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TIFOEO

25/01/2020

Mitología griega >> Bestiario >> Gigantes >> Typhoeus
 
 
  Nombre griego

  [υφωευς
 
 
  Transliteración

  Typhôeus
 

 
  Traducción

  Huracán ( typhô )
 
 

 
  El tifón gigante con patas de serpiente, la figura negra calcídica de Hydria C6th BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen TYPHOEUS (Typhon) fue un monstruoso monstruo de tormenta que puso el asedio al cielo de tormenta monstruosa que puso asedio al cielo de tormenta monstruosa que puso asedio al cielo de tormenta monstruosa que puso asedio al cielo de tormenta monstruosa que puso asedio al cielo de tormenta monstruosa que puso asedio al cielo de tormenta monstruosa que puso asedio al cielo de tormenta monstruosa que puso asedio al cielo de la tormenta monstruosa pero fue derrotado por Zeus y encarcelado en el pozo de Tartaros . Él fue la fuente de tormentas devastadoras que surgieron de ese oscuro reino inferior. Los poetas posteriores lo describen como un volcán gigante, atrapado bajo el peso del monte Aitna (Etna) en Sicilia. En esta forma se identificó con el gigante Enkelados (Enceladus) .
  Typhoeus era un gigante alado, que se dice que es tan grande que su cabeza rozó las estrellas. Tenía forma de hombre desde la cintura hacia arriba con dos serpientes enrolladas en lugar de piernas. Tenía cien cabezas de serpiente para los dedos, una barba sucia y enmarañada, orejas puntiagudas y ojos centelleantes. Según algunos, tenía doscientas manos que constaban de cincuenta dedos con cabeza de serpiente en cada mano y cien cabezas propiamente dichas: una era humana, la otra noventa y nueve bestial (de toros, jabalíes, serpientes, leones y leopardos) . Cuando un demonio volcánico, Tifón, arrojaba rocas al rojo vivo al cielo y el fuego brotaba de su boca.
  FAMILIA DE TIFOEO
  PADRES
  [1.1] TARTAROS y GAIA (Hesiod Theogony 820, Apollodorus 1.39, Hyginus Pref) [1.2] [194590359 GA4 ] (Aeschylus Prometheus 353, Aeschylus Seven Against Thebes 516, Antoninus Liberalis 28, Ovid Metamorphoses 5.324, Virgil Georgics 1.276, Nonnus Dionysiaca 1.145) [1.3] TARTAROS [TARTAROS [ 19459036] (Hyginus Faulaeb 152) [2.1] HERA (Himnos homéricos 3.300, Fragmento Stesichorus 239)
  DESPLAZAMIENTO
  [1.1] ORTHOS , KERBEROS , HYDRA , KHIMAIRA (por Ekhidna [1945900] 1945900 [1945900 [19459] (Hesiod Theogony 306) [1.2] KHIMAIRA , LEÓN NEMEIANO , ORTHOS , LADON [1945900], [45590] ÁGUILA DE KAUKASIA , SPHINX , PHAIA (por Ekhidna ) (Apollodorus 2.31 y 2.74 y 2.106 y 2.11 y 2.11 y 2.11 y 2.11 y 2.11 y 2.11 y 2.11 y 2.11 1) [1.3] KHIMAIRA (por Ekhidna ) (Himno homérico 3.365) [1.4] KHKKK (por Gaia ) (Apollonius Rhodius 2.1210) [1.5] KERBEROS , ORTHOS [19459004 ]42 (1945) Ekhidna [19459004 ]) (Quintus Smyrnaeus 6.260) [1.6] GORGO , KERBEROS , KHOLKIAN DRAKON , 1945 [SKL 1945 [SKL 1945 ], KHIMAIRA , SPHINX , HYDRA , HESPERIAN DRAKON (por Ekhidna [Pref. & Fabulae 151) [1.7] LAS TROIADAS DE DRAKONES (Quintus Smyrnaeus 12.444) [2.1] THE ANEMOI THUELLA4 ] (Hesiod Theogony 869) [2.2] THE HARPYIAI (Valerius Flaccus 4.514)
  ENCICLOPEDIA
  TYPHON o TYPHOEUS (Tuphaôn, Tuphôeus, Tuphôs), un monstruo del mundo primitivo, se describe a veces como un huracán destructivo, y a veces como un gigante que escupe fuego. Según Homero ( Il. ii. 782; comp. Strab. Xiii. P. 929) fue escondido en el país de los Arimi en la tierra, que fue azotado por Zeus con destellos de relámpagos. En Hesíodo, Typhaon y Typhoeus son dos seres distintos. Typhaon hay un hijo de Typhoeus ( Theog. 869), y un huracán temeroso, que por Echidna se convirtió en el padre del perro Orthus, Cerberus, la hidra de Lernaean, Chimaera y Sphynx. ( Theog. 306; comp. Apollod. Ii. 3. § 1, iii. 5. § 8.) A pesar de la confusión de los dos seres en escritores posteriores, el significado original de Typhaon se conservó en la vida cotidiana. vida. (Aristoph. Ran. 845; Plin. HN ii. 48.) Typhoeus, por otro lado, se describe como el hijo más joven de Tartarus y Gea, o de Hera sola, porque estaba indignada porque Zeus había dado a luz a Atenea. Typhoeus es descrito como un monstruo con cien cabezas, ojos temerosos y voces terribles (Pind. Pyth. i. 31, viii. 21, Ol. iv. 12); Quería adquirir la soberanía de los dioses y los hombres, pero Zeus lo sometió, después de una terrible lucha, con un rayo. (Hes. Theog. 821, & c.) Engendró los vientos, de donde también se le llama el padre de las Arpías (Val. Flacc. Iv. 428), pero los vientos benéficos Notus, Boreas, Argestes y Zephyrus no eran sus hijos. (Hes. Theog. 869, & c.) Esquilo y Píndaro lo describen como viviendo en una cueva cilicia. (Pind. Pyth. viii. 21; comp. Las diferentes ideas en Apollon. Rhod. Ii. 1210, & c., Y Herodes. Iii. 5.) Se dice además que alguna vez fue comprometido en una lucha con todos los inmortales, y haber sido asesinado por Zeus con un relámpago; fue enterrado en el Tártaro bajo el monte Aetna, el taller de Hefesto. (Ov. Her. xv. 11, Fast. iv. 491; Aeschyl. Prom. 351, & c .; Pind. Pyth. [ 19459018] i. 29, & c.) Los poetas posteriores con frecuencia conectan a Tifón con Egipto, y se dice que los dioses, cuando no pudieron resistirlo, huyeron a Egipto, donde, por miedo, se metamorfosearon en animales, con a excepción de Zeus y Atenea. (Anton. Lib. 28; Hygin. Poeta. Astr. ii. 28; Ov. Met. v. 321, y c.; Comp. Apollod. I. 6. § 3 ; Ov. Rápido. ii. 461; Horat. Carm. iii. 4. 53.)
  Fuente: Diccionario de biografía y mitología griega y romana.
  DELETREOS DE NOMBRES ALTERNATIVOS
 
 
  Nombre griego
  [υφων
  Τυφαων
  [υφως
 
 
  Transliteración
  Typhôn
  Typhaôn
  Typhôs
 
 
  Ortografía latina
  Tifón
  Tifón
  Tifos
 
 
  Traducción
  Ciclón, huracán, fumando uno ( typhô )
 
 
  CITAS DE LITERATURA CLÁSICA
  PADRE Y NACIMIENTO DE TYPHOEUS
 
  Typhoeus, laconian black-figure kylix C6th BC, Metropolitan Museum of Art Hesiod, Theogony 820 y siguientes (traducción: Evelyn-White) (griego épico C8th o C7th BC): “Ahora, después de que Zeus había expulsado a los Titanes (Titanes) del cielo, la gigantesca Gaia (Gea, la Tierra), enamorada de Tartaros (el Pozo), por medio de Afrodita dorada , dio a luz al menor de sus hijos, Typhoeus “.
  Himno homérico 3 a Pythian Apollo 300 ff (traducción Evelyn-White) (griego épico C7th – 4th BC): “Ella [Ekhidna (Echidna) la drakaina (she-dragon) de Delphoi (Delphi)] fue quien una vez recibió de Hera con tronos de oro y crió cayó, cruel Tifón para ser una plaga para los hombres. Una vez, Hera lo descubrió porque estaba enojada con el padre Zeus, cuando Kronides (Cronides) desnudo, todo glorioso, Atenea en su cabeza. Entonces, la reina Hera se enojó y habló entre los dioses reunidos: “… Sí, ahora me las arreglaré para que nazca un hijo para ser el primero entre los dioses eternos, y eso sin echar Vergüenza por el vínculo sagrado del matrimonio entre tú y yo. Y no iré a tu cama, sino que me juntaré con los dioses benditos lejos de ti “. Cuando ella había dicho eso, se separó de los dioses, muy enojada. Luego, la reina Hera, de grandes ojos y ojos grandes, rezó, golpeando el suelo con la mano y hablando así: ‘Escucha ahora, rezo , Gaia (Gea, Tierra) y Ouranos anchos (Urano, Cielo) arriba, y ustedes, los Dioses Titanes (Titanes) que habitan debajo de la tierra sobre los grandes Tártaros (el Pozo), ¡y de quienes brotaron dioses y hombres! Concédeme ahora a mí, a todos, y concédeme que pueda tener un hijo aparte de Zeus, no menos fuerte que él. No, que sea más fuerte que Zeus que Zeus que todo lo ve que Kronos. Así ella lloró y azotó la tierra con su mano fuerte. Luego, Gaia (Tierra), que dio vida, se conmovió: y cuando Hera lo vio, se alegró de corazón, porque pensó que su oración se cumpliría. Y a partir de entonces nunca llegó a la cama del sabio Zeus durante un año completo. . . Pero cuando se cumplieron los meses y los días y las estaciones se pusieron en vigencia a medida que la tierra se movía, ella dio a luz uno que no era como los dioses ni los hombres mortales, cayó, cruel Tifón, para ser una plaga para los hombres. Hera, la reina de ojos grandes y heterosexual, lo tomó y trajo una cosa malvada a otra, y se lo entregó a Drakaina (Dracaena); y ella lo recibió. Y este tifón solía hacer grandes travesuras entre las famosas tribus de hombres ”
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 1. 16 ff (trad. Conway) (letra griega C5th BC): “Typhon el cien cabezas, que hace mucho tiempo fue criado en el famoso Kilikion (Cilicia) cueva “.
  Stesichorus, fragmento 239 (de Etymologicum Genuinum)
(trad. Campbell, Vol. griego Lyric III) (C7th a 6th BC): “Typhoeus: Hesiod lo hace hijo de Gaia (Gea, Tierra), Stesichorus hijo de Hera, quien lo parió sin un padre para fastidiar a Zeus “.
  Esquilo, Prometheus Bound 353 ff (trad. Weir Smyth) (tragedia griega C5th BC): “El nacido en la tierra ( gêgenês )… Typhon. ”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 39 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “La derrota de los Gigantes (Gigantes) por los dioses enfureció a Ge (Gea, Tierra) ) aún más, así que tuvo relaciones sexuales con Tártaro y dio a luz a Tifón en Kilikia (Cilicia). Era una mezcla de hombre y bestia, el más grande y más fuerte de todos los hijos de Ge “.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 152 (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd A.D.): “Tártaro engendrado por Tartara, Typhon, una criatura de inmenso tamaño y forma temible”.
  Ovidio, Metamorfosis 5. 319 ff (trans. Melville) (epopeya romana C1st BC a C1st AD): “Typhoeus, que emite desde las profundidades más bajas de la tierra … Typhoeus Earthborn ([19459017 ] Terrigena ) “.
  Virgil, Georgics 1. 276 y sigs (trad. Fairclough) (bucólico romano C1st BC): “Luna (la Luna) [Selene] misma ha ordenado varios días en varios grados como afortunada para el trabajo. Evita el quinto … luego, en un trabajo monstruoso, Terra (Tierra) [Gaia] dio a luz a Coeus, y Japeto y el feroz Tifón, y los hermanos [Gigantes (Gigantes)] que fueron condenados para derribar el Cielo “.
  DESCRIPCIONES FÍSICAS DE TIFOEO
  Hesíodo, Teogonía 820 y sigs. (Trad. Evelyn-White) (épica griega C8th o C7th BC): “Typhoeus; sus manos y brazos son poderosos, y tienen trabajo en ellos , y los pies del dios poderoso eran incansables, y de sus hombros surgieron cien cabezas de serpiente, las de un temible dragón (serpiente de dragón), y las cabezas lamidas con lenguas oscuras, y de los ojos en las cabezas inhumanas el fuego brillaba debajo de los párpados: de todas sus cabezas ardía el fuego de la mirada de sus ojos; y dentro de cada una de estas horribles cabezas había voces que arrojaban todo tipo de sonidos horribles, porque a veces era un discurso como el que los dioses podían entender. , pero en otras ocasiones, el sonido de un toro bramando, con los ojos orgullosos y furioso más allá de la celebración, o de nuevo como un león desvergonzado por la crueldad, o de nuevo era como el ladrido de los perros, una maravilla para escuchar, o de nuevo lo haría silba para que las altas montañas le repitan “.
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 1. 16 (trad. Conway) (letra griega C5th B.C.): “Tifón de cien cabezas”.
  Fragmentos anónimos de la letra griega V 931M (papiro de Oxyrhynchus) (trad. Campbell): “El enrollamiento de Tifón”.
  Esquilo, Prometheus Bound 353 ff (trad. Weir Smyth) (tragedia griega C5th BC): “Ese monstruo destructivo de cien cabezas ( hekatonkaranos ), impetuoso ( thouros ) Tifón. ​​Resistió a todos los dioses, siseando el terror con horribles mandíbulas, mientras que desde sus ojos se alumbró una mirada horrible “.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 39 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Typhon era una mezcla de hombre y bestia, el más grande y más fuerte de todos los Ge ( Hijos de la Tierra. Hasta los muslos era de forma humana, tan grande que se extendía más allá de todas las montañas mientras su cabeza tocaba incluso las estrellas. Una mano se extendía hacia el oeste, la otra hacia el este, y se unía a ellas. cien cabezas de serpientes. También desde los muslos hacia abajo tenía grandes bobinas de víboras, que se extendían hasta la parte superior de su cabeza y silbaban poderosamente. Todo su cuerpo tenía alas, y el cabello que fluía en el viento de su cabeza y mejillas estaba enmarañado y sucio. En sus ojos brillaba fuego. Tal era la apariencia y el tamaño de Tifón cuando arrojaba rocas al rojo vivo al cielo mismo, y se dirigía hacia él con silbidos y gritos mezclados, mientras una gran tormenta de fuego hervía de su boca “.
  Pausanias, Descripción de Grecia 3. 18. 10 (trad. Jones) (cuaderno de viaje griego C2nd AD): “[Entre las escenas representadas en el trono de Apolón en Amyklai (Amyclae) cerca de Esparta:] A la izquierda están Ekhidna (Echidna) y Typhos, a la derecha Tritones “. [NÓTESE BIEN. Los monstruos con cola de serpiente Ekhidna y Typhos se yuxtaponen contra un par de Tritones con cola de pez.]
  Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 28 (trans. Celoria) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Typhon era el hijo de Ge (Tierra), una deidad monstruosa debido a su fuerza, y de aspecto extravagante. De él surgieron numerosas cabezas, manos y alas, mientras que de sus muslos surgieron enormes bobinas de serpientes. Emitió todo tipo de rugidos y nada pudo resistir su poder “.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 152 (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “Typhon, una criatura de inmenso tamaño y forma temerosa, que tenía cien Draco (Dragón) cabezas saltando de sus hombros “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1. 145 ff (trans. Rouse) (griego épico C5th AD): “Tifón … gritó mientras gritaba su grito de guerra: las serpientes juntas: las serpientes que crecía de él ondeó sobre las cabezas de su leopardo, lamió las crines de los leones sombríos, ceñidos con sus colas rizadas en espiral alrededor de los cuernos de los toros, mezcló el veneno de sus largas y delgadas lenguas con el salpicón de espuma de los jabalíes. .
Con los pies arrastrados, Typhoeus se montó cerca de las nubes: extendiendo en el exterior la hueste dispersa de sus brazos, sombreó el resplandor brillante del cielo despejado al lanzar su ejército de serpientes enredadas. . . Typhoeus arqueó sus cejas brillantes y sacudió sus mechones: cada pelo eructó veneno de víbora y empapó las colinas … arrojó las rocas sobre él y saltó sobre Olympos. Mientras arrastraba su rastro torcido con pie de serpiente, escupió chorros de veneno de su garganta; los torrentes de las montañas estaban hinchados, mientras el monstruo bañaba las fuentes de las cerdas de su cabeza alta; Mientras marchaba, la tierra sólida se hundió, y la tierra firme de Kilikia (Cilicia) se sacudió hasta sus cimientos bajo esos pies de drakon. . . Tifón, con muchos brazos, rugió por la refriega con todas las lenguas de todas sus gargantas, desafiando al poderoso Zeus. Esa voz sonora llegó a [las lejanas corrientes de Okeanos (Oceanus)]. . . Mientras el monstruo hablaba, lo que respondió al ejército de sus voces, no fue un eco concordante, sino una babel de gritos [i.e. de sus cabezas de animales]: cuando el monstruo lo colocó con todas sus múltiples formas, sonó el aullido de los lobos, el rugido de los leones, el gruñido de los jabalíes, el gruñido del ganado, el silbido de las serpientes, el audaz ladrido de los leopardos, las fauces de los osos de cría, la furia de los dioses. Luego, con su cabeza en forma de hombre, el Gigante gritó amenazas contra Zeus “.
  TIFO PADRE DE MONSTRUOS
  Hesiod, Theogony 306 ff (trad. Evelyn-White) (griego épico C8th o C7th BC): “Los hombres dicen que Typhaon el terrible, indignante y sin ley, se unió en amor a ella [Ekhidna (Echidna)], la sirvienta con ojos de mirada. Así que concibió y dio a luz una feroz descendencia; primero dio a luz a Orthos, el sabueso de Geryones, y luego otra vez dio a luz un segundo, un monstruo que no debe ser vencido y eso no puede ser descrito, Kerberos (Cerberus) que come carne cruda, el sabueso de Haides con voz descarada, cincuenta cabezas, implacable y fuerte. Y de nuevo tuvo un tercero, la Hidra de Lerna, malvada, a quien la diosa, de brazos blancos Hera se alimentó, enojándose sin medida con los poderosos Herakles … Era la madre de Khimaira (Quimera) que respiraba furiosamente, una criatura temerosa, grande, de pies rápidos y fuerte, que tenía tres cabezas, una de las más severas. ojo de león; en su parte trasera, un drakon (serpiente de dragón); y en su medio, una cabra, respirando una terrible explosión f fuego ardiente. Ella mató a Pegasos y a los nobles Belerofontes ”
  Himno homérico 3 a Pythian Apollo 365 ff (traducción Evelyn-White) (griego épico C7th – 4th BC): “[Apollon se regodea sobre el vencido Ekhidna-Python:] ‘Contra muerte cruel, ni Typhoeus te servirá ni la malvada Khimaira (Quimera). “” [NB Typhoeus era su consorte, y la Quimera su hijo.]
  Lasus, Fragment 706A (de Natale Conti, Mythology) (trad. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (C6th BC): “La esfinge era hija de Ekhidna (Echidna) y Typhon, según Lasus de Hermione “.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 31 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “El [Khimaira (Quimera)] fue criado supuestamente por Amisodaros, como Homero también Estados, y según Hesíodo sus padres fueron Tifón y Ekhidna (Echidna) “.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 113: “Una serpiente inmortal (Dragón) los custodiaba [las manzanas doradas], el hijo de Typhon y Ekhidna (Echidna), con cien cabezas que habló con voces de varios tipos “.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 120: “Cuando él [Herakles] llegó al continente por el otro lado, mató con una flecha al águila en el Kaukasos (Cáucaso), el producto de Ekhidna (Echidna) y Typhon que habían estado comiendo el hígado de Prometeo “.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3. 52: “Mientras él [Kreon (Creon) de Thebes] era rey, un gran azote mantuvo a Thebes en supresión, porque Hera envió sobre ellos la Esfinge , cuyos padres fueron Ekhidna (Echidna) y Typhon “.
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca E1. 1: “Teseo mató a la cerda en Krommyon (Crommyon) llamada Phaia (Phaea) después de la anciana que la mantuvo. Algunos dicen que sus padres eran Ekhidna (Echidna) y Typhon”.
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 38 ff (trans. Rieu) (griego épico C3rd BC): “Amykos (Amycus) [un rey de Mysia] hizo pensar en algunos descendientes monstruosos del ogro Typhoeus “.
  Apolonio Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 1206 y siguientes: “[El Kholkian Drakon (Colchian Dragon)] una bestia inmortal e inmóvil, descendencia de Gaia (Gaea, Tierra) ella misma. Ella lo trajo. adelante en las laderas de Kaukasos (Cáucaso) junto a la roca de Typhaon. Fue allí, dicen, que Typhaon, cuando le ofreció violencia a Zeus y fue golpeado por su rayo, cayó sangre tibia de su cabeza “.
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 6. 260 ff (trans. Way) (griego épico C4th AD): “Kerberos (Cerberus), a quien Ekhidna (Echidna, el gusano asqueroso) tenía llevado a Typhon en la penumbra de una caverna escarpada cerca de las fronteras de la Noche Eterna “.
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 12. 444 y siguientes: “Había una cueva, debajo de un acantilado escarpado [cerca de Troya] que excedía la altura, sin escalas, donde habitaban monstruos temerosos [dos mar- drakones (dragones)] de la cría mortal de Typhon “.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Prefacio (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “De Typhon y Echidna [nacieron]: Gorgon, Cerberus, draco que custodiaba el vellón dorado en Colchis, Scylla, que era mujer arriba pero con forma de perro debajo de quien Hércules mató, Quimera (Quimera), Esfinge que estaba en Beocia, serpiente Hydra que tenía nueve cabezas que Hércules [Heracles] mató, y Draco Hesperidum (Dragón Hesperiano) “.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 151: “De Typhon, el gigante y Echidna nacieron Gorgon, el perro de tres cabezas Cerberus, el Draco (Dragón) que protegió las manzanas de las Hespérides a través de oceanus, la Hidra que Hércules [Heracles] mató por la primavera de Lerna, el Draco (Dragón) que protegió el vellón del carnero en Colchis, Scylla, que era mujer arriba pero perro abajo, con seis formas de perro surgidas de su cuerpo, la Esfinge que estaba en Beocia, la Quimera (Quimera) en Licia, que tenía la parte delantera de un león, la parte trasera de una serpiente, mientras que la cabra misma formaba el medio “.
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 15: “Él [Zeus] le envió un águila para comer su hígado, que se renovaba constantemente por la noche. Algunos han dicho que este águila era nacido de Typhon y Echidna, otro de Terra (Tierra) [Gaia] y Tartarus “.
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 4. 514 ff (trad. Mozley) (epopeya romana C1st AD): “Mientras ellos [los Harpyiai (Harpies)] se cernían, vistiendo y jadeando con miedo al acercamiento de la muerte [ a manos de los perseguidos Boreades], y abrumado en un vuelo bajo y tímido implorado con gritos espantosos a su padre Typho [Typhoeus], ​​se levantó y trajo la oscuridad con él, mezclándose alto y bajo, mientras que desde el corazón de la penumbra se escuchó una voz: “Es suficiente haber perseguido a las diosas hasta ahora; ¿por qué luchar contra el furor de su padre contra los ministros de Jove [Zeus], ​​a quien, aunque él maneja el rayo y la égida, ha elegido hacer su poderoso poder? ¿ira? Ahora también tiene ese mismo Jove que les ordenó que se fueran de la vivienda del hijo de Agenor [Phineus]; ellos escuchan sus indicaciones y se retiran a su palabra “.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 18. 274 y sigs. (Trans. Rouse) (griego épico C5th AD): “[Ares] trajo bajo a otro, el hijo de Ekhidna (Echidna), el enemigo de los dioses , escupiendo el horrible veneno de Ekhidna horrible. Tenía dos formas juntas, y en el bosque sacudió las espirales retorcidas de la columna vertebral de su madre “. [NÓTESE BIEN. Este monstruo no tiene nombre.]
  LA BATALLA DE ZEUS Y TIFOEUS
 
  Zeus y Typhoeus, Hydria de figura negra de Chalcidian C6th BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen Hesiod, Theogony 820 y sigs. (Griego ep. Evelyn-White) C8th o C7th BC): “Ahora, después de que Zeus había expulsado a los Titanes (Titanes) del cielo, la gigantesca Gaia (Gea, Tierra), enamorada de Tartaros (el Pozo), por medio de Afrodita dorada, dio a luz al más pequeño de sus hijos, Typhoeus; las manos y los brazos de él son poderosos, y tienen trabajo en ellos, y los pies del poderoso dios eran incansables, y de sus hombros crecieron cien cabezas de serpiente, las de un temido Drakon (serpiente de dragón), y las cabezas lamían con lenguas oscuras, y de los ojos en las cabezas inhumanas brillaba fuego debajo de los párpados: de todas sus cabezas ardía fuego por la mirada de sus ojos; y dentro de cada una de estas horribles cabezas hubo voces que arrojaron todo tipo de sonidos horribles, porque a veces era un discurso exitoso h, como los dioses podían entender, pero en otras ocasiones, el sonido de un toro bramando, de ojos orgullosos y furioso más allá de la celebración, o de nuevo como un león desvergonzado por la crueldad, o de nuevo era como el ladrido de los perros, una maravilla para escuchar o, de nuevo, silbaría para que las altas montañas le hicieran eco. Y ahora ese día se habría hecho algo más allá de la reparación, y él, Tifón, habría sido maestro de dioses y de mortales, si [Zeus] el padre de los dioses y los hombres no hubiera sido capaz de percibirlo y dar un fuerte y fuerte trueno, de modo que la tierra dio una reverberación espeluznante, y el amplio cielo de arriba, y el mar, y las corrientes de Okeanos (Oceanus), y las cámaras subterráneas. Y el gran Olympos se sacudió bajo los pies inmortales del maestro mientras se movía, y la tierra gimió debajo de él, y el calor y las llamas de ambos estaban en el mar de cara oscura, del trueno y el rayo de Zeus y del llama del monstruo, de sus rayos ardientes y del chamuscado y aliento de sus vientos de tormenta, y toda la tierra y el cielo y el mar hervían, y las olas elevaban y azotaban los promontorios en el viento de estos inmortales. , y se produjo un gran temblor de la tierra, y Haides, señor de los muertos fallecidos, tembló, y los Titanes (Titanes) bajo Tartaros, que viven junto a Kronos (Cronus), temblaron ante el terrible encuentro y el clamor sin fin. Pero ahora, cuando Zeus había aumentado su propia fuerza, tomando sus armas, truenos, relámpagos y el rayo fulgurante, dio un salto desde Olympos y golpeó, prendiendo fuego a todas esas maravillosas cabezas establecidas sobre el temido monstruo. Luego, cuando Zeus lo derribó con sus golpes, Typhoeus se estrelló, se paralizó, y la tierra gigantesca gimió debajo de él, y la llama del gran señor tan golpeada por los truenos se extendió a lo largo de los bosques oscuros y empinados de las montañas mientras estaba golpeó, y gran parte de la tierra gigantesca ardió en el maravilloso viento de su calor, y se derritió, como el estaño se derrite en el calor del crisol cuidadosamente ranurado cuando los artesanos lo trabajan, o como el hierro, aunque esa es la sustancia más fuerte, se derrite bajo el estrés de un fuego abrasador en los bosques montañosos trabajados por la artesanía de Hephaistos (Hephaestus) dentro de la tierra divina. Entonces la tierra se derritió en el destello del fuego ardiente; pero Zeus, en medio de un tumulto de ira, arrojó a Tifón en el amplio Tártaro. Y de Typhoeus viene la fuerza de los vientos que soplan con humedad, excepto Notos (el viento del sur) y Boreas (el viento del norte) y el claro Zephyros (el viento del oeste). Estos son del tipo enviado por Dios, y una gran bendición para los hombres; pero los otros soplan a intervalos sobre los mares. Algunos se precipitan sobre el mar brumoso y causan grandes estragos entre los hombres con sus explosiones malvadas y furiosas; por variar con la temporada soplan, dispersan barcos y destruyen marineros. Y los hombres que se encuentran con estos en el mar no tienen ayuda contra la travesura. Otros, otra vez sobre la tierra infinita y floreciente, estropean los hermosos campos de hombres que habitan debajo, llenándolos de polvo y alboroto cruel “.
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 1. 16 ff (trad. Conway) (letra griega C5th BC): “Pero la violencia arruina incluso el jactancioso corazón duro pronto o tarde. Kilikion ( Cilician) Tifón de las cien cabezas no pudo escapar de su destino “.
  Esquilo, Prometheus Bound 353 y sigs (trad. Weir Smyth) (tragedia griega C5th BC): “La pena me conmovió [al Titán Prometheus], ​​también, a la vista de la tierra- nacido ( gêgenês ) habitante de las cuevas de Kilikian (cilicio) frenado por la violencia, ese monstruo destructivo de cien cabezas ( hekatonkaranos ), impetuoso ( thouros ) Tifón Resistió a todos los dioses, siseando el terror con horribles mandíbulas, mientras que de sus ojos alumbró una mirada horrible, como si fuera a asaltar por la fuerza la soberanía de Zeus. Pero el rayo de Zeus se le vino encima, la marca de relámpagos se precipitó sobre él. un soplo de fuego que lo asustó, asustado, por sus ruidosas alardes, luego, golpeado hasta el corazón, fue quemado hasta las cenizas y su rayo arrebató su fuerza. Y ahora, un bulto desvalido y desparramado. , él yace duro por los estrechos del mar, presionado debajo de las raíces de Aitn a (monte Etna); mientras que en la cima más alta, Hephaistos se sienta y martilla el mineral fundido. Allí, un día, estallarán ríos de fuego, con las fauces salvajes devorando los campos nivelados de Sikelia (Sicilia), tierra de bellos frutos, tal ira hirviente Typhon, aunque carbonizado por el fulgurante rayo de Zeus, enviará chorros con chorros calientes de oleada espantosa y que escupe fuego “.
  Esquilo, Siete contra Tebas 486 y siguientes: “Hipomedón [uno de los líderes del ejército de los Siete contra Tebas], tremenda en forma y figura. Me estremecí de miedo mientras giraba. un enorme disco: el círculo de su escudo … El creador de símbolos que puso el diseño en su escudo no era un humilde artesano: el símbolo es Typhon, escupiendo de su boca que respira fuego un humo espeso y oscuro, el dardo hermana de fuego. Y el borde del escudo de vientre hueco está sujeto con trenzas serpenteantes … Hyperbios (Hyperbius), el hijo de confianza de Oinops, es elegido para que coincida con él … Hermes los ha enfrentado apropiadamente contra ellos. each other. For the man is hostile to the man he faces in battle, and the gods on their shields also meet as enemies. The one has fire-breathing Typhon, while father Zeus stands upright on Hyperbios’ shield, his lightening bolt aflame in his hand. And no one yet has seen Zeus conquered. Such then is the favor of the divine power s : we are with the victors, they with the vanquished, if Zeus in fact proves stronger in battle than Typhon. And it is likely that the mortal adversaries will fare as do their gods; and so, in accordance with the symbol, Zeus will be a savior for Hyperbios since he resides on his shield. I am sure that Zeus’ antagonist, since he has on his shield the unloved form of an earth-born deity ( daimon khthonios ), an image hated by both mortals and the long-lived gods, will drop his head in death before the gate.”
  Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 39 – 44 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “The defeat of the Gigantes (Giants) by the gods angered Ge (Gaea, the Earth) all the more, so she had intercourse with Tartaros and bore Typhon in Kilikia (Cilicia). He was a mixture of man and beast, the largest and strongest of all Ge’s children. Down to the thighs he was human in form, so large that he extended beyond all the mountains while his head often touched even the stars. One hand reached to the west, the other to the east, and attached to these were one hundred heads of serpents. Also from the thighs down he had great coils of vipers, which extended to the top of his head and hissed mightily. All of his body was winged, and the hair that flowed in the wind from his head and cheeks was matted and dirty. In his eyes flashed fire. Such were the appearance and the size of Typhon as he hurled red-hot rocks at the sky itself, and set out for it with mixed hisses and shouts, as a great storm of fire boiled forth from his mouth. When the gods saw him rushing toward the sky, they headed for Aigyptos (Egypt) to escape him, and as he pursued them they changed themselves into animal shapes. But Zeus from a distance hurled thunderbolts at Typhon, and when he had drawn closer Zeus tried to strike him down with a sickle made of adamant. Typhon took flight, but Zeus stayed on his heels right up to Mount Kasion (Casium), which lies in Syria. Seeing that he was badly wounded, Zeus fell on him with his hands. But Typhon entwined the god and held him fast in his coils, and grabbing the sickle he cut out the sinews from Zeus’ hands and feet. Then, placing Zeus up on his shoulders, he carried him across the sea to Kilikia (Cilicia), where he deposited him in the Korykion (Corycian) cave. He also hid away the sinews there in the skin of a bear, and posted as guard over them the Drakaina (Dracaena) Delphyne, a girl who was half animal. But Hermes and Aigipan (Aegipan) stole back the sinews and succeeded in replanting them in Zeus without being seen. So Zeus, again possessed of his strength, suddenly appeared from the sky in a chariot drawn by winged horses, and with thunderbolts chased Typhon to the mountain called Nysa. There the Moirai (Moirae, Fates) deceived the pursued creature, for he ate some of the ephemeral fruit on Nysa [i.e. the intoxicating grape of Dionysos] after they had persuaded him that he would gain strength from it. Again pursued, he made his way to Thrake (Thrace), where while fighting round Haimos (Haemus) he threw whole mountains at Zeus. But when these were pushed back upon him by the thunderbolt, a great quantity of his blood streamed out on the mountain, which allegedly is why the mountain is called Haimos. Then, as Typhon started to flee again through the Sikelian (Sicilian) Sea, Zeus brought down Sikelia’s Mount Aitna (Etna) on him , a great mountain which they say still erupts fire from the thunderbolts thrown by Zeus.”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 1206 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “On the slopes of Kaukasos (Caucasus) by the rock of Typhaon. It was there, they say, that Typhaon, when he had offered violence to Zeus and been struck by his thunder-bolt, dropped warm blood from his head, and so made his way to the mountains and plain of Nysa, where he lies to this day, engulfed in the waters of the Serbonian Lake.”
  Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 71. 2 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “He [Zeus] slew the Gigantes (Giants) and their followers, Mylinos in Krete (Crete) and Typhon in Phrygia.”
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 5. 484 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “In the dust outstretched he lay, like Typhon, when the bolts of Zeus had blasted him.”
  Oppian, Halieutica 3. 15 (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd A.D.) : “Pan of Korykos (Corycus), thy son, who, they say, was the saviour of Zeus–the saviour of Zeus but the slayer of Typhon. For he tricked terrible Typhon with promise of a banquet of fish and beguiled him to issue forth from his spacious pit and come to the shore of the sea, where the swift lightning and the rushing fiery thunderbolts laid him low; and, blazing in the rain of fire, he beat his hundred heads upon the rocks whereon he was carded all about like wool. And even now the yellow banks by the sea are red with the blood of the Typhonian battle.”
  Pankrates, Antinous (trans. Page, Vol. Select Papyri III, No. 128) (Greek poetry C2nd A.D.) : “Like Typhoeus of old against Zeus the giant-killed ( gigantoletos ).”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 152 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Tartarus begat by Tartara, Typhon, a creature of immense size and fearful shape, who had a hundred Draco (Dragon-Serpent) heads springing from his shoulders. He challenged Jove [Zeus] to see if Jove would content with him for the rule. Jove struck his breast with a flaming thunderbolt. When it was burning him he put Mount Etna, which is in Sicily, over him. From this it is said to burn still.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 3. 302 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “[Zeus] he soared ascending to the ethereal sky, and by his nod called up the trailing clouds and massed a storm, with lightnings in the squalls, and thunder and the bolts that never miss . . . wielding the fire with which he’s felled hundred-handed Typhoeus.”
  Seneca, Medea 771 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) : “[Amongst the fabulous ingredients used by the witch Medea in a spell :] To thee [Hekate] I offer these wreaths wrought with bloody hands, each entwined with nine serpent coils; to thee, these serpent limbs which rebellious Typhoeus wore, who caused Jove’s [Zeus’] throne to tremble.”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 3. 130 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “Huge as Typhon when he glares from the measureless sky, red with fire and tempest, while Jove [Zeus] on high grips him by the hair.”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 4. 235 ff : “Typhoeus, boasting that already the kingdom of the sky and already the stars were won, felt aggrieved that Bacchus [Dionysos] in the van [of a chariot] and Pallas, foremost of the gods, and a maiden’s snakes [Athena’s aegis] confronted him.”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 6. 168 ff : “The ground trembles and quakes at the shock, as when Jupiter [Zeus] strikes Phlegra [home of the Gigantes] with his angry brand and hurls back Typhon to the deepest recesses of the earth.”
  Suidas s.v. Haliplanktos (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) : “Haliplanktos (Sea-roaming) : Thus Pan is called . . . because he hunted Typhon with nets.”
  For Nonnus’ much more elaborate account of the battle of Zeus and Typhon see TYPHOEUS page 2
  TYPHOEUS & THE FLIGHT OF THE GODS TO EGYPT
  Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 28 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Typhon was the son of Ge (Gaea, Earth), a deity monstrous because of his strength, and of outlandish appearance. There grew out of him numerous heads and hands and wings, while from his thighs came huge coils of snakes. He emitted all kinds of roars and nothing could resist his might. He felt an urge to usurp the rule of Zeus and not one of the gods could withstand him as he attacked. In panic they fled to Aigyptos (Egypt), all except Athena and Zeus, who alone were left. Typhon hunted after them, on their track. When they fled they had changed themselves in anticipation into animal forms. Apollon became a hawk [i.e. the Egyptian god Horus], Hermes an ibis [the Egyptian god Thoth], Ares became a fish, the lepidotus [Egyptian Lepidotus or Onuris], Artemis a cat [Neith or Bastet], Dionysos took the shape of a goat [Osiris or Arsaphes], Herakles a fawn, Hephaistos (Hephaestus) an ox [Ptah], and Leto a shrew mouse [Wadjet]. The rest of the gods each took on what transformations they could. When Zeus struck Typhon with a thunderbolt, Typhon, aflame hid himself and quenched the blaze in the sea. Zeus did not desist but piled the highest mountain, Aitna (Etna), on Typon and set Hephaistos on the peak as a guard. Having set up his anvils, he works his red hot blooms on Typhon’s neck.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 196 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “When the god in Egypt feared the monster Typhon, Pan bade them transform themselves into wild beasts the more easily to deceive him. Jove [Zeus] later killed him with a thunderbolt. By the will of the gods, since by his warning they had avoided Typhon’s violence.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 28 : “Egyptian priests and some poets say that once when many gods had assembled in Egypt, suddenly Typhon, an exceedingly fierce monster and deadly enemy of the gods, came to that place. Terrified by him, they changed their shapes into other forms: Mercurius [Hermes] became an ibis, Apollo [Apollon], the bird that is called Thracian, Diana [Artemis], a cat. For this reason they say the Egyptians do not permit these creatures to be injured, because they are called representations of gods. At this same time, they say, Pan cast himself into the river, making the lower part of his body a fish, and the rest a goat, and thus escaped from Typhon.”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 30 : “Pisces. Diognetus Erythraeus says that once Venus [Aphrodite] and her son Cupid [Eros] came in Syria to the river Euphrates. There Typhon, of whom we have already spoken, suddenly appeared. Venus and her son threw themselves into the river and there changed their forms to fishes, and by so doing this escaped danger.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 5. 139 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Typhoeus, issuing from earth’s lowest depths, struck terror in those heavenly hearts, and they all turned their backs and fled, until they found refuge in Aegyptus (Egypt) and the seven-mouthed Nilus (Nile) . . . Typhoeus Earthborn Earthborn ( Terrigena ) even there pursued them and the gods concealed themselves in spurious shapes; ‘And Juppiter [Zeus] became a ram,’ she said, ‘lord of the herd, and so today great Libyan Ammon [i.e. the Egyptian god Ammon] shown with curling horns. Delius [Apollon] hid as a raven [i.e. the Egyptian god Horus], Semeleia [Dionysos] as a goat [Egyptian Osiris or Arsaphes], Phoebe [Artemis] a cat [Egyptian Bastet], Saturnia [Hera] a snow-white cow [Egyptian Hathor], Venus [Aphrodite] a fish [the Syrian goddess Ashtarte] and Cyllenius [Hermes] an ibis [Egyptian Thoth].’”
  Ovid, Fasti 2. 458 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Once Dione [Aphrodite], in flight from terrible Typhon–when Jupiter [Zeus] armed in heaven’s defence–, reached the Euphrates with tiny Cupidos [Eros] in tow and sat by the hem of Palestine’s stream . . . She pales with fear, and believes a hostile band approaches. As she clutched son to breast, she cries : ‘To the rescue, Nymphae (Nymphs), and bring help to two divinities.’ No delay; she leapt. Twin fish went underneath them.”
  IMPRISONMENT OF TYPHOEUS IN TARTARUS
 
  Typhoeus, Boeotian black-figure vase C6th B.C. I. THE STORM PIT OF TARTARUS
  Hesiod, Theogony 869 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “Zeus had headed up his own strength, seizing his weapons, thunder, lightning, and the glowering thunderbolt, he made a leap from Olympos, and struck, setting fire to all those wonderful heads set about on the dreaded monster [Typhoeus] . . . [and] Zeus in tumult of anger cast Typhoeus into broad Tartaros (Tartarus).
And from Typhoeus comes the force of winds blowing wetly, except Notos and Boreas and clear Zephyros. These are a god-sent kind, and a great blessing to men; but the others blow fitfully upon the seas. Some rush upon the misty sea and work great havoc among men with their evil, raging blasts; for varying with the season they blow, scattering ships and destroying sailors. And men who meet these upon the sea have no help against the mischief. Others again over the boundless, flowering earth spoil the fair fields of men who dwell below, filling them with dust and cruel uproar.”
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 1. 15 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “That enemy of the gods, who lies in fearsome Tartaros (Tartarus), Typhon the hundred-headed, who long since was bred in the far-famed Kilikion cave. Today the cliffs that bar the sea o’er Kumai (Cumae) and Sikilia’s (Sicily’s) isle, press heavy on his shaggy breast, and that tall pillar rising to the height of heaven, contains him close–Aitna (Etna).” [NÓTESE BIEN. Tartaros is here the under-earth, rather than the cosmic pit.]
  Aristophanes, Frogs 475 ff (trans. O’Neill) (Greek comedy C5th to 4th B.C.) : “[Aiakos (Aeacus), judge of the dead, threatens the god Dionysos with torments in the Underworld :] ‘The black hearted Stygian rock and the crag of Akheron (Acheron) dripping with gore can hold you; and the circling hounds of Kokytos (Cocytus) and the hundred-headed Ekhidna (Serpent) [probably Typhoeus] shall tear your entrails; your lungs will be attacked by the Myraina Tartesia (the Tartesian Eel) [probably Ekhidna], your kidneys bleeding with your very entrails the Gorgones Teithrasiai (Tithrasian Gorgons) will rip apart.’”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 4. 514 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “While they [the Harpyiai (Harpies)] hovered, wearing and panting with fear of death’s approach [at the hands of the pursuing Boreades], and weighed down in low and timorous flight implored with ghastly shriek their father Typho [Typhowua], he rose and brought up the darkness with him, mingling high and low, while from the heart of the gloom a voice was heard.”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 6. 168 ff : “The ground trembles and quakes at the shock, as when Jupiter [Zeus] strikes Phlegra [home of the Gigantes] with his angry brand and hurls back Typhon to the deepest recesses of the earth.”
  II. BENEATH THE LAND OF THE ARIMOI
  According to Homer and Hesiod the monsters Typhoeus and Ekhidna were imprisoned beneath the land of the Arimoi–a race also known as Arimaspoi (Arimaspians) and Kimmeroi (Cimmerians). The Arimoi were a mythical tribe who dwelt at the ends of the earth beyond the River Okeanos (Oceanus) in a land shrouded in mist and darkness. The gates of Tartaros were presumably located in the region. Strabo mentions several real-world locations which were later identified by the Greeks as the mythical land of the Arimoi.
  Homer, Iliad 2. 780 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “The ground echoed under them, Zeus who delights in thunder were angry, as when he batters the earth about Typhoeus, in the land of the Arimoi, where they say Typhoeus lies prostrate.” [Cf. Hesiod below.]
  Hesiod, Theogony 295 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “She [Ekhidna (Echidna)] has her cave on the underside of a hollow rock, far from the immortal gods, and far from all mortals. There the gods ordained her a fabulous home to live in which she keeps underground among the Arimoi, grisly Ekhidna, a Nymphe who never dies, and all her days she is ageless.” [NÓTESE BIEN. Ekhidna’s home of Arimoi is the place which Homer describes as the prison of Typhoeus.]
  Homer, Odyssey 11. 10 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “The vessel [of Odysseus] came to the bounds of eddying Okeanos (Oceanus), where lie the land and the city of the Kimmeroi (Cimmerians), covered with mist and cloud. Never does the resplendent sun look on this people with his beams, neither when he climbs towards the stars of heaven nor when once more he comes earthwards from the sky; dismal night over hands these wretches always. ariving there, we beached the vessel [near the netherworld rivers Akheron (Acheron) and Styx].” [N.B. The land of the Kimmeroi (Cimmerians, “Of the Frost-Chilled Air”), described by Homer in the passage above, was probably the same as land of the Arimoi.]
  Strabo, Geography 13. 4. 6 ff (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Some [poets] add the following fourth verse : ‘At the foot of snowy Tmolos, in the fertile land of Hyde.’ But there is no Hyde to be found in the country of the Lydians . . . And they add that the place is woody and subject to strokes of lightning, and that the Arimoi live there, for after Homer’s verse, ‘in the land of the Arimoi where men say is the couch of Typhon,’ they insert the words, ‘in a wooded place, in the fertile land of Hyde.’ But others lay the scene of this myth in Kilikia (Cilicia), and some lay it in Syria, and still others in the Pithekoussai (Pithecussae) Islands [small volcanic islands off the coast of Italy], who say that among the Tyrrhenians pithekoi (apes) are called arimoi . Some call Sardeis Hyde, while others call its acropolis Hyde. But the Skepsian thinks that those writers are most plausible who place the Arimoi in the Katakekaumene (Catacecaumene, Burnt Up) country in Mysia. But Pindaros (Pindar) associates the Pithekoussai which lie off the Kymaian (Cumaean) territory, as also the territory in Sikelia (Sicily), with the territory in Kilikia (Cilicia), for he says that Typhon lies beneath Aitna (Mount Etna) : ‘Once he dwelt in a far-famed Kilikian cavern; now, however, his shaggy breast is o’er-pressed by the sea-girt shores above Kymai (Cumae) and by Sikelia (Sicily).’ And again, ‘round about him lies Aitna (Etna) with her haughty fetters,’ and again, ‘but it was father Zeus that once amongst the Arimoi, by necessity, alone of the gods, smote monstrous Typhon of the fifty heads.’ But some understand that the Syrians are Arimoi, who are now called the Arimaians, and that the Kilikians (Cilicians) in Troy, forced to migrate, settled again in Syria and cut off for themselves what is now called Kilikia.”
  Strabo, Geography 12. 7. 19 : “In fact they make this [the volcanic plains of Lydia] the setting of the mythical story of the Arimoi and of the throes of Typhon, calling it the Katakekaumene (Catacecaumene, the Burnt Up) country. Also, they do not hesitate to suspect that the parts of the country between the Maiandros (Meander) River and the Lydians are all of this nature, as well on account of the number of the lakes and rivers as on account of the numerous hollows in the earth. And the lake between Laodikeia (Laodicea) and Apameia, although like a sea, emits an eflluvium that is filthy and of subterranean origin.”
  Strabo, Geography 13. 4. 11 ff : “The Katakekaumene (Catacecaumene, Burnt Up) country [of Lydia or Mysia], as it is called, which has a length of five hundred stadia and a breadth of four hundred, whether it should be called Mysia or Meïonia (for both names are used); the whole of it is without trees except the vine that produces the Katakekaumenite wine, which in quality is inferior to none of the notable wines. The surface of the plain is covered with ashes, and the mountainous and rocky country is black, as though from conflagration. Now some conjecture that this resulted from thunderbolts and from fiery subterranean outbursts, and they do not hesitate to lay there the scene of the mythical story of Typhon . . . but it is not reasonable to suppose that all that country was burnt all at once by reason of such disturbances, but rather by reason of an earth-born fire, the sources of which have now been exhausted. Three pits are to be seen there, which are called ‘bellows’, and they are forty stadia distant from each other. Above them lie rugged hills, which are reasonably supposed to have been heaped up by the hot masses blown forth from the earth. That such soil should be well adapted to the vine one might assume from the land of Katana (Catana), which was heaped with ashes and now produces excellent wine in great plenty.”
  III. BENEATH THE SERBONIAN MARSH
  According to some, Typhoeus was buried beneath the Serbonian Bog (now Sabkhat al Bardawil) in Egypt. In this version of the myth, Typhoeus was equated with the Egyptian god Set who was vanquished by Osiris in the marsh.
  Aeschylus, Suppliant Women 556 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) : “The fertile groves sacred to Zeus [Egypt], that snow-fed pasture assailed by Typho’s fury, and the water of the Neilos (River Nile) that no disease may touch.”
  Herodotus, Histories 3. 5 (trans. Godley) (Greek historian C5th B.C.) : “Now the only apparent way of entry into Aigyptos (Egypt) is this. The road runs from Phoinikia (Phoenicia) as far as the borders of the city of Kadytis (Cadytis) . . . from Ienysus as far as the Serbonian marsh, beside which the promontory Kasios (Casius) stretches seawards; from this Serbonian marsh, where Typho is supposed to have been hidden, the country is Aigyptos (Egypt). Now between Ienysos and the Kasian (Casian) mountain and the Serbonian marsh there lies a wide territory for as much as three days’ journey, terribly arid.”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 1206 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “Typhaon struck by his thunder-bolt, dropped warm blood from his head, and so made his way to the mountains and plain of Nysa, where he lies to this day, engulfed in the waters of the Serbonian Lake.”
  Strabo, Geography 13. 4. 6 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “[Strabo quotes Pindar :] ‘But it was father Zeus that once amongst the Arimoi, by necessity, alone of the gods, smote monstrous Typhon of the fifty heads.’ But some understand that the Syrians are Arimoi, who are now called the Arimaians [and it is here that Typhon is buried].”
  IMPRISONMENT OF TYPHOEUS BENEATH MOUNT ETNA
  Pindar, Olympian Ode 4. 6 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “O son of Kronos [Zeus], lord of Aitna (Mount Enta), that windswept mount where Typhon the monster hundred-headed is held in thrall.”
  Pindar, Pythian Ode 1. 15 ff : “That enemy of the gods, who lies in fearsome Tartaros, Typhon the hundred-headed, who long since was bred in the far-famed Kilikian (Cilician) cave. Today the cliffs that bar the sea o’er Kymai (Cumae) and Sikilia’s (Sicily’s) isle, press heavy on his shaggy breast, and that tall pillar rising to the height of heaven, contains him close–Aitna (Etna) the white-clad summit, nursing through all the year her frozen snows. From the dark depths below she flings aloft fountains of purest fires, that no foot can approach. In the broad light of day rivers of glowing smoke pour forth a lurid stream, and in the dark a red and rolling flood tumbles down the boulders to the deep sea’s plain in riotous clatter. These dread flames that creeping monster sends aloft, a marvel to look on, and a wondrous tale even to hear, from those whose eyes have seen it. Such is the being bound between the peaks of Aitna in her blackened l eaves and the flat plain, while all his back is torn and scarred by the rough couch on which he lies outstretched.”
  Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 363 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) : “He [Typhon] was burnt to ashes and his strength blasted from him by the lightning bolt. And now, a helpless and a sprawling bulk, he lies hard by the narrows of the sea, pressed down beneath the roots of Aitna (Etna); while on the topmost summit Hephaistos (Hephaestus) sits and hammers the molten ore. There, one day, shall burst forth rivers of fire, with savage jaws devouring the level fields of Sikelia (Sicily), land of fair fruit–such boiling rage shall Typhon, although charred by the blazing lightning of Zeus, send spouting forth with hot jets of appalling, fire-breathing surge.”
  Lycophron, Alexandra 688 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) : “The island [Sicily] that crushed the back of the Gigantes (Giants) and the fierce from of Typhon, shall receive him [Odysseus] journeying alone : an island boiling with flame.”
  Strabo, Geography 5. 4. 9 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “The Khalkidians (Chalcidians) [who settled the island of Pithekoussai (Pithecussae) in southern Italy] . . . were driven out of the island by earthquakes, and by eruptions of fire, sea, and hot waters . . . Hence, also the myth, according to which Typhon lies beneath this island, and when he turns his body the flames and the waters, and sometimes even small islands containing boiling water, spout forth, But what Pindaros (Pindar) says is more plausible, since he starts with the actual phenomena; for this whole channel, beginning at the Kaumaian (Cumaean) country and extending as far as Sikelia (Sicily), is full of fire, and has caverns deep down in the earth that form a single whole, connecting not only with one another but also with the mainland; and therefore, not only Aitna (Etna) clearly ahs such a character as it is reported by all to have, but also the Liparoi (Liparian) Islands, and the districts around about Dikaiarkheia, Neapolis (Naples), and Baia (Baeae), and the island of Pithekoussai. This, I say, is Pindaros’ though when he says that Typhon lies beneath this whole region: ‘Now however, both Sikelia and the sea-fenced cliffs beyond Kume press hard upon his shaggy breast.’”
  Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 28 (trans. Celoria) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “When Zeus struck Typhon with a thunderbolt, Typhon, aflame hid himself and quenched the blaze in the sea.
Zeus did not desist but piled the highest mountain, Aitna (Etna), on Typon and set Hephaistos (Hephaestus) on the peak as a guard. Having set up his anvils, he works his red hot blooms on Typhon’s neck.”
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines 2. 17 (trans. Fairbanks) (Greek rhetorician C3rd A.D.) : “[From a description of an ancient Greek painting depicting a volcanic island :] The neighbouring island, my boy, we may consider a marvel; for fire smoulders under the whole of it, having worked its way into underground passages and cavities of the island, through which as though ducts the flames break forth and produce terrific torrents from which pour mighty rivers of fire that run in billows to the sea . . . The painting, following the accounts given by the poets, goes farther and ascribes a myth to the island. A Gigante (Giant), namely, was once struck down there, and upon his as he struggled in the death agony the island was placed as a bond to hold him down, and he doest not yet yield but from beneath the earth renews the fight and breathes forth this fire as he utters threats. Yonder figure, they say, would represent Typhon in Sikelia (Sicily) [i.e. debajo del monte Etna] o Enkelados (Enceladus) aquí en Italia (Italia) [i.e. enterrado bajo el Monte Vesubio], Gigantes que tanto los continentes como la isla están presionando, aún no muertos, pero siempre muriendo. Y tú mismo, muchacho, imaginarás que no te han dejado fuera del concurso cuando miras la cima de la montaña; for what you see there are thunderbolts which Zeus is hurling at the Gigante, and the giant is already giving up the struggle but still trusts in the earth, but the earth ( gê ) has grown weary because Poseidon does not permit her to remain in place. Poseidon ahs spread a mist over the contest, so that it resembles what has taken place in the past rather than what is taking place now.”
  Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 5. 14 (trans. Conybeare) (Greek biography C1st to C2nd A.D.) : “They came to Katana (Catana), where is Mount Aitna (Etna); and they say that they heard from the inhabitants of the city a story about Typho being bound on the spot and about fire rising from him, and this fire sends up the smoke of Aitna.”
  Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 5. 16 : “Poetical myths are given by the vulgar of Aitna (Etna) . . . belonging to the class of dramatic stories which fill the mouths of our poets. For they sway that a certain Typho or Enkelados (Enceladus) lies bound under the mountain [Mount Etna], and in his death agony breathes out this fire that we see. Now I admit that Gigantes (Giants) have existed, and that gigantic bodies are revealed all over earth when tombs are broken open; nevertheless I deny that they ever came into conflict with the gods; at the most they violated their temples and statues, and to suppose that hey scaled the heaven and chased away the gods therefrom,–this it is madness to relate and madness to believe.”
  Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana 5. 13 : “Typho a many-headed monster, was threatening Sikelia (Sicily) with his violence [i.e. threatening a volcanic eruption].”
  Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 152 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Jove [Zeus] struck his [Typhon’s] breast with a flaming thunderbolt. When it was burning him he put Mount Etna, which is in Sicily, over him. From this it is said to burn still.”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 5. 346 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “The huge three-angled isle of Trinacris [Sicily] lies piled upon the body of the giant, Typhoeus, whose hopes had dared heaven’s palaces and hold him fast beneath its mighty mass. Often he strives and strains to rise again but on his right hand long Pelorus stands, and on his left Pachynum; Lilybaeum crushes his legs, Etna weighs down his head, where, face upturned, his fierce throat vomits forth cinders and flames. Often he strains his strength to heave earth’s heavy weight aside, to roll away the mountain range and the teeming towns. Then the land quakes and even Rex Silentum (the king who rules the land of silence) [Hades] shudders lest the ground in gaping seams should open and the day stream down and terrify the trembling Umbrae (Shades).”
  Ovid, Metamorphoses 14. 2 ff : “Etna heaped high upon the Gigante’s [Typhon’s] throat.”
  Ovid, Fasti 1. 543 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “You would think every blast was Typhoeus’ breath, a bolt of lightning hurled from Etna’s fire.”
  Ovid, Fasti 4. 491 ff : “Soaring Etna lies over huge Typhoeus’ mouth, whose gasping fires ignite the very earth.”
  Ovid, Heroides 15. 12 ff (trans. Showerman) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “The fields you frequent, O Phaon, lie far away, by Typhoean Aetna (Etna); and I–heat not less than the fires of Aetna preys on me.”
  Seneca, Hercules Furens 80 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) : “Unbar Sicily’s mountain cave, and let the Dorian land, which trembles whenever the giant [Typhon] struggles, set free the buried frame of that dread monster.”
  Seneca, Medea 407 ff : “What ferocity of beasts, what Scylla, what Charybdis, sucking up the Ausonian and Sicilian waters, or what Aetna (Etna), resting heavily on panting Titan [Typhoeus], shall burn with such threats as I?”
  Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 2. 16 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “Typhoeus lies crushed beneath Sicilian soil. Men say that as he fled, blasting forth the sacred fires from his breast, Neptunus [Poseidon] grasped him by the hair, bore him out to see and entangled him in the waters, and as the bloody mass rose again and again, churning the waves with serpent limbs, took him far away to the Sicilian waters and down upon his head placed all Aetna (Etna) with her cities; savage still he throws up the foundations of the caverned mountain; then heaves Trinacria [Sicily] throughout her length and breadth, as he struggles and shifts the burdening mass with weary breast, to let it fall again with a groan–baffled.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 600 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “For I [Zeus] with one hand have vanquished your hands, two hundred strong. Let three-headland Sikelie (Sicily) receive Typhon whole and entire, let her crush him all about under her steep and lofty hills, with the hair of his hundred heads miserably bedabbled in dust. Nevertheless, if you did have an over-violent mind, if you did assault Olympos itself in your impracticable ambitions, I will build you a cenotaph, presumptuous wretch, and I will engrave on your empty tomb, this last message : ‘This is the barrow of Typhoeus, son of Gaia, who once lashed the sky with stones, and the fire of heaven burnt him up.’”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 13. 319 ff : “Aitna (Mount Etna), where the rock is alight and kettles of fire boil up the hot flare of Typhaon’s bed.”
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca 45. 210 ff : “He [the gigante Alpos] lifted the waters and deluged Typhaon’s rock [Sicily], flooding the hot surface of his brother’s bed and cooling his scorched body with a torrent of water.”
  TYPHOEUS IDENTIFIED WITH THE EGYPTIAN GOD SET
  Herodotus, Histories 2. 156. 1 (trans. Godley) (Greek historian C5th B.C.) : “[Leto i.e. the Egyptian goddess Buto] taking charge of Apollo [Egyptian god Horus] from Isis, hid him for safety in this island [Khemmis (Chemmis)] which is now said to float, when Typhon [Egyptian god Set] came hunting through the world, keen to find the son of Osiris. Apollon [Horus] and Artemis [Bastet] were, they say,children of Dionysus [Egyptian Osiris] and Isis, and Leto [Egyptian Buto] was made their nurse and preserver; in Egyptian, Apollon is Horus, Demeter Isis, Artemis Bubastis.”
  Herodotus, Histories 2. 144. 1 : “Before men, they said, the rulers of Aigyptos (Egypt) were gods, but none had been contemporary with the human priests. Of these gods one or another had in succession been supreme; the last of them to rule the country was Osiris’ son Horus, whom the Greeks call Apollon; he deposed Typhon [Set], and was the last divine king of Aigyptos. Osiris is, in the Greek language, Dionysos.”
  Herodotus, Histories 3. 5. 1 : “Now the only apparent way of entry into Aigyptos (Egypt) is this. The road runs from Phoinikia (Phoenicia) as far as the borders of the city of Kadytis (Cadytis) . . . from Ienysos as far as the Serbonian marsh, beside which the promontory Kasios (Casius) stretches seawards; from this Serbonian marsh, where Typho is supposed to have been hidden, the country is Aigyptos. Now between Ienysus and the Kasian (Casian) mountain and the Serbonian marsh there lies a wide territory for as much as three days’ journey, terribly arid.”
  Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 1206 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “Typhaon struck by his thunder-bolt, dropped warm blood from his head, and so made his way to the mountains and plain of Nysa [in Phoenicia], where he lies to this day, engulfed in the waters of the Serbonian Marsh [in Egypt].”
  Suidas s.v. Osiris (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek lexicon C10th A.D.) : “Osiris : Some say he was Dionysos, others say another; who was dismembered by the daimon Typhon [here identified with the Egyptian god Set] and became a great sorrow for the Egyptians, and they kept the memory of his dismemberment for all time.”
 
  ANCIENT GREEK ART
 
 
 
 
  M10.1B Zeus & Typhoeus
  Chalcidian Black Figure Vase Painting C6th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  M10.1 Giant Typhoeus
  Chalcidian Black Figure Vase Painting C6th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  M10.2 Giant Typhoeus
  Laconian Black Figure Vase Painting C6th B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
  M10.3 Giant Typhoeus
  Chalcidian Black Figure Vase Painting C6th B.C.
 
 
 
 

  SOURCES
  GRIEGO
  Homer, The Iliad – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Homer, The Odyssey – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
  Hesiod, Theogony – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
  The Homeric Hymns – Greek Epic C8th – 4th B.C.
  Pindar, Odes – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Pindar, Fragments – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  Greek Lyric III Stesichorus, Fragments – Greek Lyric C7th – 6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric III Lasus, Fragments – Greek Lyric C7th – 6th B.C.
  Greek Lyric V Anonymous, Fragments – Greek Lyric B.C.
  Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Aeschylus, Suppliant Women – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  Apollodorus, The Library – Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Apollonius Rhodius, The Argonautica – Greek Epic C3rd B.C.
  Lycophron, Alexandra – Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History – Greek History C1st B.C.
  Strabo, Geography – Greek Geography C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
  Pausanias, Description of Greece – Greek Travelogue C2nd A.D.
  Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses – Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  Philostratus the Elder, Imagines – Greek Rhetoric C3rd A.D.
  Philostratus, Life of Apollonius of Tyana – Greek Biography C2nd A.D.
  Oppian, Halieutica – Greek Poetry C3rd A.D.
  Greek Papyri III Pancrates, Fragments – Greek Poetry C2nd A.D.
  Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy – Greek Epic C4th A.D.
  Nonnus, Dionysiaca – Greek Epic C5th A.D.
  ROMANO
  BYZANTINE
  Suidas, The Suda – Byzantine Greek Lexicon C10th A.D.
  BIBLIOGRAPHY
  A complete bibliography of the translations quoted on this page.