica 2. 16 (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd A.D.) : “The gods have given to men cunning arts and have put in them all wisdom. Other god is namesake of other craft, even that whereof he that got the honourable keeping . . . The gifts of the Mousai (Muses) and Apollon are songs.”
  For MORE information on this god see APOLLON
  THE MUSES & HERMES
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 1. 10 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) : “The clever device of the lyre, it is said, was invented by Hermes, who constructed it of two horns and a crossbar and a tortoise-shell; and he presented it first to Apollon and the Mousai (Muses), then to Amphion of Thebes.”
  MUSES COMPANIONS OF THE CHARITES
 
  Apollo, Marsyas and the Muses, Athenian red-figure bell krater C5th B.C., British Museum The Kharites (Charites, Graces) were the goddesses of dance, glorification and adornment, three spheres closely associated with the Mousai. The two sets of goddesses were frequently described as companions.
  Hesiod, Theogony 60 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “A little way from the topmost peak of snowy Olympos (Olympus), there are their [the Mousai’s (Muses’)] bright dancing-places and beautiful homes, and beside them the Kharites (Charites, Graces) and Himeros (Desire) live in delight.”
  Homeric Hymn 27 to Artemis 14 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th – 4th B.C.) : “[Artemis] goes to the great house of her dear brother Phoibos Apollon (Phoebus Apollo), to the rich land of Delphoi (Delphi), there to order the lovely dance of the Mousai (Muses) and Kharites (Charites, Graces). There she hangs up her curved bow and her arrows, and heads and leads the dances, gracefully arrayed, while all they utter their heavenly voice, singing.”
  Pindar, Paean 3 (trans. Sandys) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “Hail holy Kharites (Charites, Graces), companions of the Moisai (Muses), enthroned in splendour.”
  Sappho, Fragment 103 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (C6th B.C.) : “Hither, holy Kharites (Charites, Graces) and Pierides Moisai (Peirian Muses) [come inspire a song].”
  Sappho, Fragment 208 (from Himerius, Orations) : “[Apollon] appears when Sappho and Pindar in their songs . . . send him drawn by swans to Mount Helikon (Helicon) to dance there with the Mousai (Muses) and Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  The Anacreontea, Fragment 19 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C5th B.C.) : “The Mousai (Muses) tied Eros (Love) with garlands and handed him over to Kalleis (Calleis, Beauty) [i.e. one of the Kharites (Charites)]. And now Kythereia (Cytherea) [Aphrodite] brings a ransom and seeks to have him released. But if he is released, he will not leave but will stay: he has learned to be her slave.”
  The Anacreontea, Fragment 35 : “The soft rose. It is the breath of the gods and the joy of mortals, the glory of the Kharites (Charites, Graces) in spring-time, the delight of the Erotes (Loves) with their rich garlands and of Aphrodite; it is a subject for poetry and the graceful plant of the Mousai (Muses).”
  Bacchylides, Fragment 5 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th B.C.) : “You if any motal now alive will rightly assess the sweet gift [poetry] of the violet-crowned Mousai (Muses) sent for your adornment [i.e. glorification] . . . with the help of the slim-waisted Kharites (Charites, Graces).”
  For MORE information on these goddesses see THE KHARITES
  MUSES COMPANIONS OF DIONYSUS
  Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 4. 3 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “They say also that when he [Dionysos] went abroad he was accompanied by the Mousai (Muses), who were maidens that had received an unusually excellent education, and that by their songs and dancing and other talents in which they had been instructed these maidens delighted the heart of the god.”
  Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 5. 3 : “And, in general, the Mousai (Muses) who bestowed benefits and delights through the advantages which their education gave them, and the Satyroi (Satyrs) by the use of devices [flutes, tambourines] which contribute to mirth, made the life of Dionysos happy and agreeable.”
  For MORE information on this god see DIONYSOS
  CONTEST OF THE MUSES & THAMYRIS
 
  Thamyris and the Muses, Athenian red-figure vase fragment C4th B.C., National Archaeological Museum, Athens Homer, Iliad 2. 594 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “Dorion [near Pylos in Messenia], where the Mousai (Muses) encountered Thamyris the Thrakian (Thracian) stopped him from singing as he came from Oikhalia (Oechalia) and Oikhalian Eurytos (Eurytus); for he boasted that he would surpass, if the very Mousai, daughters of Zeus who holds the aigis, were singing against him, and these in their anger struck him maimed, and the voice of wonder they took away, and made him a singer without memory.”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 17 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Thamyris, who was a handsome person and a skilled citharist, entered a musical contest with the Mousai (Muses). If he were to win, he could sleep with all of them; otherwise they would be free to take from him whatever they wanted. The Mousai won, and deprived him of his eyes and his musical skill.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 4. 33. 7 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “Homer [ Iliad 2.594 quoted above] states that the misfortune of Thamyris took place here in Dorion [in Messenia], because he said that he would overcome the Mousai (Muses) themselves in song. But Prodikos (Prodicus) of Phokaia (Phocaea) [Greek poet C6th B.C.] , if the epic called the Minyad is indeed his, says that Thamyris paid the penalty in Haides for his boast against the Mousai. My view is that Thamyris lost his eyesight through disease, as happened later to Homer . . . . Thamyris forsook his art through stress of the trouble that afflicted him.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 6 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “The [Constellation] Kneeler. Others call him Thamyris, blinded by the Musae (Muses), kneeling as a suppliant.”
  Statius, Thebaid 4. 181 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “Dorion [in Messenia] that bewails the Getic bard : here Thamyris made bold to surpass in song the skilled daughters of Aonia [the Muses], but doomed to a life of silence fell on the instant mute with voice and harp alike–who may despise deities met face to face?– for that he knew not what it was to strive with Phoebus [Apollon], nor how the hanging Satyrus [Marsyas] brought Celaenae fame.”
  CONTEST OF THE MUSES & THE SIRENS
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 34. 3 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “[At Koroneia (Coronea) in Boiotia] is a sanctuary of Hera . . . in her hands she carried the Seirenes (Sirens). For the story goes that the daughters of Akheloios (Achelous) were persuaded by Hera to compete with the Mousai (Muses) in singing. The Mousai won, plucked out the Seirenes’ feathers and made crowns for themselves out of them.”
  For MORE information on these bird-women see THE SEIRENES
  CONTEST OF THE MUSES & THE PIERIDES
 
  Portraits of the nine Muses, Greco-Roman mosaic from Neustrasse C3rd-4th A.D., Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 9 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Zeus made love to Mnemosyne in Pieria and became father of the Mousai (Muses). Around about this time Pieros (Pierus) was king of Emathia, sprung from its very soil. He had nine daughters. They were the ones who formed a choir in opposition to the Mousai. And there was a musical contest on Helikon (Helicon).
Whenever the daughters of Pieros began to sing, all creation went dark and no one would give an ear to their choral performance. But when the Mousai sang, heaven, the stars, the sea and rivers stood still, while Mount Helikon, beguiled by the pleasure of it all, swelled skyward till, by the will of Poseidon, Pegasos (Pegasus) checked it by striking the summit with his hoof.
Since these mortals had taken upon themselves to strive with goddesses, the Mousai changed them into nine birds. To this day people refer to them as the grebe, the wryneck, the ortolan, the jay, the greenfinch, the goldfinch, the duck, the woodpecker, and the dracontis pigeon.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 39. 3 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “The sons of Aloeus [the Aloadae, who founed the shrine of the Muses on Mount Helikon (Helicon)] held that the Mousai (Muses) were three in number . . . But they say that afterwards Pieros (Pierus), a Makedonian (Macedonian). . . came to Thespiai (Thespiae) [the town beneath Mount Helikon] and established nine Mousai, changing their names to the present ones . . .
There are some who say that Pieros himself had nine daughters [the Pierides], that their names were the same as those of the goddesses, and that those whom the Greeks called the children of the Mousai were sons of the daughters of Pieros.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 9. 39. 6 : “There are many untruths believed by the Greeks [about the poet Orpheus], one of which is that Orpheus was a son of the Mousa Kalliope (Muse Calliope), and not of the daughter of Pieros (Pierus).”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 5. 294 & 662 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “The Musa (Muse) was speaking [to Athena] when in the air a whirr of wings was heard, and from high boughs there came a greeting voice. Jove’s [Zeus’] child looked up to see whence came the tongue that spoke so clear, thinking it was a man. It was a bird: nine of them there had perched upon the boughs, lamenting their misfortune, master-mimics, nine magpies. As Minerva [Athena] gazed in wonder, the Musae began (one goddess to another) to tell this tale. ‘Not long ago these, too, worsted in contest, swelled the tribe of birds. Their father was rich Pierus, a squire of Pellae, and Euippe Paeonis their mother. To her aid nine times she called Lucina [Eileithyia, goddess of childbirth] and nine times she bore a child. This pack of stupid sisters, puffed with pride in being nine, had travelled through the towns, so many towns of Haemonia [Thessaly] and Achaea and reached us here at last and challenged us: “Cease cheating with that spurious charm of yours the untutored rabble. If you trust your powers content with us, you Thespian Goddesses ( Deae Thespiades ) [Mousai (Muses)]. In voice and skill we shall not yield to you; in number we are equal. If you lose, you leave Medusaeus’ [Pegasos’ (Pegasus’)] spring [Hippokrene (Hippocrene) on Mount Helikon] and Aganippe Hyantea [spring of Thebes], or we the plain of Emathia up to Paeonia’s snowy mountainsides; and let the judgement of the Nymphae decide.” ‘Of course it was a shame to strive with them but greater shame to yield. The choice of Nymphae was made; they took the oath by their own streams, and sat on benches shaped form living stone. Then, without drawing lots, the one who claimed to challenge sang of the great war in heaven, ascribing spurious prowess to the Gigantes, belittling all the exploits of the gods : how Typhoeus, issuing from earth’s lowest depths, struck terror in those heavenly hearts, and they all turned their backs and fled, until they found refuge in Aegyptus and the seven-mouthed Nilus. She told how Typhoeus Terrigena (Earthborn) even there pursued them and the gods concealed themselves in spurious shapes; “And Juppiter [Zeus] became a ram,” she said, “lord of the herd, and so today great Ammon Libys’ [Zeus-Ammon] shown with curling horns. Delius [Apollon] hid as a raven, Semeleia [Dionysos] as a goat, Phoebe [Artemis] a cat, Saturnia [Hera] a snow-white cow, Venus [Aphrodite] a fish and Cyllenius [Hermes] an ibis.” So to her lyre she sang and made an end. ‘Then we the Aonides [Mousai] were called. But maybe you’ve no time or leisure now to listen to our song?’ ‘No, to be sure’, said Pallas [Athena], ‘sing your song, sing it right through’, and took her seat beneath the trees’ light shade. The Musa (Muse) resumed her tale. ‘We appointed one of us our champion, Calliope. She rose, her flowing hair bound in an ivy wreath, and with her thumb tuning the plaintive chords, began this song, accompanying her voice with sweeping strings . . . [she sings the tale of the abduction of Persephone.] ‘Such was the song Calliope our leading sister sang; she finished and the Nymphae with one accord declared the goddesses of Helicon the winners. As the losers hurled abuse, “So then it’s not enough,” I said, “that your challenge has earned you chastisement; you add insult to injury. Our patience has its limits; we’ll proceed to punishment. Where anger calls, we’ll follow.” Those nine girls, the Emathides, laughed and despised my threats and, as they tried to speak and shout and scream and shake their fists, before their eyes their fingers sprouted feathers, plumage concealed their arms, and each of them saw in the face of each a heard beak form, all weird new birds to live among the woods; and as they beat their breasts their flapping arms raised them to ride the air–and there they were, magpies, the copses’ saucy scolds. Now still as birds they keep their former eloquence, their endless raucous chattering, as each indulges in her passionate love of speech.’ Tritonia [Athena] had listened to the tale she told with warm approval of the Aonides’ [Mousai’s (Muses’)] song and of their righteous rage.”
  Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3. 21 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) : “The second set [of goddess Mousai (Muses)] are the offspring of the third Jupiter [Zeus Olympios] and Mnemosyne, nine in number; the third set are the daughters of Pierus and Antiope, and are usually called by the poets Peirides or Peirian Maidens; they are the same in number [nine] and have the same names as the next preceding set.”
  MUSES & THE PUNISHMENT OF PYRENEUS
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 5. 274 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “[The Mousai (Muses) tell a story to the goddess Athena :] Blest indeed our fortune here [on Mount Helikon (Helicon)], were we but safe. Crime is so unchecked that everything frightens our virgin hearts. Brutal Pyreneus haunts me; in truth I’ve not recovered yet. He brought his savage Thracian soldiery and captured Daulis and the countryside of Phocea [i.e. in the region of Helicon] and retained his ill-gained realm. One morning we were travelling towards the temple on Parnasia [i.e. Apollon’s shrine of Delphoi], on the road he saw us and, pretending reverence for our divinity, ‘Wait here a while,’ he said, ‘blest Mnemonides [Muses]’ (knowing who we were) ‘Beneath my roof and shelter from the rain’ (For rain was falling) ‘and the angry sky. You must not scruple: often gods of heaven have entered humbler homes.’ Swayed by his words and by the weather we agreed and went inside the entrance hall. The rain now ceased, the south wind yielding to the northern breeze; the dark clouds fled, the sky was clean and clear; we meant to go. Pyreneus locked the door to do us violence, which we escaped by taking wing. As if he meant to follow he climbed a battlement. ‘Whichever way you take,’ he said, ‘I’ll take the same’ and leapt, the madman, from the highest pinnacle, and pitched head foremost, shattering his skull upon the ground, red with his wicked blood.”
  THE MUSES & CROTUS
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 27 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “[Constellation] Archer . . . Some say that he is Crotus, son of Eupheme, nurse of the Musae (Muses). As Sositheus, writer of tragedies [Greek C3rd B.C.], says, he had his home on Mount Helicon and took his pleasure in the company of the Musae, sometimes even following the pursuit of hunting. He attained great fame for his diligence, for he was very swift in the woods, and clever in the arts. As a reward for his zeal the Musae asked Jove [Zeus] to represent him in some star group, and Jove did so. Since he wished to display all his skills in one body, he gave him horse flanks because he rode a great deal. He added arrows, since these would show both his keenness and his swiftness, and he gave him a Satyrus’ (Satyr’s) tail because the Musae took no less pleasure in Crotus than Liber [Dionysos] did in the Satyri. Before his feet are a few stars arranged in a cir cle, which some said were a wreath, thrown off as by one at play.”
  THE MUSES & THE SPHINX
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 5 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “[The Sphinx] had learned a riddle from the Mousai (Muses), and now sat on Mount Phikiom (Phicium) where she kept challenging the Thebans with it.”
  For MORE information on this monster see SPHINX
 
  ANCIENT GREEK & ROMAN ART
 
 
 
 
  K20.1A Muse with Lyre
  Paestan Red Figure Vase Painting C4th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K20.1B Muse with Box
  Paestan Red Figure Vase Painting C4th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K20.1C Muse with Barbiton
  Paestan Red Figure Vase Painting C4th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K20.3 Apollo, Muse with Lyre
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K20.11A Muses, Ares, Aphrodite
  Figura ateniense negra Jarrón Pintura C6th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K20.11B Muses, Apollo, Hermes
  Figura ateniense negra Jarrón Pintura C6th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K20.4 Muse on Helicon
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K20.4B Muse on Helicon
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K20.5 Apollo, Muse with Cithara
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K20.10 Thamyris & the Muses
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K20.10B Euterpe with Flute
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K20.10C Calliope with Lyre
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K20.2 Muse with Lyre
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C4th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T61.7 Apollo, Marsyas, Muses
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C4th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T61.3 Apollo, Marsyas, Muses
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T61.2 Apollo, Marsyas, Muses
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T24.1 Winged Muse or Nike
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T24.8 Winged Muse or Nike
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
  
 
 
 
 
 
  K5.14 Apollo & the Muses
  Greek Black Figure Vase Painting C6th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  K20.8 Thamyris & the Muses
  Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z20.1A Muse Terpsichore
  Greco-Roman Vichten Floor Mosaic C3rd A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z20.1B Muse Calliope & Homer
  Greco-Roman Vichten Floor Mosaic C3rd A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z20.1C Muse Polyhymnia
  Greco-Roman Vichten Floor Mosaic C3rd A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z20.5 Melpomene, Clio, Virgil
  Greco-Roman Bardo Floor Mosaic A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z20.2 Portraits of the Nine Muses
  Greco-Roman Cos Floor Mosaic A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z20.3 Portraits of the Nine Muses
  Greco-Roman Trier Mosaic C3rd A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z20.4 Symbols of the Nine Muses
  Greek Elis Floor Mosaic C1st B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  S20.3A Calliope
  Estatua de mármol grecorromana
 
 
 
 
 
 
  S20.3B Clio
  Estatua de mármol grecorromana
 
 
 
 
 
 
  S20.3C Polyhymnia
  Estatua de mármol grecorromana
 
 
 
 
 
 
  S20.3E Thalia
  Estatua de mármol grecorromana
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  S20.3D Terpsichore
  Estatua de mármol grecorromana
 
 
 
 
 
 
  S20.2 Terpsichore
  Estatua de mármol grecorromana
 
 
 
 
 
 
  S20.1 Melpomene
  Estatua de mármol grecorromana
 
 
 
 

  SOURCES (ALL MUSES PAGES)
  GREEK
  Homer, The Iliad – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Homer, The Odyssey – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Hesiod, Theogony – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  Hesiod, Works and Days – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  The Homeric Hymns – Greek Epic C8th – 4th B.C.
  Homerica, The Margites Fragments – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  Homerica, Homer’s Epigrams – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  Homerica, The Origin of Homer and Hesiod – Greek Epic B.C.
  Epic Cycle, The Aethiopis Fragments – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Pindar, Odes – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Pindar, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric I Eumelus, Fragments – Greek Lyric C8th B.C.
  Greek Lyric I Terpander, Fragments – Greek Lyric C7th B.C.
  Greek Lyric I Alcman, Fragments – Greek Lyric C7th B.C.
  Greek Lyric I Sappho, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric II Anacreon, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric III Stesichorus, Fragments – Greek Lyric C7th – 6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric III Ibycus, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric III Simonides, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th – 5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric V Aristotle, Fragments – Greek Lyric B.C.
  Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragments – Greek Lyric B.C.
  Greek Elegaic Mimnermus, Fragments – Greek Elegaic C7th B.C.
  Greek Elegaic Solon, Fragments – Greek Elegaic C6th B.C.
  Greek Elegaic Theognis, Fragments – Greek Elegaic C6th B.C.
  Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Aeschylus, Fragments – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Aristophanes, Frogs – Greek Comedy C5th – 4th B.C.
  Plato, Alcibiades – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Plato, Cratylus – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Plato, Ion – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Plato, Phaedrus – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Plato, Theaetetus – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Apollodorus, The Library – Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Apollonius Rhodius, The Argonautica – Greek Epic C3rd B.C.
  Callimachus, Hymns – Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  Callimachus, Fragments – Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  Greek Papyri III Poseidippus, Fragments – Greek Elegiac C2nd B.C.
  Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History – Greek History C1st B.C.
  Strabo, Geography – Greek Geography C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Pausanias, Description of Greece – Greek Travelogue C2nd A.D.
  The Orphic Hymns – Greek Hymns C3rd B.C. – C2nd A.D.
  Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses – Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Aelian, Historical Miscellany – Greek Rhetoric C2nd – 3rd A.D.
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines – Greek Rhetoric C3rd A.D.
  Philostratus the Younger, Imagines – Greek Rhetoric C3rd A.D.
  Callistratus, Descriptions – Greek Rhetoric C4th A.D.
  Oppian, Halieutica – Greek Poetry C3rd A.D.
  Arnobius, Against the Heathen – Chrisitan Scholar C3rd A.D.
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy – Greek Epic C4th A.D.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca – Greek Epic C5th A.D.
  Colluthus, The Rape of Helen – Greek Epic C5th – 6th A.D.
  Greek Papyri III Anonymous, Fragments – Greek Poetry C4th A.D.
  ROMAN
  Hyginus, Fabulae – Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Hyginus, Astronomica – Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Ovid, Metamorphoses – Latin Epic C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Ovid, Fasti – Latin Poetry C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Virgil, Georgics – Latin Bucolic C1st B.C.
  Propertius, Elegies – Latin Elegy C1st B.C.
  Cicero, De Natura Deorum – Latin Rhetoric C1st B.C.
  Pliny the Elder, Natural History – Latin Encyclopedia C1st A.D.
  Valerius Flaccus, The Argonautica – Latin Epic C1st A.D.
  Statius, Thebaid – Latin Epic C1st A.D.
  Statius, Silvae – Latin Poetry C1st A.D.
  Apuleius, The Golden Ass – Latin Novel C2nd A.D.
  BYZANTINE
  Suidas, The Suda – Byzantine Greek Lexicon C10th A.D.
  OTHER SOURCES
  Other references not currently quoted here: Scholiast on Pindar’s Nemean Odes 3.16, Plutarch Table-Talk 9.14, Plutarch Roman Questions 59, Diodorus Siculus 1.18, Arnobius Adversus Nationes 3.37, Plato Republic 116, Martial 7.11, Scholiast on Theocritus 7.92, Servius on Virgil’s Eclogues 7.21, Servius on Aeneid 1.12.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY
  A complete bibliography of the translations quoted on this page.