Saltar al contenido

SELENE

25/01/2020

Mitología griega >> Dioses griegos >> Dioses del cielo >> Titanes [> 19459004] > Selene
 

 
  Traducción

  Luna ( selênê )
 
 

 
  La diosa Selene de la luna, la figura roja ateniense kylix C5th B.C., Antikensammlung Berlin SELENE fue la diosa Titán de la luna. Fue representada como una mujer montada en un caballo o conduciendo un carro tirado por un par de corceles alados. Su esfera lunar o media luna era una corona puesta sobre su cabeza o el pliegue de una capa elevada y brillante. A veces se decía que conducía un equipo de bueyes y su media luna se asemejaba a un par de cuernos de toro.
  El gran amor de Selene fue el príncipe pastor Endymion . Zeus le otorgó al niño hermoso la eterna juventud y la inmortalidad y lo colocó en un estado de sueño eterno en una cueva cerca de la cima del Monte Lydian Latmos (Latmus). Su novia celestial se unió a él allí en la noche.
  Una serie de otras diosas también se asociaron con la luna, sin embargo, solo Selene estuvo representada por los antiguos poetas griegos representados como la encarnación de la luna. Otras diosas griegas de la luna incluyeron Pasiphae , los Leukippides (Leucippes) , Eileithyia , Hekate (Hecate) [194594590], [1945945904], Artemisa , Bendis y Hera (que a veces doblaba a Selene en el mito de Endymion).
  FAMILIA DE SELENE
  PADRES
  [1.1] HYPERION y THEIA (Hesiod Theogony 371, Apollodorus 1.8, Hyginus Prefacio) [1.2] HYPERION [1945 ] & EURYPHAESSA (Himno homérico 31 a Helios) [2.1] PALLAS (Himno homérico 4 a Hermes 100, Ovid Fasti 4.373) [3.1] HELIOS (Eurípides Fenicios 175, Nonnus Dionysiaca 44.198)
  ESCUELA
  [1.1] PANDEIA (por Zeus ) (Himno homérico 32 a Selene, Prólogo de Hyginus) [2.1] ERSA [ 19459004] (por Zeus ) (Griego lírico II Alcman Frag 57) [3.1] NEMEA (por Zeus ) [ 19459042] (Scholiast en la Oda nemeana de Pindar) [4.1] THE HORAI x4 (por Helios ) (Quintus Smyrnaeus 10.334) [1945900] [1945900] ] [5.1] THE MENAI x50 (por Endymion ) (Pausanias 5.1.5) [6.1] LEÓN NEMEAN [ 19459042] (Aelian On Animals 12.7, Hyginus Fabulae 30, Seneca Hercules Furens 83) [7.1] MOUSAIOS (Ion of Chiod Frag 30a, Plato Republic 364d, Philodemus On Piety) ] [8.1] NA RKISSOS (por Endymion ) (Nonnus Dionysiaca 48.582)
  ENCICLOPEDIA
  SELE′NE (Selênê), también llamada Mene, o Latin Luna, era la diosa de la luna, o la luna personificada en un ser divino. Se la llama hija de Hyperion y Theia, y en consecuencia es hermana de Helios y Eos (Hes. Theog. 371, & c .; Apollod. I. 2. § 2; Schol. ad Pind Isthm. v. 1, ad Apollon. Rhod. iv. 55); pero otros hablan de ella como hija de Hyperion por Euryphaessa (Hom. Himno. 31. 5 ), o de Pallas (Hom. Himno en Merc. 99, & c.) , o de Zeus y Latona (Schol. ad Eurip. Phoen. 175 ), o finalmente de Helios (Eurip. lc; comp. Hygin. Praef. p. 10, ed. Muncker). También se llama Phoebe, como la hermana de Phoebus, el dios del sol. Por Endymion, a quien amaba y a quien envió a dormir para besarlo, se convirtió en la madre de cincuenta hijas (Apollod. I. 7. § 5; Cic. Tusc. i. 38; Catull. 66. 5; Paus. V. 1. § 2); por Zeus se convirtió en la madre de Pandeia, Ersa y Nemea (Hom. Himno 32. 14; Plut. Sympos. iii. en fin .; Schol. ad Pind. Nem. Hypoth, p. 425, ed. Böckh). También se dice que Pan tuvo conexión con ella en forma de carnero blanco (Virg. Georg. iii. 391). Selene es descrita como una diosa muy hermosa, con alas largas y una diadema dorada (Hom. Himno. 32. 1, 7 ), y Esquilo ( Sept. 390 la llama la ojo de noche Ella cabalgó, como su hermano Helios, a través de los cielos en un carro tirado por dos caballos blancos, vacas o mulas (Ov. Fast. iv. 374, iii. 110, Rem. Am. 258; Auson. Ep. v. 3; Claudian, Rapt. Proserp. iii. 403; Nonn. Dionys. vii. 244). Estaba representada en el pedestal del trono de Zeus en Olimpia, montando a caballo o en mula (Paus. V. 11. § 3); y en Elis había una estatua de ella con dos cuernos (Paus. vi. 24. § 5). En tiempos posteriores, Selene se identificó con Artemisa, y la adoración de los dos se amalgamó (Callim. Himno en Dian. 114, 141; Soph. Oed. Tyr. 207; Plut . Sympos. Lc; Catull. 34. 16; Serv. ad Aen. iv. 511, vi. 118). En las obras de arte, sin embargo, las dos divinidades generalmente se distinguen; la cara de Selene era más completa y redonda, su figura menos alta y siempre vestida con una larga túnica; Su velo forma un arco sobre su cabeza, y sobre él está la media luna. En Roma, Luna tenía un templo en el Aventino. (Liv. Xl. 2; Ov. Rápido. iii. 884.)
  MENE (Mênê), una divinidad femenina que preside los meses. (Hom. Himno. xii. 1; Apollon. Rhod. Iii. 533, iv. 55; agosto. De Civ. Dei, vii. 2.)
  Fuente: Diccionario de biografía y mitología griega y romana.
  DELETREOS DE NOMBRES ALTERNATIVOS
 
 
  Nombre griego
  Σελαναια
  [ηνη
 
 
  Transliteración
  Selanaia
  Mênê
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Selene
  Mene
 
 
  Traducción
  Luna ( selênê )
  Luna, mes ( mênê )
 
 
  CITAS DE LITERATURA CLÁSICA
  PADRE DE SELENE
 
  Selene y Endymion dormido, mosaico grecorromano, Museo Nacional Bardo Hesiod, Theogony 371 y sigs. (Traducción. Evelyn-White) (griego épico C8th o C7th BC): “Y Theia fue sometida en amor a Hyperion y descubrió al gran Helios (Sol) y al claro Selene (Luna) y Eos (Amanecer) que brilla sobre todo lo que está en la tierra y sobre los inmortales Dioses que viven en el cielo ancho “.
  Himno homérico 31 a Helius (trad. Evelyn-White) (griego épico C7th – 4to a. C.): “Para Hyperion se casó con la gloriosa Euryphaessa, su propia hermana, que le dio a luz adorables hijos, Eos (Dawn) con los brazos rosados ​​y Selene (Moon) con sus ricas tersas y Helios (Sun) incansable “.
  Himno homérico 4 a Hermes 100 y siguientes: “Bright Selene, hija del señor Pallas, hijo de Megamedes”.
  Eurípides, fenicios 175 y ss. (Trad. Vellacott) (tragedia griega C5th B.C.): “Selene, círculo de oro reluciente, hija de Helios (Sol) con cinturón radiante”.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 8 (trans. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Los Titanes (Titanes) tuvieron hijos … Hyperion y Theia tuvieron Eos, Helios y Selene “.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Prefacio (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “De Hyperion y Aethra [nacieron]: Sol [Helios], Luna [Selene], Aurora [Eos] “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 44. 198 ss. (Trans. Rouse) (griego épico C5th A.D.): “Oh hija de Helios, Mene [Selene] de muchos giros, enfermera de todos”.
  NIÑOS DE SELENE
  Selene era la madre de las diosas Pandia (All-Gifts), Ersa (Dew), Menai (Menae, Months), y algunos dicen de las cuatro Horai (Horae, Seasons). Su único hijo mortal fue el poeta Mousaios (Musaeus).
  Himno homérico 32 a Selene (trad. Evelyn-White) (épica griega C7th – 4th BC): “Once Kronides (Cronides) [Zeus the Rain-God] se unió a ella [Selene la Luna] enamorada, y ella concibió una hija Pandeia (All Divine), muy hermosa entre los dioses inmortales “. [N.B. Pandeia es probablemente lo mismo que Ersa (rocío nutritivo), cf. Alcman abajo.]
  Alcman, Fragment 57 (trad. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C7th BC): “Cosas que son alimentadas por Ersa (Dew), hija de Zeus y Selene ( Luna).”
  Ion of Chios, Fragment 30A Elegies (de Philodemus, On Piety) (trad. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric IV) (C5th BC): “Y Musaios (Musaeus) [el Orpheus dice que la cantante mítica] fue su hijo [el de Selene], Ion lo llama “luna caída”.
  Platón, La República 364d (trad. Shorey) (filósofo griego C4 aC): “Los libros [místicos] de Musaios (Musaeus) y Orfeo, la descendencia de Selene (Luna) y de la Mousa (musa), como afirman “.
  Pausanias, Descripción de Grecia 5. 1. 4 (trans. Jones) (cuaderno de viaje griego C2nd AD): “Selene, dicen, se enamoró de este Endymion y le dio cincuenta hijas [es decir, Menai (Menae), cincuenta meses de la Olimpiada de cuatro años] “.
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 10. 334 ff (vía trans.) (Griego épico C4th AD): “Sentados a su lado [Hera] había doncellas cuatro con radiante Selene desnudo a Helios (el Sol) para ser ministros incansables en el Cielo, en forma y oficio diversos cada uno de cada uno; de estos Horai (Horae, Seasons) uno era la reina del verano, y uno del invierno y su estrella tormentosa, de la primavera el tercero , de otoño-marea el cuarto “.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Prefacio (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd A.D.): “De Jove [Zeus] y Luna [Selene] [nació]: Pandia”.
  SELENE Y EL LEÓN NEMEAN
  Aelian, On Animals 12. 7 (trad. Scholfield) (historia natural griega C2nd AD): “Dicen que el León de Nemea cayó de la luna ( selene [ 19459016]). En cualquier caso, Epiménides [poeta del siglo VI a. C.] también tiene estas palabras: «Porque nací de Selene the Moon, que se estremeció de miedo y sacudió al salvaje león en Nemea, y lo sacó al oferta de la reina Hera. “”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 30 (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “El León Nemean, un monstruo invulnerable, que Luna [Selene] había alimentado en un par- con la boca abierta, él [Herakles] giró y tomó la piel para cubrirse a la defensiva “.
  Séneca, Hercules Furens 83 ff (trad. Miller) (tragedia romana C1st AD): “Deje que Luna (Luna) [Selene] en el cielo produzca aún otras criaturas monstruosas. Pero él [Herakles] ha conquistado como estos [es decir, el león nemeiano, nacido de la luna] “.
  Para MÁS información sobre este animal, consulte el LEÓN NEMEIANO
  AMOR A SELENE Y ENDYMION (Y PAN)
 
  Selene y Endymion, voluta krater de figura roja de Apulia C4th BC, Museo de Arte de Dallas Sappho, Fragment 199 (de Scholiast en Apolonio de Rodas) (trad. Campbell, Vol. Griego Letra lírica IV) (Letra griega C5th BC): “La historia cuenta que Selene baja a esta cueva [en el Monte Latmos en Karia (Caria)] para encontrarse con Endymion. Sappho y Nikandros) (Nicander [poeta C2nd BC] … cuentan la historia del amor de Selene ”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 56 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “[Endymion] un hombre de belleza incomparable, fue amado por Selene. Cuando él Zeus le dio un deseo de su elección, eligió permanecer inmortal y sin envejecer en el sueño eterno “.
  Apolonio Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 55 ff (trans. Rieu) (griego épico C3rd BC): “Levantándose del lejano este, la Lady Selene (Luna), diosa titánica, vio la niña [Medea la bruja] deambulaba angustiada [por amor a Jason], y en una alegría perversa se dijo a sí misma: ‘Así que no soy la única que se extravía por amor, yo que ardo por el hermoso Endymion y lo busco en el Latmian cueva. ¡Cuántas veces, cuando estaba empeñado en el amor, me has desorganizado con tus encantamientos, haciendo que la noche esté sin luna para que puedas practicar tu amada brujería sin molestias! Y ahora estás tan enamorado como yo. El pequeño dios de la travesura te dio a Iason (Jason), y muchas angustias con él. Bueno, sigue tu camino; pero inteligente como eres, prepárate ahora para enfrentar una vida de suspiros y miseria. “Así dijo Selene”.
  Strabo, Geografía 14. 1. 8 (trans. Jones) (geógrafo griego C1st BC a C1st AD): “Esta montaña [Mount Latmos (Latmus)] se encuentra sobre Herakleia (Heraclea ) [en Lydia], y a gran altura. A una ligera distancia de él, después de haber cruzado un pequeño río cerca de Latmos, se puede ver el sepulcro de Endymion, en una cueva “.
  Pausanias, Descripción de Grecia 5. 1. 4 – 5 (trans. Jones) (cuaderno de viaje griego C2nd AD): “Selene, dicen, se enamoró de este Endymion y aburrió él cincuenta hijas … En cuanto a la muerte de Enydmion, la gente de Herakleia (Heraclea) cerca de Miletos (Miletus) no está de acuerdo con los Eleans; mientras que los Eleans que una tumba de Endymion, la gente de Herakleia dicen que se retiró al Monte Latmos (Latmus) y darle honor, habiendo un santuario de Endymion en Latmos “.
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 10. 127 ff (trans. Way) (griego épico C4th AD): “Esa cueva embrujada [en el monte Latmos] de ninfas de pelo rubio (ninfas ) donde, mientras Endymion dormía junto a su familia, la divina Selene lo miró desde lo alto, y se deslizó del cielo a la tierra, porque el amor apasionado derribó a la inmortal reina de la noche de acero inoxidable. Y un memorial de su sofá permanece aún debajo de los robles; porque a la mitad de los cadáveres se derramó leche de kine, y todavía los hombres maravillados contemplan su blancura. Dirías que, de lejos, se trataba de leche, que es un manantial de agua blanca: si dibujas un poco más, mira , la corriente está bordeada de hielo, porque la piedra blanca la rodea “.
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 10. 411 y siguientes: “White Selene (la Luna) … recordó su propio amor, el principe Endymion”.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 271 (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “Jóvenes que eran más guapos. Adonis, hijo de Cinyras y Smyrna, a quien Venus [Afrodita] amado
Endymion, hijo de Aetolus, a quien Luna [Selene] amaba.
Ganímedes, hijo de Erichthonius, a quien Jove [Zeus] amaba. Jacinto, hijo de Oebalus, a quien Apolo amaba. ”
  Ovidio, Heroides 15. 87 y sigs. (Trans. Showerman) (poesía romana C1st BC a C1st AD): “[Safo habla de la belleza de Faón:] Él debería Phoebe [Selene la Luna] he aquí, quien contempla todas las cosas, será Phaon que ella ordene continuar mientras duerme [es decir, como su amante en lugar de Endymion] “.
  Ovidio, Heroides 18. 59 y siguientes: “[Leandros (Leander) nadando el Hellespont de noche reza a la Luna:] La luna en su mayor parte me arrojó una luz temblorosa mientras nadaba , como un asistente dudoso vigilando mi camino. Levantando hacia ella mis ojos, “Ten misericordia de mí, brillante deidad”, dije, “¡y deja que las rocas de Latmos (Latmus) se eleven en tu mente! Endymion no te tendrá austero”. de corazón. Bend, oh, rezo, tu rostro para ayudar a mis amores secretos. Tú, una diosa, te deslizaste de los cielos y buscaste un amor mortal; ¡ah, que se me permita decir la verdad! una diosa también … Tanto como todas las estrellas son menos que tus fuegos brillantes cuando tu brillo plateado sale con rayos puros, ella es mucho más bella que toda la bella. Si lo haces, duda, Cynthia, tu luz es ciego ‘”
  Virgil, Georgics 3. 390 ss (trad. Fairclough) (bucólico romano C1st BC): “‘Fue con el regalo de tal lana nevada, si podemos confiar en la historia, que Pan , El dios de Arcadia, te encantó y te engañó, Oh Luna (la Luna) [Selene], llamándote a las profundidades del bosque; ni despreciaste su llamado “. [N.B. Virgil probablemente alude a la historia de la seducción de Selene por el pastor Endymion. El nombre Pan probablemente se usa metafóricamente, es decir, como dios de los rebaños, fue la fuente de la fina lana que Endymion solía atraer a la diosa. Una pintura en un jarrón muestra a Endymion agitando un vellón ante el carro de la diosa. Alternativamente, la historia podría derivarse de una obra de teatro sobre la palabra griega, panselênê , es decir, “luna llena”, y / o estar relacionada con el nacimiento de la hija de Selene, Pandeia.]
  Propiedad, Elegías 2. 15 (trad. Goold) (elegía romana C1 aC): “Estaba desnudo que Endymion cautivó a la hermana de Febo [Phoebe-Selene] y desnuda, dicen, acostarse con la diosa “.
  Séneca, Phaedra 309 ff (trad. Miller) (tragedia romana C1st AD): “La diosa radiante [Luna-Selene la Luna] del cielo oscuro ardía de amor [por Endymion ] y, abandonando la noche, le dio su carro reluciente a su hermano [Helios the Sun] para que lo guiara de una manera distinta a la suya. Aprendió a conducir al equipo de noche y a circular en un circuito más estrecho, mientras el eje gruñía debajo del auto. más pesado; ni las noches mantuvieron su longitud acostumbrada, y con el amanecer tardío llegó el día “.
  Séneca, Phaedra 422 y siguientes: “Que ningún pastor [es decir, Endymion] se jacte de ti [Selene la Luna]”.
  Séneca, Phaedra 786 y siguientes: “O bien, mirándote desde los cielos estrellados, el orbe [Selene la Luna] que nació después de que los viejos Arcadios perdieran el control de ella coche de brillo blanco [por amor a un rústico, como Endymion]. Y últimamente se sonrojó intensamente, aunque ninguna nube manchada oscurecía su rostro brillante, pero nosotros, ansiosos por nuestra diosa atribulada, pensándola acosada por los encantos de Tesalia [es decir, por las brujas ], emitió fuertes sonidos de tintineo: sin embargo, había sido su problema, la causa de su demora; mientras te miraba, la diosa de la noche comprobó su curso rápido “.
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 8. 28 ff (trans. Mozley) (epopeya romana C1st AD): “El cazador de Latmian [Endymion], mientras que sus camaradas aún están dispersos en tropas sobre el glens, descansa en la sombra del verano, amante de una diosa, y pronto Luna (la Luna) [Selene] viene con cuernos velados “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 325 ff (traducción Rouse) (griego épico C5th A.D.): “Selene, compañera de cama de Endymion”.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 4. 192 y siguientes: “[La diosa Harmonia lamenta su amor por un hombre mortal:] ‘Proclamaré cómo Orión amaba a Erigeneia [Eos the Dawn], y yo recordaré el partido de Kephalos (Cephalus); si voy a la brumosa puesta de sol, mi consuelo es Selene misma que sintió lo mismo por Endymion sobre Latmos (Latmus). “”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 4. 213 y siguientes: “Cuando Mene [Selene la Luna] vio a la niña [Harmonia, hija de Afrodita] siguiendo a un extraño [Kadmos (Cadmus), su novio] a lo largo de la costa sobre el mar, y hirviendo bajo una feroz restricción, le reprochó a Kypris (Cipris) [Afrodita] con palabras burlonas: “¡Así que haces la guerra incluso a tus hijos, Kypris! Ni siquiera el fruto de tu vientre se salva del aguijón de amor! No tengas lástima de la chica que aburriste, corazón duro? ¿De qué otra chica puedes tener lástima, cuando arrastras a tu propio hijo a la pasión? – Entonces también debes irte errante, querida. Dile a tu madre, Paphian’s hija, “Faetón se burla de ti, y Selene me avergüenza”. Harmonia, exiliada atormentada por el amor, deja a Mene [Selene] su novio Endymion, y cuida a tu vagabundo Kadmos (Cadmus). Prepárate para soportar tantos problemas como sea posible. Yo sí, y cuando estés cansado del amor engendrando ansiedad, recuerda a Selene herida de amor ‘”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 5. 516 y siguientes: “Shining Eos se llevó a Orion para un novio, y Selene Endymion”.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 7. 222 y siguientes: “[Una náyade compara a la bella Semele con Selene:] ¡Veo a una doncella de pies plateados estirada bajo las corrientes de mi río! Creo que Selene se baña en la Aónica [Theban] saluda en su camino hacia la cama de Endymion en Latmos (Latmus), la cama de un pastor sin dormir; pero si se ha quitado su dulce pastor, ¿de qué sirve Asopos (Asopus) después de los Okeanos (Oceanus ) ¿Y si tiene un cuerpo blanco como las nieves del cielo, qué marca de Luna tiene? Un equipo de mulas desenfrenadas y un carro de mulas con ruedas plateadas están allí en la playa, pero Selene no sabe cómo poner mulas a su yokestrap – ella maneja un equipo de toros! ”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 13. 553 y siguientes: “Él [Kaunos (Caunus) de Karia (Caria)] compuso esa canción de amor engañosa … la canción sobre el establo latmiano del pastor de los neversleeping. , mientras elogió a Endymion, la novia del novio enamorado de Selene, tan feliz en el cuidado del amor en una roca vecina [es decir, el Monte Latmos en Karia] “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 339 y siguientes: “El sabio Endymion con las curvas cambiantes de sus dedos calculará las tres fases variables de Selene”.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 42. 266 y siguientes: “Canta a Selene locamente enamorada de Endymion”.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 582 y siguientes: “Hubo las floraciones en racimo que tienen el nombre de Narkissos, el joven justo, a quien el novio del cuerno de Selene Endymion engendró en Latmos frondoso (Latmus)”.
  Para MÁS información sobre este héroe ver ENDYMION
  SELENE Y EL TIFOE GIGANTE
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1. 214 y siguientes: “[El monstruo Typhoeus asedió al cielo, desafiando la regla de Zeus:] Muchas veces él [Typhoeus] tomó un toro en reposo de su rústico arado y lo sacudió con una mano amenazadora, bramó como lo haría, luego le disparó contra Selene la Luna como otra luna, y mantuvo su rumbo, luego se precipitó silbando contra la diosa, comprobando con la brida las blancas correas de yugo de sus toros , mientras derramaba el silbato mortal de una víbora que escupía veneno. Pero Titanis Mene [Selene] no cedería ante el ataque. Luchando contra las cabezas de Gigante (Gigante), como cuernos a los suyos [es decir, Selene fue coronada con cuernos con el disco entre ellos formando el círculo de la luna – con estos bloqueó los cuernos con una de las cabezas de toro de Typhoeus], ​​talló muchas cicatrices en el brillante orbe del cuerno de su toro [es decir, la superficie blanca y lisa de la luna estaba marcada por esta batalla]; y el radiante ganado de Selene bramó asombrado por la boquiabierta abismo de la garganta de Typhaon “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 405 y siguientes: “Algunos disparos [de rocas del monstruo Typhoeus cuando estaba luchando contra Zeus] pasaron el auto de Selene y marcaron las huellas invisibles de su movimiento toros “.
  SELENE WRATH: AMPELOS
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 11. 185 ss (trans. Rouse) (griego épico C5th AD): “[Ampelos, amor de Dionysos, montado en la espalda de un toro salvaje:] Él gritó audazmente a la luna llena (Mene) [Selene] – “¡Dame lo mejor, Selene, conductora de ganado con cuernos! ¡Ahora soy ambos – tengo cuernos y monto un toro!”
Entonces llamó alardeando de la luna redonda. Selene miró con celos por el aire para ver cómo Ampleos cabalgaba sobre el toro asesino y merodeador. Ella le envió un tábano que compraba ganado; y el toro, pinchado continuamente por todo el aguijón agudo, galopaba como un caballo por zonas sin senderos. . . [luego lo arrojó y luego lo atiborró hasta la muerte] ”
  SELENA DIOSA DE LA LUNA
 
  Selene la luna, ateniense krater de campana roja C5th BC, Kunsthistorisches Museum Himno homérico 32 a Selene (trans. Evelyn-White) (griego épica C7th – 4th BC): “Mene de alas largas [es decir, Selene como la diosa del mes]. Desde su cabeza inmortal se muestra un resplandor desde el cielo y abraza la tierra; y grande es la belleza que surge de su luz brillante. El aire, sin luz antes, brilla con la luz de su corona dorada, y sus rayos irradian claridad, sin embargo, cuando Selene (la Luna) brillaba, bañaba su hermoso cuerpo en las aguas de Okeanos (Oceanus), y la ponía lejos vestido de gala y uniendo a su equipo de cuello fuerte y brillante, y conduce sus caballos de crin larga a toda velocidad, en algún momento a mediados de mes: luego su gran órbita está llena y luego sus rayos brillan más a medida que aumenta. Así que ella es una señal segura y una señal para los hombres mortales “.
  Himno homérico 4 a Hermes 100 y siguientes: “Bright Selene (la Luna), hija del señor Pallas, hijo de Megamedes, acababa de subir a su puesto de vigilancia”.
  Himno homérico 4 a Hermes 140 y siguientes: “La suave luz de Selene (la Luna) brilló”.
  Safo, Fragmento 34 (trad. Campbell, Vol. Lírica griega I) (C6º aC): “Los Astera (Estrellas) esconden su brillante forma alrededor de la encantadora Selene (la Luna) cuando en toda su plenitud ella brilla sobre toda la tierra “.
  Safo, Fragmento 96: “Selene (la Luna) con los dedos rosados ​​después del atardecer, superando a todas las estrellas ( astra ), y su luz se extiende por igual sobre el el mar salado y los campos floridos; el rocío se derrama en belleza, y las rosas florecen y tiernos perifollo y meliloto florido “.
  Corinna, Fragmento 690 (trad. Campbell, Vol. Griego Lyric II) (C6th BC): “Aas (Eos the Dawn), dejando las aguas de Okeanos (Oceanus), dibujó del cielo la luz sagrada de la Luna (Selene) “.
  Letra griega V anónima, Fragmentos 937 (Inscripción del santuario de Asclepio en Epidauro) (trans. Campbell) (letra griega BC): “Asklepios (Asclepius) altamente calificados; y convocar a [varios dioses incluidos] … Helios (Sol) y Selene (Luna) incansables en su totalidad y todos los signos con los que se corona el cielo. ¡Saludos, todos ustedes dioses inmortales y diosas inmortales! ”
  Esquilo, Seven Against Thebes 389 y sigs (trad. Weir Smyth) (tragedia griega C5th BC): “Él tiene este símbolo altivo en su escudo: un cielo bien elaborado, en llamas con estrellas, y el brillo de la luna llena ( panselene ) brillando en el centro del escudo, la luna que es la más venerada de las estrellas, el ojo de la noche “.
  Eurípides, fenicios 175 ff (trad. Vellacott) (tragedia griega C5th BC): “Selene (la Luna), círculo de oro reluciente, hija de Helios (Sol) con cinturón radiante ! ”
  Platón, Cratylus 400d y 408d (trad. Cordero) (filósofo griego C4 aC): “[Platón construye etimologías filosóficas para los nombres de los dioses:] Sokrates (Sócrates ): Preguntemos qué pensaron los hombres al darles a [los dioses] sus nombres … Los primeros hombres que dieron nombres [a los dioses] no fueron personas comunes, sino pensadores y grandes conversadores … Pero ¿por qué deberían ustedes? no hablar de otro tipo de dioses, como el sol, la luna, las estrellas, la tierra, el éter, el aire, el fuego, el agua, las estaciones y el año … Hermógenes: ¿Y qué hay de la luna, Selene? Luna) Sokrates: ese nombre parece poner a Anaxágoras en una posición incómoda … ¿Por qué, parece haber anticipado por muchos años la reciente doctrina de Anaxágoras, de que la luna recibe su luz del sol … [ 19459015] Selas (brillo) y phôs (luz) son lo mismo … Ahora la luz es siempre nueva y vieja t la luna, si los anaxagoranos tienen razón; porque dicen que el sol, en su curso continuo alrededor de la luna, siempre arroja nueva luz sobre él, y la luz del mes anterior persiste. . . La luna a menudo se llama Selanaia. . . Debido a que siempre tiene un brillo nuevo y antiguo ( sela neon te kai henon ) el nombre más apropiado para él sería Selaenoneoaeia, que se ha comprimido en Selanaia “.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 35 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Cuando Ge (Gea, Tierra) se enteró de esto [que sus hijos Gigante ser asesinada por los dioses], buscó una droga que evitaría su destrucción incluso con manos mortales, pero Zeus prohibió la aparición de Eos (el amanecer), Selene (la luna) y Helios (el sol), y cortó el drogarse antes de que Ge pudiera encontrarlo “.
  Apolonio Rhodius, Argonautica 1. 498 y sigs. (Trans. Rieu) (griego épico C3rd BC): “Él [Orfeo] cantó sobre [el origen del cosmos] … cómo the Astra (Stars), Selene (Moon), and travelling Helios (Sun) keep faithfully to their stations in the heavens.”
  Anonymous, Hero and Leander Fragment (trans. Page, Vol. Select Papyri III, No. 126) (Greek poetry C3rd to 1st B.C.) : “`Stars ( asteres ), bow to my prayer, and become sightless; Moon ( mênê ) [Selene], suffer your light to sink swiftly and depart!’ So she [Hero] spoke, for to see Laandros (Leander) was all her heart’s desire.”
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 11. 8 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “[Amongst the illustrations on the throne of Zeus at Olympia :] Selene (the Moon) is driving what I think is a horse. Some have said the that steed of the goddess is a mule and not a horse, and they tell a silly story about the mule.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 1. 147 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “Swelled like young Mene’s (the Moon’s) [Selene’s] arching chariot-rail when high o’er Okeanos’ (Oceanus’) fathomless-flowing stream she rises, with the space half filled with light betwixt her bowing horns.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 10. 411 ff : “Fast she [Oinone (Oenone), the nymph wife of Paris] ran . . . down the long tracks flew Oinone’s feet; seeking the awful pyre [of Paris], to leap thereon . . . White Selene (the Moon) from on high looked on her, and remembered her own love, princely Endymion, and she pitied her in that wild race, and, shining overhead in her full brightness, made the long tracks plain.”
  Anonymous (perhaps Pamprepius of Panopolis), Two Poems Fragments (trans. Page, Vol. Select Papyri III, No. 140) (Greek poetry C4th A.D.) : “The dog-star [Seirios (Sirius)] is extinguished by the watery snowstorms. For even the stars go pale before their streams, no longer do we see the Moon ( mênê ) [Selene], the dark-eyed lady ( potnia kyanôpis ) that treads upon the heel of the sun, who is frozen among the clouds ((lacuna)) . . no longer did the redness of the dawn embrace the circle of the night . . . The glow of the ox-eyed moon ( boôpis selênê ).”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 2. 118 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “When Titan [Helios the Sun] perceived Lucifer the Morning Star [Eosphoros] setting and saw the world in crimson sheen and the last lingering crescent of Luna the Moon [Selene] fade in the dawn [he rose into the sky].”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 2. 208 ff : “Luna (the Moon) [Selene] with wonder sees her brother’s [Helios the Sun’s] team running below her own [as Phaethon attempting to drive the chariot of the sun looses control of the horses].”
  Ovid, Fasti 4. 373 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “When Pallantis [Eos the Dawn] next gleams in heaven and stars flee and Luna’s (the Moon’s) [Selene’s] snow-white horses are unhitched.”
  Virgil, Georgics 1. 395 ff (trans. Fairclough) (Roman bucolic C1st B.C.) : “Luna (the Moon) [Selene] rises under no debt to her brother’s rays [i.e. her light is reflected from the sun].”
  Virgil, Georgics 1. 426 ff : “Soon as the moon [Luna-Selene] gathers her returning fires, if she encloses a dark mist within dim horns, a heavy rain is awaiting farmers and seamen. But if over her face she spreads a maiden blush, there will be wind; as wind rises, golden Phoebe [Luna-Selene] ever blushes. But if at her fourth rising–for that is our surest guide–she pass through the sky clear and with undimmed horns, then all that day, and the days born of it to the month’s end, shall be free from rain and wind; and the sailors, safe in port.”
 
  Nyx, Hesperus and Selene, Athenian red-figure krater C4th B.C., State Hermitage Museum Seneca, Hercules Furens 125 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) : “Now stars shine few and faint in the sinking sky; vanquished night draws in her wandering fires as the new day is born, and Phosphorus brings up the rear of the shining host . . . Titan [Sol-Helios the Sun] peeps forth from Oeta’s crest; now the rough brakes . . . touched by the dawn, flush red, and Phoebus’ sister [Luna-Selene the Moon] flees away, to return again.”
  Seneca, Medea 95 ff : “So does starlight splendour wane with the coming of the sun, and the huddled flock of the Pleiades vanish away when Phoebe [Selene the Moon], shining with borrowed light [i.e. from the sun], with encircling horns encloses her full-orbed disk.”
  Seneca, Oedipus 44 ff : “[During a time of drought :] With paling light glides Phoebus’ sister [Selene the Moon] athwart the sky, and the gloomy heavens are wan in the lowering day.”
  Seneca, Oedipus 250 ff : “Thou [Helios the Sun], greatest glory of the unclouded sky . . . and thou, his sister, ever faring opposite to thy brother, Phoebe [Selene the Moon], night-wanderer.”
  Seneca, Oedipus 504 ff : “While the bright stars of the ancient heavens shall run in their courses; while Oceanus shall encircle the imprisoned earth with its waters; while full Luna (the Moon) [Selene] gather again her lost radiance; while Lucifer [Eosphoros the Dawn-Starr] shall herald the dawn of the morning.”
  Seneca, Phaedra 417 ff : “Mayst thou [Luna-Selene the Moon] wear a shining face and, the clouds all scattered, fare on with undimmed horns; when thou drivest thy car through the nightly skies.”
  Seneca, Phaedra 742 ff : “As much fairer does thy beauty shine as gleams more brightly the full-orbed moon when with meeting horns she has joined her fires, when at the full with speeding chariot blushing Phoebe [Selene the Moon] shows her face and the lesser stars fade out of sight.”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 5. 408 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “[Depicted on the doors of the palace of King Aeetes :] There iron Atlas stands in Oceanus, the wave swelling and breaking on his knees; but the god himself [Sol-Helios the Sun] on high hurries his shining steeds . . . behind with smaller wheel follows his sister [Luna-Selene the Moon] and the crowded Pleiades and the fires whose tresses are wet with dripping rain [the Hyades].”
  Statius, Thebaid 1. 336 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “But now through the wide domains which Phoebus [Helios the Sun], his day’s work ended, had left bare, rose the Titanian queen [Selene the Moon], borne upward through a silent world, and with her dewy chariot cooled and rarefied the air; now birds and beasts are hushed, and Somnus (Sleep) [Hypnos] steals o’er the greedy cares of men, and stoops and beckons from the sky, shrouding a toilsome life once more in sweet oblivion.”
  Statius, Thebaid 12. 1 ff : “Not ye had the wakeful dawn put all the stars to flight from heaven, and Luna (the Moon) [Selene] was beholding the approach of day with fading horn.”
  Statius, Thebaid 12. 300 ff : “[Juno-Hera] encountering the lunar team she faced them and spoke thus with calm accents : ‘Grant me a little boon, O Cynthia [Selene the Moon], if Juno [Hera] can command respect . . . now canst thou do me a service. Argia, daughter of Inachus, my favourite votary–seest thou in what a night she roams [in search of the unburied body of her husband Polyneikes (Polynices) on the battlefields of Thebes], nor with failing strength can find her spouse in the thick darkness? Thy beams too are faint with shrouding vapour; show forth thy horns, I pray thee, and let thy orbit approach the earth nearer than is thy wont. This Sopor [Hypnos, sleep], too, who leaning forward plies for thee thy humid chariot-reins, send him upon the Aonian watchmen.’ Scarce had she spoken, when the goddess cleft the clouds and displayed her mighty orb; the shadows started in terror, and the stars shorn of their radiance; scar ce did Saturnia [Hera] herself endure the brightness.”
  Statius, Achilleid 1. 619 ff : “Luna (the Moon) [Selene] in her rosy chariot was climbing to the height of mid-heaven, when drowsy Somnus (Sleep) [Hypnos] glided down with full sweep of his pinions to earth and gathered a silent world to his embrace.”
  Statius, Silvae 3. 3. 53 (trans. Mozley) (Roman poetry C1st A.D.) : “But even deities have their laws : in thraldom the swift choir of the Astra (Stars), in thraldom is wandering Luna (the Moon) [Selene], not unbidden is the light whose path so oft returns [Sol-Helios the Sun].”
  Musaeus, Hero & Leander 56 (Greek poetry C5th or 6th A.D.) : “Flashing a lightning of lovely radiance from her face, even as Selene of the fair white cheeks, when she is rising.”
  Tryphiodorus, The Taking of Ilias 514 (trans. Mair) (Greek poetry C6th A.D.) : “When Mene (the Moon) [Selene], full with grey fire, gilds with her face the gleaming heaven: not when, sharpening her pointed horns, she first shines, rising in the shadowless dusk of the month, but when, orbing the round radiance of her eye, she draws to herself the reflected rays of the sun.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1. 98 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “[A sailor sees Europa sailing across the sea on the back of a bull-shaped Zeus :] Surely Selene (Moon) has gotten an unruly bull [she was sometimes said to ride on the back of a bull through the heavens], and leaves the sky to traipse over the high seas.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1. 454 ff : “Near the dewy turning-point [the spring equinox] where Selene’s (the Moon) cattle send out a windy moo from their life-warming throats.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 4. 279 ff : “The changing circuits of Selene (the Moon) as she comes back and back again–how she changes her returning shape in three circles, new-shining, half-moon, and gleaming with full face; how her splendour now touching, now shrinking back, at the male furnace of father Helios is brought to birth without a mother, as she filches the father’s selfbegotten fire ever lighted again.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 5. 67 ff : “He [Kadmos (Cadmus) founder of Thebes] dedicated the seven gates [of the new-founded city] to the seven planets. First towards the western clime he allotted the Onkaian (Oncaean) Gate to Mene (the Moon) [Selene] brighteyes, taking the name from the honk of cattle, because Selene herself, bullshaped, horned, driver of cattle, being triform is Tritonis Athene.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 12. 4 ff : “Selene (the Moon) herself darted out newrisen, showing her light as she drove her cattle.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 17. 234 ff : “Orontes [an Indian chief] proud of his armament struck Bakkhos (Bacchus) [Dionysos] on the top of his head, but wounded him not; he grazed the sharp horn of Bromios all for nothing. For Lord Dionysos wore on that invulnerable head . . . the shape of the bullfaced Selene the Moon . . . Lyaios (Lyaeus) wore the heavenly image of the cow’s eye Selene, a growth of divine horns which cannot be broken, which enemies cannot shake.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 23. 280 ff : “[Okeanos (Oceanus) threatens to divert his streams through heaven :] ‘Selene (the Moon) herself, bullshaped and horned driver of cattle, may be angry to see my horned bullshaped form.’”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 36. 119 ff : “Let not Zeus be angry again . . . and pour down showers of rain through the air to flood the circuit of the eternal universe. I hope I may not behold the sea in the sky and Selene’s car soaking.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 38. 135 ff : “The light that shone on that bridal bed [of Helios the Sun and Klymene (Clymene)] come from the starry train; and the star of Kypris (Cypris) [Aphrodite], Eosphoros [the Dawn-Star], herald of the union wove a bridal song. Instead of the wedding torch, Selene (the Moon) sent her beams to attend the wedding.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 41. 82 ff : “[The city of] Beroe alone grew up [at the beginning of time], older than Phaethon [Helios the Sun], from whom Selene (the Moon) got her light, even before all Khthon (Chthon, the Earth), milling out from Helios the shine of his newmade brightness upon her all-mothering breast and the later perfected light of unresting Selene.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 320 ff : “Selene (the Moon) in her heavenly chariot sends forth the flame of her everwakeful fires in a shower of cloudless beams, and rises in full refulgence among the firefed stars, obscuring the whole heavenly host with her countenance.”
  Suidas s.v. Aigle (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) : “Aigle (Aegle, Radiance) : Selene the moon is also so called, and Asklepios (Asclepius).”
  See also the following sections: Hymns to Selene Selene the Moon Goddess of the Month (monthly cycles) Selene the Moon Drawn Down by Witches (lunar eclipses and “red moons”) Artemis Identified with Selene (identified with Selene) Hecate-Artemis-Selene Triad Triad (three lunar goddesses)
  SELENE THE MOON DRAWN DOWN BY WITCHES
 
  Luna-Selene as Monday, Greco-Roman mosaic from Orbe C3rd A.D., Roman villa of Orbe-Boscéaz Lunar eclipses and the phenomena of the “red moon” were believed to be caused by the evil magics of Thessalian witches, who drew the goddess down from the sky in order to extract her blood. It was customary for villagers to beat cymbals at these times, to negate the witches’ power and restore the goddess to the sky.
  Plato, Gorgias 513a (trans. Lamb) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) : “Sokrates (Socrates) : May that we not suffer, my distinguished friend, the fate that they say befalls the creatures who would draw down the Moon ( selênê )–the Thettalides (women of Thessaly).” [N.B. Sokrates alludes to the popular theory that the practice of witchcraft is a serious danger to the practicioner.]
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 7. 207 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “[Medea the witch cries out to the sky gods :] ‘Thee too, bright Luna (the Moon) [Selene], I banish, though thy throes the clanging bronze assuage; under my spells even my grandsire’s [Helios the Sun’s] chariot grows pale and Aurora (the Dawn) [Eos] pales before my poison’s power.’”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 7. 179 ff : “Three nights remained before Luna’s (the Moon’s) [Selene’s] bright horns would meet and form her orb; then when she shone in fullest radiance and with form complete gazed down upon the sleeping lands below, [the witch] Medea, barefoot, her long robe unfastened, her hair upon her shoulders falling loose, went forth alone upon her roaming way, in the deep stillness of the midnight hour [to make her magics].”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 14. 365 ff : “Circe turned to prayers and incantations, and unknown chants to worship unknown gods, chants which she used to eclipse Luna’s (the Moon’s) [Selene’s] pale face and veil her father’s [Helios the Sun’s] orb in thirsty clouds.”
  Ovid, Heroides 6. 85 ff (trans. Showerman) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “She [the witch Medea] is one to strive to draw down from its course the unwilling moon ( luna ), and to hide in darkness the horses of the sun ( sol ).”
  Seneca, Medea 672 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) : “Often have I seen her [the witch Medea] in frenzy and assailing the gods [Sol-Helios and Luna-Selene, the sun and moon], drawing down the sky.”
  Seneca, Phaedra 420 ff : “When thou [Luna-Selene the Moon] drivest thy car through the nightly skies, may no witcheries of Thessaly prevail to drag thee down.”
  Seneca, Phaedra 786 ff : “Anxious for our troubled goddess [Luna-Selene the Moon], thinking her harried by Thessalian charms [i.e. by witches], made loud jingling sounds [i.e. a charm to bring back the moon from the lunar eclipse].”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 6. 148 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “Mightiest among them in Stygian arts Coastes [the magician] comes [to war] . . . glad is . . . Latonia [Luna-Selene the Moon] that she can ride in a safe heaven [since Coastes has gone to war Selene the Moon is not continually being drawn down from the sky by his magic].”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 6. 442 ff : “Medea . . . than whom is none more potent at the nightly altars [casting magic spells]; for responsive to her cry and to the juices she scatters in desolate places the Stars are halted trembling and Solis (the Sun) [Helios] her grandsire is aghast as he runs his course . . . the Atracian poisons made Luna (the Moon) [Selene] to foam and that spells of Haemonia were rousing up the ghosts.”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 7. 327 ff : “From afar the chambers breathing magic spells burst open and the grim doors flew wide, and she [Medea] gazed at all that she had torn from the ocean-bed or from the Shades below, or drawn down from the blood-red visage of Luna (the Moon) [Selene].”
  Statius, Thebaid 1. 105 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “When Atracian [Thessalian witches’] spells make travailing Phoebe [Luna-Selene the Moon] redden through the clouds; suffused with venom, her skin distends and swells with corruption; a fiery vapour issues from her evil mouth, brining upon mankind thirst unquenchable and sickness and famine and universal death.”
  Statius, Thebaid 6. 684 ff : “So falls, whenever she is torn from the astonished stars, the darkened sister of the Sun [Luna-Selene the Moon]; afar the peoples beat the bronze for succour, and indulge their fruitless fears, but the Thessalian hag triumphant laughs at the panting steeds [of Selene] who obey her spell.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 36. 345 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “Their [the Brahmans of India] inspired incantations have often enchanted Selene (the Moon) as she passes through the air like an untamed bull, and brought her down from heaven, and often stayed the course of Phaethon [Helios the Sun] swiftly driving his hurrying car.”
  SELENE GODDESS OF THE LUNAR MONTH
  The Greek months began with the new moon and were divided into three ten day periods. The first ten days were presided over by the waxing moon, the next ten the near full and full moon, and the last ten by the waning moon. Festivals and the lucky and unlucky days of the month were consequently measured in the cycles of the moon.
  Homeric Hymn 32 to Selene (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th – 4th B.C.) : “Long-winged Mene [i.e. Selene as goddess of the month] . . . at eventime in the mid-month : then her great orbit is full and then her beams shine brightest as she increases. So she is a sure token and a sign to mortal men.”
  Sappho, Fragment 154 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (C6th B.C.) : “Selene (the Moon) was coming in to view in her fullness, and when the women took their position round the altar [i.e. she marked the time in the month for a festival].”
  Aratus, Phaenomena 734 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek astronomical poem C3rd B.C.) : “Whenever Mene (Moon) [Selene] with slender horns shines forth in the West, she tells of a new month beginning: when first her rays are shed abroad just enough to cast a shadow, she is going to the fourth day : with orb half complete she proclaims eight days : with full face the mid-day of the month; and ever with varying phase she tells the date of the dawn that comes around.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 7. 179 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Three nights remained before Luna’s (the Moon’s) [Selene’s] bright horns would meet and form her orb; then she shone in fullest radiance and with form complete gazed down upon the sleeping lands below.”
  Ovid, Fasti 3. 883 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Luna (the Moon) [Selene] rules the months.”
  Virgil, Georgics 1. 276 ff (trans. Fairclough) (Roman bucolic C1st B.C.) : “Luna (the Moon) [Selene] herself has ordained various days in various grades as lucky for work. Shun the fifth; then pale Orcus [Horkos (Horcus), Oath] and the Eumenides [Erinyes, Vengeances] were born . . . The seventeenth is lucky for planting the vine, for yoking and breaking in oxen, and for adding the leashes to the warp. The ninth is a friend to the runaway, a foe to the thief.” [N.B. Virgil derives these days from Hesiod’s Works and Days .]
  Virgil, Georgics 1. 351 ff : “Father [Zeus] himself decreed what warning the monthly moon should give, what should signal the fall of the wind, and what sight, oft seen, should prompt the farmer to keep his cattle nearer to their stalls.”
  Virgil, Georgics 1. 426 ff : “Soon as the moon [Luna-Selene] gathers her returning fires, if she encloses a dark mist within dim horns, a heavy rain is awaiting farmers and seamen. But if over her face she spreads a maiden blush, there will be wind; as wind rises, golden Phoebe [Luna-Selene] ever blushes. But if at her fourth rising–for that is our surest guide–she pass through the sky clear and with undimmed horns, then all that day, and the days born of it to the month’s end, shall be free from rain and wind; and the sailors, safe in port.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 38. 244 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “One of these Planetoi (Planets) [the wandering stars] is horned Selene (the Moon) whitening the sky; when she has completed all her circuit, she brings forth with her wise fire the month, being at first half seen, then curved, then full moon with her whole face. Against Mene the moon I [Helios the Sun] move my rolling ball, the sparkling nourisher of sheaf-producing growth, and pass on my endless circuit about the turning-point of the Zodiakos (Zodiac), creating the measures of time.”
  SELENE THE MOON GODDESS OF CHILDBIRTH
  Pregnancies were measured in lunar months, so the moon-goddess had a natural association with childbirth.
  Timotheus, Frag 803 (from Plutarch, Table-Talk) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric V) (C5th B.C.) : “Through the blue-black vault of the stars and of Selana (Selene the Moon) who gives swift childbirth.”
  Chrysippus, Old Physics Fragment (from Scholiast on Iliad) (trans. Campbell Greek Lyric I, Frag 390) (Greek scientific C3rd B.C.) : “Chrysippus [Greek C3rd B.C.] in his Old Physics, where he shows that Artemis is Selene (the Moon) and credits it with an influence on childbirth, says that at the full moon not only do women have the easiest labour but all animals have an easy birth.”
  Ovid, Heroides 11. 45 ff (trans. Showerman) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “And now for the ninth time had Phoebus’ fairest sister [Luna-Selene] risen, and for the tenth time Luna (the Moon) [Selene] was driving on her light-bearing steeds. I knew not what caused the sudden pangs in me; to travail I was unused.”
  Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2. 27 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) : “She [Luna-Diana, Selene-Artemis] is invoked to assist at the birth of children, because the period of gestation is either occasionally seven, or more usually nine, lunar revolutions, and these are called menses (months), because they cover measured ( mensa ) spaces.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 38. 149 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “As he [Phaethon son of Helios and Klymene] sprang from the childbed, the daughters of Okeanos (Oceanus) cleansed him, Klymene’s (Clymene’s) son, in his grandsire’s waters, and wrapt him in swaddlings. The Stars (Asteres) in shining movement leapt into the stream of Okeanos which they knew so well, and surrounded the boy, with Selene Eileithyia (our Lady of Labour), sending forth her sparkling gleams.”
  SELENE THE MOON GODDESS OF DEW
 
  Selene-Luna the moon, Greco-Roman marble statue, Pio-Clementino Museum, Vatican Museums The moon was believed to nourish the plants and animals with her dew. As the nourishing goddess she was associated with Ariadne, wife of Dionysos (Dionysus), who was originally a moon-goddess.
  Homeric Hymn 32 to Selene (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th – 4th B.C.) : “Once Kronides (Cronides) [Zeus the Rain-God] was joined with her [Selene the Moon] in love; and she conceived an bare a daughter Pandeia (All Divine), exceeding lovely amongst the deathless gods.” [N.B. Pandeia is probably the same as Ersa (All-Nourishing Dew), cf. Alcman below.]
  Sappho, Fragment 96 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric I) (C6th B.C.) : “Rosy-fingered Selene (the Moon) after sunset, surpasssing all the stars ( astra ), and her light spreads alike over the salt sea and the flowery fields; the dew is shed in beauty, and roses bloom and tender chervil and flowery melilot.”
  Alcman, Fragment 57 (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (C7th B.C.) : “Such things as are nurtured by Ersa (Dew), daughter of Zeus and Selene (Moon).”
  Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2. 14 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) : “Luna the Moon’s [Selene’s] course also has a sort of winter and summer solstice; and she emits many streams of influence, which supply animal creatures with nourishment and stimulate their growth and which cause plants to flourish and attain maturity.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1. 454 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “Near the dewy turning-point [the spring equinox] where Selene’s (the Moon) cattle send out a windy moo from their life-warming throats.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 7. 280 ff : “[Zeus] resolved to mount Semele’s nightly couch, and turned his eye to the west, to see when sweet Hesperos (the Evening-Star_ would come . . . ‘Yoke your own car, I pray, bright Selene (Moon), send forth your rays which make the trees and plants to grow, because this marriage foretells the birth of plant-cherishing Dionysos; rise over the lovely roof of Semele, give light to my desire with the star of the Kyprian (Cyprian) [Hesperos], make long the sweet darkness for the wooing of Zeus.’”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 38. 244 ff : “Against Mene the moon I [Helios the Sun] move my rolling ball, the sparkling nourisher of sheaf-producing growth, and pass on my endless circuit about the turning-point of the Zodiakos (Zodiac), creating the measures of time.”
  SELENE THE MOON GODDESS OF LUNACY
  A late classical development of her character, made Selene the goddess of lunacy.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 44. 198 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “Dionysos (Dionysus) waited for darksome night, and appealed in these words to circle Mene (Moon) [Selene] in heaven : ‘O daughter of Helios (the Sun), Mene of many turnings, nurse of all! O Selene, driver of the silver car!
If thou art Hekate (Hecate) of many names, if in the night thou doest shake thy mystic torch in brandcarrying hand, come nightwanderer . . . If thou art staghunter Artemis, if on the hills thou dost eagerly hunt with fawnkilling Dionysos, be thy brother’s helper now! . . . I am being chased out of Thebes [by Pentheus] . . . a mortal man, a creature quickly perishing, an enemy of god, persecutes me. As a being of night, help Dionysos of the night, when they pursue me! If thou art Persephoneia, whipperin of the dead, and yours are the ghosts which are subservient to the throne of Tartaros, let me see Pentheus a dead man, and let Hermes thy musterer of ghosts lull to sleep the tears of Dionysos in his grief. With Tartarean whip of thy Tisiphone, or furious Megaira (Megaera), stop the foolish threats of Pentheus . . .’ To this appeal Mene [Selene] answered on high : ‘Night-illuminating Dionysos, friend of plants, comrade of Mene, look to your grapes; my concern is the mystic rites of Bakkhos (Bacchus), for the earth ripens the offspring of your plants when it receives the dewy sparkles of unresting Selene. Then do you, dancing Bakkhos, stretch out your thyrsos and look to your offspring; and you need not fear a race of puny men, whose mind is light, whose threats the whips of the Eumenides [Erinyes] repress perforce. With you I will attack your enemies. Equally with Bakkhos I rule distracted madness. I am the Bakkhic Mene, not alone because in heaven I turn the months, but because I command madness and excite lunacy. I will not leave unpunished earthly violence against you . . .’ Such was the answer of the goldenrein deity to Bromios. But while Bakkhos yet conversed with circling Mene, even then Persephone was arming her Erinyes.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 46. 97 ff : “Mene (the Moon) [Selene] helped Bromios [Dionysos], attacking Pentheus with her divine scourge; the frenzied reckless fury of distracting Selene joining in displayed many a phantom shape to maddened Pentheus [who became lunatic or moon-struck], and made the dread son of Ekhion (Echion) forget his earlier intent, while she deafened his confused ears with the bray of her divine avenging trumpet, and she terrified the man.”
  SELENE & THE MOONSTONE
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 5. 88 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “The allwhite stone of Selene [the moonstone], which fades as the horned goddess wanes, and waxes when Mene (the Moon) [Selene] newkindled distils her horn’s liquid light and milks out the self-gotten fire of Father Helios (the Sun).”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 32. 22 ff : “She wore also that stone [the moonstone] which draws man to desire, which has the bright name of desire-struck Selene (the Moon).”
  ARTEMIS IDENTIFIED WITH SELENE
  Artemis was sometimes identified with Selene the Moon, especially by Roman poets such as Ovid, Virgil and Statius. The connection is more popular today than it was in classical times. See also The Selene-Artemis-Hekate triad section which follows.
  Aeschylus, Fragment 87 Xantriae (from Galen, Commentary on Hippocrates’ Epidemics) (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) : “[Women] upon whom looketh neither the sun’s flashing ray nor the starry eye of Leto’s child.” [N.B. Leto’s child is Artemis, here identified with the moon-goddess Selene.]
  Chrysippus, Old Physics Fragment (from Scholiast on Iliad) (trans. Campbell Greek Lyric I, Frag 390) (Greek scientific C3rd B.C.) : “Chrysippus [Greek C3rd B.C.] in his Old Physics, where he shows that Artemis is Selene (the Moon) and credits it with an influence on childbirth, says that at the full moon not only do women have the easiest labour but all animals have an easy birth.”
  Strabo, Geography 14. 1. 6 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Both Helios (the Sun) and Selene (the Moon) are closely associated with these [Apollon and Artemis], since they are the causes of the temperature of the air. And both pestilential diseases and sudden deaths are imputed to these gods [i.e. Apollon and Artemis].”
  Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2. 27 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) : “The name Apollo is Greek; they say that he is the Sun, and Diana [Artemis] they identify with the Moon . . . the name Luna is derived from lucere ‘to shine’; for it is the same word as Lucina [Eileithyia], and therefore in our country Juno Lucina is invoked in childbirth, as is Diana in her manifestation as Lucifera (the Light-Bringer) among the Greeks. She is also called Diana Omnivaga (wide-wandering), not from her hunting, but because she is counted as one of the seven planets or ‘wanderers’ ( vagary ). She was called Diana because she made a sort of Day (Dia) in the night-time. She is invoked to assist at the birth of children, because the period of gestation is either occasionally seven, or more usually nine, lunar revolutions, and these are called menses (months), because they cover measured ( mensa ) spaces.”
  Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3. 19 : “You say that Sol the Sun [Helios] and Luna the Moon [Selene] are deities, and the Greeks identify the former with Apollo and the latter with Diana [Artemis].”
  HECATE-ARTEMIS-SELENE TRIAD
  The Hekate-Artemis-Selene triad occurs in Roman-era poetry.
  Seneca, Phaedra 406 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) : “[Phaedra prays to Diana-Hecate-Luna, Artemis-Hekate-Selene :] ‘O [Diana-Artemis] queen of the groves ( regina nemorum ), thou who in solitude lovest thy mountain-haunts, and who upon the solitary mountains art alone held holy, change for the better these dark, ill-omened threats. O great goddess of the woods and groves, bright orb of heaven [Luna-Selene], glory of the night, by whose changing beams the universe shines clear, O three-formed Hecate, lo, thou art at hand, favouring our undertaking. Conquer the unbending soul of stern Hippolytus; may he, compliant, give ear unto our prayer. Soften his fierce heart; may he learn to love, may he feel answering flames. Ensnare his mind; grim, hostile, fierce, may he turn him back unto the fealty of love. To this end direct thy powers; so mayst thou wear a shining face [Selene the moon] and, the clouds all scattered, fare on with undimmed horns; so, when thou drivest thy car through the nightly skies, may no witcheries of Thessaly prevail to drag thee down and may no shepherd [i.e. Endymion] make boast o’er thee. Be near, goddess, in answer to our call; hear now our prayers.’”
  Seneca, Troades 386 ff : “With such whirlwind speed as the twelve signs fly along, with such swift course as the lord [Sol-Helios the Sun] of stars hurries on the centuries, and in such wise as Hecate [Luna-Selene the Moon] hastens along her slanting ways, so do we all seek fate.”
  Statius, Thebaid 10. 365 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “[Statius, in the passage that follows describes Diana-Artemis as a triple goddess incorporating: aspects of Diana-Luna-Hecate (Artemis-Selene-Hekate) :] Cynthia, queen of the mysteries of the night, if as they say thou dost vary in threefold wise the aspect of thy godhead, and in different shape comest down into the woodland . . . The goddess stooped her horns and made bright her kindly star, and illumined the battle-field with near-approaching chariot.”
  Statius, Thebaid 4. 410 ff : “[The seer Teiresias (Tiresias) performs the rites of necromancy in the grove of Diana-Hecate (Artemis-Hekate) :] There stands a wood, enduring of time, and strong and erect in age, with foliage aye unshorn nor pierced by any suns . . . Beneath is sheltered quiet, and a vague shuddering awe guards the silence, and the phantom of the banished light gleams pale and ominous. Nor do the shadows lack a divine power: Latonia’s [Artemis-Hekate’s] haunting presence is added to the grove; her effigies wrought in pine or cedar and wood or very tree are hidden in the hallowed gloom of the forest. Her arrows whistle unseen through the wood, her hounds bay nightly [as Hekate], when she flies from her uncle’s [Haides] threshold and resumes afresh Diana’s kindlier shape. Or when she is weary from her ranging on the hills, and the sun high in heaven invites sweet slumber, here doth she rest with head flung back carelessly on he r quiver, while all her spears stand fixed in the earth around . . . [Teiresias cries out summoning the ghosts forth :] ‘Haste ye all together, nor let there be fore the Shades but one fashion of return to the light; do thou, daughter of Perses [Artemis-Hekate], and the cloud-wrapt Arcadian [Hermes] with rod of power lead in separate throng the pious denizens of Elysium.’”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 44. 198 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “[Nonnus describes Artemis-Hekate-Selene as a triple goddess :] O daughter of Helios (Sun), Mene (Moon) of many turnings, nurse of all! O Selene (Moon), driver of the silver car! If thou art Hekate (Hecate) of many names, if in the night thou doest shake thy mystic torch in brandcarrying hand, come nightwanderer . . . If thou art staghunter Artemis, if on the hills thou dost eagerly hunt with fawnkilling Dionysos, be thy brother’s helper now!”
  For MORE information on these goddesses see ARTEMIS and HEKATE
  HYMNS TO SELENE
  Homeric Hymn 32 to Selene (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th – 4th B.C.) : “And next, sweet voiced Mousai (Muses), daughters of Zeus, well skilled in song, tell of the long-winged Mene (Moon) [Selene]. From her immortal head a radiance is shown from heaven and embraces earth; and great is the beauty that ariseth from her shining light. The air, unlit before, glows with the light of her golden crown, and her rays beam clear, whensoever bright Selene having bathed her lovely body in the waters of Okeanos (Oceanus), and donned her far-gleaming raiment, and yoked her strong-necked, shining team, and drives on her long-maned horses at full speed, at eventime in the mid-month: then her great orbit is full and then her beams shine brightest as she increases. So she is a sure token and a sign to mortal men. Once Kronides (Cronides) [Zeus] was joined with her in love; and she conceived an bare a daughter Pandeia, exceeding lovely amongst the deathless gods. Hail, white-armed goddess, bright Selene, mild, bright-tressed queen! And now I will leave you and sing the glorious of men half-divine, whose deeds minstrels, the servants of the Mousai, celebrate with lovely lips.”
  Orphic Hymn 9 to Selene (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) : “To Selene (Moon), Fumigation from Aromatics. Hear, goddess queen ( thea basileia ), diffusing silver light, bull-horned, and wandering through the gloom of night. With stars surrounded, and with circuit wide night’s torch extending, through the heavens you ride: female and male, with silvery rays you shine, and now full-orbed, now tending to decline. Mother of ages, fruit-producing Mene (Moon), whose amber orb makes night’s reflected noon: lover of horses, splendid queen of night, all-seeing power, bedecked with starry light, lover of vigilance, the foe of strife, in peace rejoicing, and a prudent life: fair lamp of night, its ornament and friend, who givest to nature’s works their destined end. Queen of the stars, all-wise Goddess, hail! Decked with a graceful robe and amble veil. Come, blessed Goddess, prudent, starry, bright, come, moony- lamp, with chaste and splendid light, shine on these sacred rites with prosperous rays, and pleased accept thy suppliants’ mystic praise.”
  CULT OF SELENE
  I. THALAMAE (THALAMAI) Town in Lacedaemonia (Lakedaimonia) (Southern Greece)
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 26. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “From Oitylos (Oetylus) to Thalamai (Thalamae) [in Lakedaimonia] the road is about eighty stades long. On it is a sanctuary of Ino and an oracle. They consult the oracle in sleep, and the goddess reveals whatever they wish to learn, in dreams. Bronze statues of Pasiphae and of Helios (the Sun) stand in the unroofed part of the sanctuary. It was not possible to see the one within the temple clearly, owing to the garlands, but they say this too is of bronze. Water, sweet to drink, flows from a sacred spring. Pasiphae is a title of Selene (the Moon), and is not a local goddess of the people of Thalamai.”
  II. ELIS Main Town of Elis (Southern Greece)
  Pausanias, Description of Greece 6. 24. 6 : “In another part [of the market-place of Elis] are the stone images of Helios (the Sun) and Selene (the Moon); from the head of Selene project horns, from the head of Helios, his rays.”
  III. ROME Imperial Capital (Central Italy)
  Ovid, Fasti 3. 883 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “March 31 Comitialis. Luna (the Moon) [Selene] rules the months. Luna closes this month’s time with her worship on the Aventine Hill.”
  TITLES & EPITHETS OF SELENE
  Selene had a number of titles and epithets.
 
 
  Nombre griego
  Αιγλη
  Πασιφαε
  Ειλειθυια
 
 
  Transliteración
  Aiglê
  Pasiphae
  Eileithyia
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Aegle
  Pasiphae
  Ilithyia
 
 
  Traducción
  Gleam, Radiance ( aiglê )
  All-Shining ( pasi-, phaethô )
  Aid, Relieve (in childbirth)
 
 
 
  ANCIENT GREEK & ROMAN ART
 
 
 
 
  T18.1 Selene’s Pegasi Chariot
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T18.4 Selene & Endymion
  Apulian Red Figure Vase Painting C4th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  T18.2 Selene Riding Horse
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  N1.1 Selene, Nyx, Hesperus
  Athenian Red Figure Vase Painting C5th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z18.2 Selene & Endymion
  Greco-Roman Bardo Floor Mosaic A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z50.1B Luna-Selene as Monday
  Greco-Roman Orbe Mosaic C3rd A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  Z50.3 Selene, Helius, the Horae
  Greco-Roman Floor Mosaic A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  S28.1 Statue of Selene
  Greco-Roman Marble Statue A.D.
 
 
 
 

  SOURCES
  GREEK
  Hesiod, Theogony – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  The Homeric Hymns – Greek Epic C8th – 4th B.C.
  Greek Lyric I Alcaeus, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric I Sappho, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric IV Corinna, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric IV Ion of Chios, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric V Timotheus, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragments – Greek Lyric B.C.
  Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Aeschylus, Fragments – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Plato, Cratylus – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Plato, Gorgias – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Plato, Republic – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
  Apollodorus, The Library – Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Apollonius Rhodius, The Argonautica – Greek Epic C3rd B.C.
  Aratus, Phaenomena – Greek Astronomy C3rd B.C.
  Greek Papyri III Anonymous, Fragments – Greek Elegiac C3rd – 1st B.C.
  Strabo, Geography – Greek Geography C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Pausanias, Description of Greece – Greek Travelogue C2nd A.D.
  The Orphic Hymns – Greek Hymns C3rd B.C. – C2nd A.D.
  Aelian, On Animals – Greek Natural History C2nd – 3rd A.D.
  Tryphiodorus, The Taking of Ilias – Greek Epic C5th A.D.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca – Greek Epic C5th A.D.
  Musaeus, Hero and Leander – Greek Poetry C6th A.D.
  Greek Papyri III Anonymous, Fragments – Greek Poetry C4th A.D.
  ROMAN
  Hyginus, Fabulae – Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Ovid, Metamorphoses – Latin Epic C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Ovid, Fasti – Latin Poetry C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Ovid, Heroides – Latin Poetry C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Virgil, Georgics – Latin Bucolic C1st B.C.
  Propertius, Elegies – Latin Elegy C1st B.C.
  Cicero, De Natura Deorum – Latin Rhetoric C1st B.C.
  Seneca, Hercules Furens – Latin Tragedy C1st A.D.
  Seneca, Medea – Latin Tragedy C1st A.D.
  Seneca, Oedipus – Latin Tragedy C1st A.D.
  Seneca, Phaedra – Latin Tragedy C1st A.D.
  Seneca, Troades – Latin Tragedy C1st A.D.
  Valerius Flaccus, The Argonautica – Latin Epic C1st A.D.
  Statius, Thebaid – Latin Epic C1st A.D.
  Statius, Achilleid – Latin Epic C1st A.D.
  Statius, Silvae – Latin Poetry C1st A.D.
  BYZANTINE
  Suidas, The Suda – Byzantine Greek Lexicon C10th A.D.
  OTHER SOURCES
  Other references not currently quoted here: Scholiast on Euripides Phoencian Maidens 175, Cicero Tuscan Disputations 1.38, Plutarch Table-Talk 3, Ovid Rem. Amore 258, Callimachus Hymn to Artemis 114 & 141, Catullus 66.5, Claudian Rape of Proserpine 3.402, Ausonius Ep.5.3.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY
  A complete bibliography of the translations quoted on this page.