Mitología griega >> Dioses griegos >> Titanes >> Titanes (Titanes)
Straining-Gods ( teinô, titainô )
Titanes Atlas y Prometeo, ánfora de figura negra de Laconia C6th BC, Museos de la Ciudad del Vaticano LOS TITANES (Titanes) fueron seis dioses mayores llamados Kronos (Cronos ) , Koios (Coeus) , Krios (Crius) , Iapetos (Iapetus) , Hyperion y Okeanos (Oceanus) , hijos de Urano (Urano, Cielo) y Gaia (Gea, Tierra), quienes gobernaron el cosmos antes de que los olímpicos llegaran al poder. Cuando su padre era rey, encarceló a seis hermanos gigantes de los Titanes – los Kyklopes (Cíclopes) y Hekatonkheires (Hecatoncheires) – en el vientre de la Tierra. Gaia se enfureció e incitó a sus hijos Titán a rebelarse. Dirigidos por Kronos, cinco de los seis hermanos, tendieron una emboscada a su padre, agarrándolo mientras descendía para tumbarse en la Tierra. Cuatro de ellos, Hyperion, Krios, Koios e Iapetos, fueron colocados en las cuatro esquinas de la tierra para sujetar a Sky, mientras que Kronos en el centro lo castró con una hoz adamantina.
Después de tomar el control del cosmos, los Titanes liberaron a sus hermanos gigantes de la tormenta del vientre de Gaia, solo para encerrarlos poco después en el pozo del Tártaro (Tártaro).
Ouranos y Gaia profetizaron que un hijo de Kronos eventualmente destituiría a los Titanes, por lo que el Rey Titán, temiendo por su trono, decidió devorar a cada uno de sus descendientes tan pronto como nacieron. Solo Zeus escapó de este destino mediante la intervención de su madre Rhea , quien lo depositó en una cueva en la isla de Krete (Creta) y alimentó a Kronos con una roca sustituta. Al llegar a la edad adulta, Zeus obligó a Kronos a desembarcar a sus hermanos, y con un ejército de aliados divinos, hizo la guerra a los Titanes y los arrojó al pozo de Tártaro (Tártaro). Según algunos (por ejemplo, Pindar y Esquilo), Kronos y los Titanes fueron liberados más tarde de esta prisión, y el viejo Titán se convirtió en rey de Elysion (Elysium).
Las hermanas de los seis Titanes – Rea, Theia, Phoibe (Phoebe), Mnemosyne, Themis y Tetis – fueron tituladas Titanides (o mujeres Titanes). Muchos de sus hijos e hijas también recibieron el llamamiento de Titán, incluido Atlas , Prometeo y Helios .
FAMILIA DE LOS TITANOS
[1.1] OURANOS & GAIA (Hesiod Theogony 133, Alcman Frag 61, Aeschylus Prometheus 207, Apollodorus 1.1, Himno órfico 37, Diodorus Siculus 5.66.1) [1.2] AITHER (o OURANOS ) y GAIA (Prefacio Hyginus) [2.1] TITAN (Anacreon Frag 505d) [2.2] KOURETE & TITAIA (Diodorus Siculus 5.66.1)
[1.1] OKEANOS , KOIOS , KRIOS , HYPERION , IAPETOS , K 19RON (Hesiod Theogony 133, Apollodorus 1.1, Diodorus Siculus 5.66.1) [1.2] OKEANOS , IAPETOS , KROS 19459004] (Homer Iliad 8.479 y 14.200) [1.3] OKEANOS , POLOS , HYPERION , KR 19459004] (Prefacio Hyginus) [1.4] IAPETOS , KRONOS , ADANOS, OSTASOS, ANDES, OLYMBROS de Stephan svna de Byus Adaus bynt ) ‘
LISTAS DE TITANOS
LISTA DE TITANOS MAYORES
ADANOS (Adanus) Un nombre alternativo para uno de los Titanes.
ANDES Un nombre alternativo para uno de los Titanes, tal vez Hyperion.
HYPERION El dios Titán de la luz y los ciclos del día y la noche, el sol y la luna. Fue arrojado al Tártaro por los dioses al final de la Guerra de los Titanes.
IAPETOS (Iapetus) El dios Titán de la mortalidad y la esperanza de vida. Fue lanzado al Tártaro al final de la Guerra de los Titanes junto con sus hermanos.
KOIOS (Coeus) El dios Titán de la inteligencia y el eje del cielo También era conocido como Polos. Koios fue uno de los titanes lanzados al Tártaro al final de la Guerra de los Titanes. A veces fue descrito como un líder de los Gigantes (Gigantes).
KRIOS (Crius) El dios Titán de las constelaciones celestiales, también conocido como Megamedes. Fue lanzado al Tártaro al final de la Guerra de los Titanes. Krios a veces se llamaba un líder de los Gigantes (Gigantes).
KRONOS (Cronus) El Rey de los Titanes, y el dios del tiempo destructivo. Lideró a sus hermanos en la castración de Ouranos (Urano), y fue depuesto por Zeus. Kronos fue arrojado al pozo de Tartaros después de su derrota. Algunos dicen que Zeus lo liberó más tarde y lo convirtió en el Rey de las Islas de los Benditos (hogar de los muertos benditos).
MYLINOS (Mylinus) Un Gigante (Gigante) o Titán de la isla de Krete (Creta), destruido por Zeus. Probablemente fue identificado con Olympos o Kronos.
OKEANOS (Oceanus) El dios Titán del río Okeanos que rodea la tierra, el lugar de levantamiento y ubicación de los cuerpos celestes. Fue el único de los Titanes que no participó en la castración de Ouranos (Urano), y en la Guerra de los Titanes permaneció neutral.
OLYMBROS (Olymbrus) Un nombre alternativo para uno de los Titanes. Puede ser el mismo que Olympos el mentor Kretan (Cretan) de Zeus.
OLYMPOS (Olympus) El mentor Titán o Gigante (Gigante) de Zeus. Más tarde despertó a sus parientes en un levantamiento contra el dios y fue destruido. Probablemente fue identificado con los Kouretes (Curetes), Kronos o Olymbros.
OPHION El mayor de los Titanes que fue luchado por Kronos (Cronus) por el trono del cielo y arrojado a la corriente del océano. Fue identificado con Ouranos (Urano) y Okeanos (Oceanus).
OSTASOS (Ostasus) Un nombre alternativo para uno de los Titanes.
POLOS (Polus) El dios Titán del eje del cielo ( polos ). Generalmente se llamaba Koios (Coeus).
LISTA DE TITANES MENORES
ANYTOS (Anytus) Uno de los Titanes, Anytos era el padre adoptivo de la hija de Demeter, Despoine. Probablemente era un Kourete (Curete).
ASTRAIOS (Astraeus) El dios Titán de las estrellas, los vientos, la astrología y la astronomía.
ATLAS El dios Titán de la audacia, la resistencia y el arte de la astronomía. Zeus lo obligó a llevar el cielo sobre sus hombros. Más tarde fue liberado de este tormento e hizo el guardián de los pilares del cielo.
AZEIOS (Azeus) Un Gigante (Gigante) o Titán que luchó en las Guerras de Titán. Fue un antepasado de los reyes de Arkadia (Arcadia).
EPIMETHEUS Ellos Titán dios de la ocurrencia tardía. Él fue el dios que creó los animales de la tierra, mientras que su hermano Prometeo estaba ocupado en la elaboración del hombre. Más tarde, Zeus lo engañó para que recibiera a Pandora con su caja de males.
HELIOS (Helius) El dios Titán del sol que cruzó los cielos en un carro tirado por caballos de fuego. Fue un aliado de Zeus en la Guerra de los Titanes.
HOPLODAMOS (Hoplodamus) Un Titán, Kourete (Curete) o Gigante (Gigante) que dirigió a sus hermanos en la protección de Rea después de que Kronos (Cronus) se enteró de su engaño por el nacimiento de Zeus.
KOURETES, THE (Curetes) Los asistentes de choque de escudo de Rea y protectores del infante Zeus. A veces se contaban entre los titanes.
LELANTOS (Lelantus) El dios Titán de las brisas del aire y el movimiento invisible.
MELISEO El dios de la miel Titán o Kourete (Curete).
MENOITIOS (Menoetius) El dios Titán de la ira violenta, la acción precipitada y la mortalidad. Zeus lo lanzó contra Erebos (Erebus) con un rayo. Probablemente era el mismo que Menoites, el siervo de Haides.
PALLAS El dios Titán de Warcraft y la temporada de campaña. Algunos dicen que Atenea hizo su égida ( aigis ) de su piel de cabra.
PERSAS El dios Titán de la destrucción, el saqueo, la quema y la sequía de verano.
PROMETEO El dios titán de la previsión. Moldeó a la humanidad de arcilla y luego robó fuego del cielo en su nombre. Zeus lo tenía encadenado al monte Kaukasos, donde un águila se mordería el hígado como castigo. Más tarde fue liberado por Herakles.
SYKEUS (Syceus) Un Titán o Gigante (Gigante) que huyó de Zeus y fue escondido en la tierra por Gaia (Gea) en forma de semilla de higo.
TITAN El dios Titán del calendario agrícola, establecido a través de la observación de los cielos.
TITAN (Titán). 1. Este nombre aparece comúnmente en el plural Titanes, de Titanides, como el nombre de los hijos e hijas de Urano y Ge, de donde también se les llama Ouraniônes u Ouranidai. (Hom. Il. v. 898; Apollon. Rhod. Ii. 1232.) Estos titanes son Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Cronus, Theia, Rheia, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe y Tetis, a quien Apolodoro (i. 1. § 3) agrega Dione. (Hes. Theog. 133, & c.) Algunos escritores también agregan Phorcys y Demeter. (Heyne, ad Apollod. i. 1. § 1; Clemens, Homil. vi. 2.) Stephanus de Bizancio ( sv Asana) tiene lo siguiente como los nombres de los hijos de Urano y Ge: Adanus, Ostasus, Andes, Cronus, Rhea, Iapetus, Olymbrus; y Pausanias (viii. 37. § 3) menciona un Titán Anytus, quien se creía que había traído la Despoena Arcadia. Urano, el primer gobernante del mundo, arrojó a sus hijos, los Hecatoncheires, Briareus, Cottys, Gyes (Hes. Theog. 617 ), y los Cíclopes, Arges, Esteropes y Brontes, al Tártaro. Gea, indignada por esto, persuadió a los titanes a levantarse contra su padre, y le dio a Cronus una hoz adamantina (arpa). Hicieron lo que su madre les ordenó, con la excepción de Oceanus. Cronus, con su hoz, desató a su padre y arrojó la parte al mar, y de las gotas de su sangre surgieron los Erinnyes, Alecto, Tisiphone y Megaera. Los titanes luego depusieron a Urano, liberaron a sus hermanos que habían sido arrojados al Tártaro y elevaron a Cronos al trono. Pero nuevamente arrojó los Cíclopes al Tártaro y se casó con su hermana Rea (Ovidio, Met. ix. 497, la llama Ops). Como, sin embargo, había sido predicho por Gea y Urano, que debería ser destronado por uno de sus propios hijos, él, después de su nacimiento, se tragó sucesivamente a sus hijos Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Plutón y Poseidón. Rea, por lo tanto, cuando estaba embarazada de Zeus. fue a Creta, dio a luz al niño en la cueva de los dictáceos, y le encargó que lo llevaran a los Curetes, y a las hijas de Meliso, las ninfas Adrasteia e Ida. Los Curetes armados custodiaron al infante en la cueva y golpearon sus escudos con sus lanzas, para que Crono no escuchara la voz del niño. Rea, además, engañó a Crono dándole una piedra envuelta en tela, que tragó, creyendo que era su hijo recién nacido. (Apolod. I. §§ 1-5; Ov. Rápido. iv. 179, & c.) Cuando Zeus creció se valió de la ayuda de Metis, la hija de Oceanus que le dio a Cronus una poción que le hizo levantar la piedra y los niños que había tragado. Unido con sus hermanos y hermanas, Zeus ahora comenzó la competencia contra Cronus y los Titanes gobernantes. Este concurso (generalmente llamado Titanomachia), que se llevó a cabo en Tesalia, los Titanes que ocupaban el Monte Othrys y los hijos de Cronus, el Monte Olimpo, duraron diez años, cuando Gea finalmente prometió la victoria a Zeus, si entregaba los Cíclopes. y Hecatoncheires del Tártaro. En consecuencia, Zeus mató a Campe, que protegía a los Cíclopes, y este último le proporcionó truenos y relámpagos, Plutón le agitó un casco y Poseidón un tridente. Los Titanes fueron vencidos y arrojados a una cavidad debajo del Tártaro (Hom. Il. xiv. 279; Hes. Theog. 697, 851; Hom. Himno. en Apoll. 335; Paus. viii. 37. § 3), y los Hecatoncheires se pusieron a vigilarlos. (Hom. Il. viii. 479; Hes. Theog. 617, & c .; Apollod. I. 2. § 1.) Debe observarse que la lucha de los Titanes A veces es confundido por escritores antiguos con la lucha de los Gigantes.
2. El nombre Titanes también se le da a aquellos seres divinos o semidivinos que descendieron de los Titanes, como Prometeo, Hécate (Hes. Theog. 424; Serv. ad Aen. iv. 511), Latona (Ov. Met. vi. 346), Pyrrha (i. 395), y especialmente Helios y Selene (Mene), como los hijos de Hyperion y Theia , e incluso los descendientes de Helios, como Circe. (Serv. ad Aen. iv. 119, vi. 725; Schol. ap Apollon. Rhod. iv. 54; Ov. Fast. i. 617 , iv. 943, Met. iii. 173, xiv. 382; Tibull. iv. 1. 50.)
3. El nombre Titanes, por último, se le da a ciertas tribus de hombres de quienes desciende toda la humanidad. Por lo tanto, se dice que la antigua ciudad de Cnosos en Creta fue habitada originalmente por titanes, que eran hostiles a Zeus, pero Pan los alejó con los temibles sonidos de su trompeta de concha. (Hom. Himno. En Apoll. 336 ; Diod. Iii. 57, v. 66; Orph. Himno. 36. 2 ; comp. Höck, Creta, [ 19459019] p. 171, & c .; Lobeck, Aglaoph. p. 763; Völcker, Mythol. Des Iapet. Geschl. p. 280, & c.)
Fuente: Diccionario de biografía y mitología griega y romana.
NOMBRES Y TÍTULOS ALTERNOS
Los Titanes tenían varios nombres, títulos y epítetos alternativos.
Hijos del cielo
Tribu de Urano
Titanes (Ionic sp.)
Hijos de Akmon, incansables, yunque
CITAS DE LITERATURA CLÁSICA
PADRES Y NOMBRES DE LOS TITANOS MAYORES
Cronos, Rea y la piedra de Ophalos, pelike de figura roja ateniense C5th BC, Museo Metropolitano de Arte Homer, Iliad (griego épico C8th BC) : En la Ilíada de Homero los Titanes (Titanes) Kronos (Cronus), Rheia, Iapetos (Iapetus), Okeanos (Oceanus), Tetis, Dione y Themis son todos mencionados, aunque con la excepción de Kronos y Iapetos, no se describen explícitamente como Titanes. El nombre Hyperion también aparece pero solo como un título de Helios (Helius).
Hesíodo, Teogonía 133 y sigs. (Traducción Evelyn-White) (épica griega C8th o C7th BC): “Ella [Gaia, Tierra] yacía desnuda con Ouranos (Urano, Cielo) y desnuda Okeanos (Oceanus), Koios (Coeus) y Krios (Crius) e Hyperion e Iapetos (Iapetus), Theia y Rhea, Themis y Mnemosyne y Phoibe con corona de oro y Tethys con corona de oro y adorables Tethys. Cronus) el astuto, el más joven y el más terrible de sus hijos “.
Alcman, Fragment 61 (de Eustathius en Iliad) (trad. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (letra griega C6th BC): “El padre de Ouranos (Urano, Sky) , como ya se dijo, se llama Akmon (Acmon) porque el movimiento celestial es incansable ( akamatos ); y los hijos de Ouranos (Sky) son Akmonidai (Acmonidae) [los Titanes]: los antiguos hacen estos dos puntos claros. Alkman (Alcman), dicen, dice que el cielo pertenece a Akmon (Acmon) “. [N.B. La palabra akmon también aparece en la teogonía de Hesíodo en relación con los Titanes. Aquí akmon es un yunque de bronce, que se describe cayendo del ápice del cielo a la tierra y de la tierra al fondo del pozo de Tartaros, prisión de los Titanes, como una medida de las distancias en el cosmos.]
Anacreon, Frag 505d (de Fulgentius, Mythologies) (trad. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (letra griega C7th BC): “Según Anakreon (Anacreon)… Zeus estaba comenzando la guerra contra los Titani (Titanes), los hijos de Titán, hermano de Kronos (Cronus, Saturno) “.
Esquilo, Prometeo Bound 207 ff (trad. Weir Smyth) (tragedia griega C5th BC): “Los Titanes (Titanes), hijos de Urano (Urano, Cielo) y Khthon (Chthon , Tierra) “.
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 1 – 2 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “[Ouranos (Urano), Sky] engendró a otros hijos en Ge (Tierra ), a saber, los Titanes (Titanes): Okeanos (Oceanus), Koios (Coeus), Hyperion, Kreios (Crius), Iapetos (Iapetus) y Kronos (Cronus) los más jóvenes; también hijas llamadas Titanides: Tethys, Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoibe (Phoebe), Dione, Theia “.
Diodorus Siculus, Biblioteca de Historia 5. 66. 1 (trad. Oldfather) (historiador griego C1st BC): “Los Titanes (Titanes) contaban con seis hombres y cinco mujeres, naciendo , según lo relatan ciertos escritores de mitos, de Ouranos (Urano, Cielo) y Ge (Tierra), pero según otros, de uno de los Kouretes (Curetes) y Titaia (Titaea), de quienes como su madre derivan el nombre Los machos eran Kronos (Cronus), Hyperion, Koios (Coeus), Iapetos (Iapetus), Krios (Crius) y Okeanos (Oceanus), y sus hermanas eran Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoibe (Phoebe) y Tethys “. [NÓTESE BIEN. Él omite a Theia.]
Himno órfico 37 a los titanes (trans. Taylor) (himnos griegos del siglo III aC hasta el segundo dC): “Oh poderosos titanes (titanes), que de Urano (Urano, cielo) y Gaia (Gea, Tierra) deriva su noble e ilustre nacimiento “.
Pseudo-Hyginus, Prefacio (trans. Grant) (mitógrafo romano C2nd AD): “De Aether y Terra [nacieron varias abstracciones].. [De Caelum ( ¿Ouranos, Sky) y Terra (Gaia, Tierra) nacieron?] Oceanus, Themis, Tartarus, Pontus; los Titanes: Briareus, Gyes, Steropes, Atlas, Hyperion y Polus [Koios], Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)], Ops [Rea], Moneta [Mnemosyne], Dione “. [N.B. Hyginus ‘ Prefacio sobrevive solo en resumen. Los Titanes deben figurar como hijos de Ouranos (Caelum) y Gaia (Terra), no Aither y Gaia, pero la notación a este efecto parece haberse perdido en la transcripción.]
Para MÁS información sobre las titanes femeninas ver LOS TITANIDOS
TITANOS Y LA CASTRACIÓN DE URANO
Hesíodo, Teogonía 133 y 207 y siguientes (traducción Evelyn-White) (épica griega C8th o C7th BC): “Ella [Gaia (Gaea), Tierra] se acostó con Ouranos (Urano) , Sky) y Okeanos (Oceanus), Koios (Coeus) y Krios (Crius) e Hyperion e Iapetos (Iapetus), Theia y Rhea, Themis y Mnemosyne y Phoibe con corona de oro y Phoebe con corona de oro y adorables Tethys. ellos nacieron Kronos (Cronus), el astuto, el más joven y el más terrible de sus hijos, y odiaba a su padre lujurioso … Y él [Ouranos] solía esconderlos a todos [Hekatonkheires (Hecatoncheires) y Kyklopes (Cyclopes) , hermanos de los Titanes] lejos en un lugar secreto de la Tierra (Gaia) tan pronto como naciera cada uno, y no permitirían que salieran a la luz: y Ouranos (Cielo) se regocijó en su maldad. Pero Gaia ( Tierra) gimió por dentro, se tensó, e hizo el elemento de sílex gris y formó una gran hoz, y le contó su plan a sus queridos hijos [los seis Titanes]. Y ella habló, c observándolos, mientras ella estaba enojada en su querido corazón: ‘Hijos míos, de padre pecador, si me obedecen, debemos castigar la vil indignación de su padre; porque él primero pensó en hacer cosas vergonzosas “. Así que ella dijo; pero el miedo se apoderó de todos y ninguno de ellos pronunció una palabra. Pero el gran Kronos, el astuto, se animó y respondió a su querida madre: “Madre, me comprometeré a hacer este hecho”. Entonces él dijo: y la gran Gaia (Tierra) se regocijó mucho en espíritu, y lo puso y lo escondió en un emboscada, y puso en sus manos una hoz irregular, y le reveló todo el complot. Y llegó Ouranos (Cielo), trayendo la noche y anhelando amor, y se tumbó sobre Gaia (Tierra) extendiéndose sobre ella. Luego, el hijo de su emboscada extendió su mano izquierda y en su derecha tomó la gran hoz larga con dientes afilados, y rápidamente cortó a los miembros de su propio padre y los arrojó para que cayeran detrás de él. . . Estos hijos que se engendraron a sí mismos, los grandes Ouranos (Sky) solían llamar a los Titenes (Titanes, Coladores) en reproche, porque él dijo que hicieron un esfuerzo e hicieron presuntuosamente un acto temeroso, y esa venganza por eso vendría después “. [ Nota: Hesiod en las últimas líneas dice que los seis hermanos estuvieron involucrados en la emboscada y la castración de Ouranos: cinco se esforzaron por retenerlo, mientras que el sexto, Kronos, le cortó los genitales.]
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 3 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “Ahora Ge (Tierra), angustiada por la pérdida de sus hijos [los Kyklopes ( Cyclopes) y los Hekatonkheires (Hecatoncheires)] en Tartaros (Tartarus), persuadieron a los Titanes (Titanes) para que atacaran a su padre, y ella le dio a Kronos (Cronus) una hoz hecha de firme. Así que todos, excepto Okeanos (Oceanus) se pusieron Ouranos (Urano, Cielo) y Kronos le cortaron los genitales y los arrojaron al mar … Así, tras haber derrocado el gobierno de Ouranos, los Titanes recuperaron a sus hermanos de Tártaro y le dieron el poder a Kronos “.
Apolonio Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 982 ff (trad. Rieu) (griego épico C3rd BC): “En el Mar Keraunian (Ceraunian), frente al Estrecho Jónico, hay un rico y una isla espaciosa, debajo de la cual se dice que yace – tenga paciencia conmigo, Mousai (Musas); me da poco placer recordar la vieja historia – la hoz utilizada por Kronos (Cronus) para castrar a su padre Ouranos ( Urano, cielo) “.
Apolonio Rhodius, Argonautica 1. 498 y siguientes: “Él [Orfeo] cantó de … cómo, en el principio, Ofión y Eurinome, hija de Okeanos (Oceanus), gobernó el mundo de Olympos nevados; cómo fueron suplantados por la fuerza, Ophion por Kronos (Cronus), Eurynome por Rhea; de su caída en las aguas de Okeanos; y cómo sus sucesores gobernaron a los felices dioses Titán “. [N.B. Ophion y Eurynome pueden ser Ouranos (Urano) y Gaia (Gea).]
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 18. 223 y sigs. (Trans. Rouse) (griego épico C5th AD): “[Zeus] en su primera juventud maltrató a los Titanes (Titanes) terrenales para Olympos, cuando él era solo un niño … Kronos (Cronus) todavía goteaba y sostenía la hoja falciforme emasculadora, después de cortar la cosecha masculina del arado de su padre [Urano (Urano) el Cielo] y robarle la Gaia la Tierra de la Madre [ s] cama a la que se apresuraba, y peleó contra tu padre a la cabeza de los Titanes “.
Para MÁS información sobre la castración de Ouranos ver OURANOS
MATRIMONIOS Y NIÑOS DE LOS TITANOS
Hesíodo, Teogonía 334 – 515 (trad. Evelyn-White) (épica griega C8th o C7th BC): “[1 y 2] y [la Titanis (Titaness)] Tethys desnuda a [el Titán] Okeanos (Oceanus) eddying Potamoi (Ríos) [varios nombres] … También trajo una compañía sagrada de hijas [las Nymphai (Ninfas)] … [se da una larga lista de nombres incluyendo] Elektra (Electra), y Doris … la encantadora Dione … Metis, y Eurynome … y Styx, que es la principal de todas. Estas son las hijas mayores que surgieron de Okeanos y Tetis, pero hay muchas más. Porque hay tres mil hijas bien cuidadas de Okeanos que están dispersas por todas partes, y en todos los lugares sirven a la tierra y las aguas profundas, niños que son gloriosos entre las diosas. Y como muchos otros Potamoi (Ríos) están allí, balbuceando. mientras fluyen, hijos de Okeanos, a quienes la reina Tethys descubrió … [sigue una lista de Rivers.] [3 y 4] Y [The Titanis] Theia fue sometida en amor a [el Titán] Hyperion y al gran Helios (Sol) y al claro Selene (Luna) y Eos (Amanecer) que brilla sobre todos los que están en la tierra y sobre los Dioses inmortales que viven en el amplio cielo.  Y [la Diosa del Mar] Eurybia, diosa brillante, se unió en amor a [el Titán] Krios (Crius) y al gran Astraios (Astraeus), y a Pallas y Perses, que también era eminente entre todos. Hombres sabios.
Y Eos descubrió a Astraios, el fuerte corazón de Anemoi (Vientos), que alegra a Zephyros (Viento del oeste) y Boreas (Norte), en su curso, y Notos (Sur), una diosa que se enamora de un dios. Y después de estos Erigeneia [Eos] descubrieron la estrella Eosphoros (Dawn-bringer), y el reluciente Astra (Stars) con el que se corona el cielo.
Y Styx, la hija de Okeanos (Oceanus), se unió a Pallas y Zelos (Zelus, Emulation) y Nike (Victory) en la casa. También dio a luz a Kratos (Cratus, Fuerza) y Bia (Fuerza), niños maravillosos. . . [6 y 7] De nuevo, [la Titanis] Phoibe (Phoebe) llegó al abrazo deseado de [el Titán] Koios (Coeus). Entonces la diosa a través del amor del dios concibió y dio a luz a Leto vestido de oscuro, siempre amable, amable con los hombres y con los dioses inmortales, amable desde el principio, más gentil en todos los Olympos. También tuvo a Asteria de nombre feliz, a quien Perses una vez llevó a su gran casa para que se llamara su querida esposa. Y ella concibió y descubrió a Hekate (Hécate) a quien Zeus, el hijo de Cronos, honró sobre todo. . . [8 y 9] Pero [la Titanis] Rea estuvo enamorada de [la Titán] Kronos (Cronus) y sus espléndidos hijos, Hestia, Demeter y Hera calzada de oro y Haides fuerte, despiadada de corazón, que habita debajo de la tierra, y [Poseidón]
el sacudidor de la tierra que choca ruidosamente y el sabio Zeus, padre de dioses y hombres, por cuyo trueno se sacude la tierra. Estos grandes Kronos tragaron cuando cada uno salió del útero hasta las rodillas de su madre con esta intención, de que ninguno de los orgullosos hijos del Cielo debería ocupar el cargo real entre los dioses inmortales. . .  Ahora [el Titán] Iapetos (Iapetus) tomó por esposa a la criada Klymene (Clymene), hija de Okeanos (Oceanus), y la subió con ella a una cama. Y ella le dio a luz un hijo de corazón fuerte, Atlas: también dio a luz a Menoitios (Menoetius) muy glorioso y a Prometeo inteligente, lleno de diversas artimañas, y Epimeteo de cerebro disperso que desde el principio fue una travesura para los hombres que comen pan; porque fue él quien primero tomó de Zeus la mujer, la doncella a quien había formado ”
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 4 – 9 (trad. Aldrich) (mitógrafo griego C2nd AD): “[1 & 2] [The Titan] Kronos (Cronus). Luego se casó con su hermana [Titanis (Titaness)] Rea. Debido a que tanto Ge (Tierra) como Ouranos (Urano, Cielo) le habían dado una advertencia profética de que su propio gobierno derrocaría a su gobierno, decidió tragar a sus hijos. al nacer. Se tragó a su hija primogénita Hestia, luego a Deméter y Hera, y después de ellos Plouton (Plutón) [Haides] y Poseidón. Enfurecida por esto, Rea, cuando estaba pesada con Zeus, se fue a Krete (Creta) y le dio a luz … Los [otros] titanes (titanes) tuvieron hijos. [3 y 4] Los de [el Titán] Okeanos (Oceanus) y [Titanis] Tethys se llamaron Okeanides (Oceanides): Asia , Styx, Elektra, Doris, Eurynome y Metis. [5 y 6] Los hijos de [Titan] Koios (Coeus) y [Titanis] Phoibe (Phoebe) fueron Asteria y Leto. [7 y 8 ] [Titán] Hyperion y [Titanis] Theia tenía Eos (Dawn), Helios (Sun) y Selene (Moon).  Para [Titán] Kreios (Crius) y Eurybia, la hija de Pontos (Mar), nacieron Astraios (Astraeus), Pallas y Perses.  Atlas, who holds the sky on his shoulders, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoitios (Menoetius), whom Zeus struck with a thunderbolt in the Titan battle and confined to Tartaros (Tartarus), were all sons of [Titan] Iapetos (Iapetus) and Asia. Kheiron (Chiron), a double-formed kentauros (centaur), was born to Kronos (Cronus) and Philyra; Eos and Astraios (Astraeus) were parents of the Anemoi (Winds) and Astra (Stars); Perses and Asteria of Hekate; and Nike, Kratos (Cratus), Zelos (Zelus), and Bia were born to Pallas and Styx.”
Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “[1 & 2] From [Titan] Oceanus and [Titanis] Tethys [were born] the Oceanides . . . Of the same descent Rivers . . . [3 & 4] From [Titan] Polus [Koios (Coeus)] and [Titanis] Phoebe [were born], Latona, Asteria.  [text missing] Perses, Pallas.  From [Titan] Iapetus and Clymene, Atlas, Epimetheus, Prometheus. [7 & 8] From [Titan] Hyperion and [Titanis] Aethra, Sol (Sun), Luna (Moon), Aurora (Dawn). [9 & 10] From [Titan] Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)] and [Titanis] Ops [Rhea], Vesta [Hestia], Ceres [Demeter], Juno [Hera], Jupiter [Zeus], Pluto [Haides], Neptunus [Poseidon]. From Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)] and Philyra, Chiron, Dolops. From Astraeus and Aurora [Eos], Zephyrus, Boreas, Notus, Favonius [Zephyros]. From Atlas and Pleione, Maia, Calypso, Alcyone, Merope, Electra, Celaeno. [ 19459049] From Pallas the Giant, and Styx, Scylla, Force, Envy, Power, Victory, Fountains, Lakes.”
THE TITANOMACHY (WAR OF THE TITANS)
Titan Atlas and Gaea, Apulian red-figure volute krater C4th B.C., Dallas Museum of Art Hesiod, Theogony 390 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “The Olympian Lightener [Zeus] called all the deathless gods to great Olympos, and said that whosoever of the gods would fight with him against the Titenes (Titans), he would not cast him out from his rights, but each should have the office which he had before amongst the deathless gods; he said, too, that the god who under Kronos (Cronus) had gone without position or privilege should under him be raised to these, according to justice.”
Hesiod, Theogony 617 ff : “[Zeus] the son of Kronos (Cronus) and the other deathless gods whom rich-haired Rhea bare from union with Kronos, brought them [the stormy Hekatonkheires (Hecatoncheires)] up again to the light at Gaia’s (Earth’s) advising. For she herself recounted all things to the gods fully, how that with these they would gain victory and a glorious cause to vaunt themselves. For the Titan gods and as many as sprang from Kronos [Zeus, Poseidon and Haides] had long been fighting together in stubborn war with heart-grieving toil, the lordly Titenes (Titans) from high [Mount] Othrys, but the gods, givers of good, whom rich-haired Rhea bare in union with Kronos (Cronus), from Olympos. So they, with bitter wrath, were fighting continually with one another at that time for ten full years, and the hard strife had no close or end for either side, and the issue of the war hung evenly balanced. But when he had provided those three [the Hekatonkheires] with all things fitting, nectar and ambrosia which the gods themselves eat, and when their proud spirit revived within them all after they had fed on nectar and delicious ambrosia, then it was that the father of men and gods spoke amongst them : ‘Hear me, bright children [Hekatonkheires] of Gaia (Gaea) and Ouranos (Uranus), that I may say what my heart within me bids. A long while now have we, who are sprung from Kronos [Zeus, Poseidon, Haides] and the Titan gods, fought with each other every day to get victory and to prevail. But do you show your great might and unconquerable strength, and face the Titenes (Titans) in bitter strife; for remember our friendly kindness, and from what sufferings you are come back to the light from your cruel bondage under misty gloom through our counsels.’ So he said. And blameless Kottos (Cottus) answered him again : ‘Divine one, you speak that which we know well: nay, even of ourselves we know that your wisdom and understanding is exceeding, and that you became a defender of the deathless ones from chill doom. And through your devising we are come back again from the murky gloom and from our merciless bonds, enjoying what we looked not for, O lord, son of Kronos. And so now with fixed purpose and deliberate counsel we will aid your power in dreadful strife and will fight against the Titanes in hard battle.’ So he said: and the gods, givers of good things, applauded when they heard his word, and their spirit longed for war even more than before, and they all, both male and female, stirred up hated battle that day, the Titan gods, and all that were born of Kronos together with those dread, mighty ones of overwhelming strength whom Zeus brought up to the light from Erebos (Erebus) beneath the earth. An hundred arms sprang from the shoulders of all alike, and each had fifty heads growing upon his shoulders upon stout limbs. These, then, stood against the Titanes in grim strife, holding huge rocks in their strong hands. And on the other part the Titanes eagerly strengthened their ranks, and both sides at one time showed the work of their hands and their might. The boundless sea rang terribly around, and the earth crashed loudly: wide Heaven was shaken and groaned, and high Olympos reeled from its foundation u nder the charge of the undying gods, and a heavy quaking reached dim Tartaros (Tartarus) and the deep sound of their feet in the fearful onset and of their hard missiles. So, then, they launched their grievous shafts upon one another, and the cry of both armies as they shouted reached to starry heaven; and they met together with a great battle-cry. Then Zeus no longer held back his might; but straight his heart was filled with fury and he showed forth all his strength. From Heaven and from Olympos he came forthwith, hurling his lightning: the bold flew thick and fast from his strong hand together with thunder and lightning, whirling an awesome flame.The life-giving earth crashed around in burning, and the vast wood crackled loud with fire all about.All the land seethed, and Okeanos’ (Oceanus’) streams and the unfruitful sea. The hot vapour lapped round the Titenes Khthonios (Chthonian Titans) (Earthly): flame unspeakable rose to the bright upper air (aither): the flashing glare of the thunder-stone and lightning blinded their eyes for all that there were strong. Astounding heat seized air ( khaos ): and to see with eyes and to hear the sound with ears it seemed even as if Earth (Gaia) and wide Heaven (Ouranos) above came together; for such a mighty crash would have arisen if Earth (Gaia) were being hurled to ruin, and Heaven (Ouranos) from on high were hurling her down; so great a crash was there while the gods were meeting together in strife. Also the winds brought rumbling earthquake and duststorm, thunder and lightning and the lurid thunderbolt, which are the shafts of great Zeus, and carried the clangour and the warcry into the midst of the two hosts. An horrible uproar of terrible strife arose: mighty deeds were shown and the battle inclined. But until then, they kept at one another and fought continually in cruel war. And amongst the foremost Kottos (Cottus) and Briareos (Briareus) and Gyes insatiate for war raised fierce fighting : three hundred rocks, one upon another, they launched from their strong hands and overshadowed the Titanes with their missiles, and buried them beneath the wide-pathed earth, and bound them in bitter chains when they had conquered them by their strength for all their great spirit, as far beneath the earth to Tartaros . . . There by the counsel of Zeus who drives the clouds the Titan gods are hidden under misty gloom, in a dank place where are the ends of the huge earth. And they may not go out; for Poseidon fixed gates of bronze upon it, and a wall runs all round it on every side.There [the Hekatonkheires] Gyes and Kottos and great-souled Obriareus live, trusty warders of Zeus who holds the aegis . . .
But when Zeus had driven the Titanes from heaven [then Gaia bore the monstrous giant Typhoeus to oppose Zeus].”
Hesiod, Theogony 881 ff : “But when the blessed gods had finished their toil, and settled by force their struggle for honours with the Titenes (Titans), they pressed far-seeing Zeus Olympios (Olympian) to reign and to rule over them, by Gaia’s (Earth’s) prompting. So he divided their privileges amongst them.”
Hesiod, Theogony 421 ff : “For as many as were born of Ouranos (Uranus) and Gaia (Gaea) [the Titanes] amongst all these she [Hekate (Hecate)] has her due portion. The son of Kronos [Zeus] did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods : but she holds, as the division was at the first from the beginning, privilege both in earth, and in heaven, and in sea.”
Eumelus or Arctinus, Titanomachia (lost poem) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : Next to Hesiod, the oldest poem describing the Titan-War was the Titanomachia , a lost Homeric epic attributed to the poet Eumelus of Corinth or Arctinus or Miletus. The content of the work is largely unknown.
Eumelus or Arctinus, Titanomachia Fragment 1 (from Photius, Epitome of the Chrestomathy of Proclus) (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “The Epic Cycle begins with the fabled union of Ouranos (Uranus, Heaven) and Gaia (Gaea, Earth),
by which they make three Hekatonkheiroi (Hecatoncheires, Hundred-Handed) sons and three Kyklopes
(Cyclopes) to be born to him.”
Eumelus or Arctinus, Titanomachia Fragment 3 (from Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1. 1165) : “Eumelos (Eumelus) says that Aigaion (Aegaeon) was the son of Gaia (Gaea, Earth) and Pontos (Pontus, Sea) and,
having his dwelling in the sea, was an ally of the Titanes (Titans).”
Eumelus or Arctinus, Titanomachia Fragment 5 (from Athenaeus 1. 22c) : “Eumelos (Eumelus) [in the Titanomakhia ] somewhere introduces Zeus dancing : he says–‘In the midst of them danced the Father of men and gods.’” [N.B. Presumably this is the war-dance of the Kouretes (Curetes).]
Anacreon, Fragment 505d (from Fulgentius, Mythologies) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (Greek lyric C6th B.C.) : “According to Anakreon (Anacreon) . . . when Zeus was beginning warfare against the Titani (Titans), i.e. the sons of Titan (Titanas), brother of Kronos (Cronus, Saturn), and had sacrificed to Ouranos (Uranus, Heaven), he saw an eagle fly nearby as a favourable omen for victory. In return for this happy omen, and particularly because it was indeed followed by victory, he put a golden eagle on his war standards and dedicated it as a protection for his valour.”
Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 200 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) : “When first the heavenly powers ( daimones ) [the Titanes (Titans) and the Olympian gods] were moved to wrath, and mutual dissension was stirred up among them–some bent on casting Kronos (Cronus) from his seat so Zeus, in truth, might reign; others, eager for the contrary end, that Zeus might never win mastery over the gods–it was then that I [the Titan Prometheus, although advising them for the best, was unable to persuade the Titanes, children of Ouranos (Uranus, Heaven) and Khthon (Chthon, Earth); but they, disdaining counsels of craft, in the pride of their strength thought to gain the mastery without a struggle and by force. Often my mother Themis, or Gaia (Earth) (though one form, she had many names), had foretold to me the way in which the future was fated to come to pass. That it was not by brute strength nor through violence, but by guile that those who should gain the upper hand were destined to prevail. And though I argued all this to them, they did not pay any attention to my words. With all that before me, it seemed best that, joining with my mother, I should place myself, a welcome volunteer, on the side of Zeus; and it is by reason of my counsel that the cavernous gloom ( melanbathês ) of Tartaros (Tartarus) now hides ancient ( palaigenês ) Kronos and his allies [the Titanes] within it. Thus I helped the tyrant of the gods [Zeus] . . . As soon as he had seated himself upon his father’s throne, he immediately assigned to the deities their several privileges and apportioned to them their proper powers.”
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 6 – 7 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “When Zeus was grown, he engaged Okeanos’ (Oceanus’) daughter Metis as a colleague. She gave Kronos (Cronus) a drug, by which he was forced to vomit forth first the stone and then the children he had swallowed. With them Zeus fought a war against Kronos and the Titanes (Titans). After ten years of fighting Ge (Earth) prophesied a victory for Zeus if he were to secure the prisoners down in Tartaros as his allies [the Kyklopes (Cyclopes) and Hekatonkheires (Hecatoncheires)]. He thereupon slew their jail-keeper Kampe (Campe), and freed them from their bonds. In return the Kyklopes gave Zeus thunder, lightning, and a thunderbolt, as well as a helmet for Plouton (Pluton) [Haides] and a trident for Poseidon. Armed with these the three gods overpowered the Titanes, confined them in Tartaros, and put the Hekatonkheires in charge of guarding them. The gods then drew lots for a share of the rule. Zeus won the lordship of the sky, Poseidon that of the sea, and Plouton (Pluton) the rule of Haides’ realm.”
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 34 : “Now because of her anger over the Titanes (Titans), Ge (Earth) gave birth to the Gigantes (Giants), Ouranos (Uranus, Sky) was the father.”
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 2. 1232 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “Kronos (Cronus) son of Ouranos (Uranus) . . . in the days when he ruled the Titanes (Titans) in Olympos and Zeus was still a child.”
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 1. 498 ff : “He [Orpheus] sang of . . . How, in the beginning, Ophion and Eurynome, daughter of Okeanos (Oceanus), governed the world from snow-clad Olympos; how they were forcibly supplanted, Ophion by Kronos (Cronus), Eurynome by Rhea; of their fall into the waters of Okeanos; and how their successors ruled the happy Titan gods when Zeus in his Diktaian (Dictaean) cave was still a child, with childish thoughts, before the earthborn Kyklopes (Cyclopes) had given him the bolt, the thunder and lightning that form his glorious armament today.” [N.B. Ophion and Eurynome might be Ouranos (Uranus) and Gaia (Gaea) or Okeanos (Oceanus) and Tethys.]
Callimachus, Hymn 1 to Zeus (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) : “Zeus . . . dealer of justice to the Ouranides (sons of Ouranos) [Titanes].”
Callimachus, Fragment 54 (trans. Trypanis) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) : “Mekone (Mecone, Poppy), seat of the Blessed, where first the gods cast lots and apportioned their honours after the war with the Gigantes (Giants) [the Titanes].”
Callimachus, Fragment 195 (from Eustathius) : “To behold again Mekone (Mecone, Poppy), seat of the Blessed (Makaroi), where first the gods cast lots and apportioned their honours after the war with the Gigantes [the Titanes].”
Lycophron, Alexandra 697 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) : “The dark, stream of black Styx, where Termeios [Zeus] made the seat of the oath-swearing for the immortals, drawing the water in golden basins for libations, when he was about to go against the Gigantes (Giants) and Titanes (Titans).” [N.B. Lycophron here conflates the Giant and Titan wars–presumably the Titanes were conceived in some sort of leadership role.]
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 71. 2 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “Before the battle against the Gigantes [Titanes] in Krete (Crete), we are told, Zeus sacrificed a bull to Helios (the Sun) and to Ouranos (Uranus, Heaven) and to Ge (Earth); and in connection with each of the rites there was revealed to him what was the will of the gods in the affair, the omens indicating the victory of the gods and a defection to them of the enemy [certain Titanes defected to the side of Zeus]. And the outcome of the war accorded with the omens; for Mousaios (Musaeus)(?) deserted to him from the enemy, for which he was accorded peculiar honours, and all who opposed them were cut down by the gods.”
Strabo, Geography 10. 3. 19 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Others say that the Korybantes (Corybantes), who came from Baktriana (Bactriana) (some say from among the Kolkhians (Colchians)), were given as armed ministers to Rhea by the Titanes (Titans).”
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 5. 103 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “[Depicted on the helm of Akhilleus (Achilles) :] Zeus in his wrath was set upon the crest throned on heaven’s dome; the Immortals all around fierce-battling with the Titanes (Titans) fought for Zeus. Already were their foes enwrapped with flame, for thick and fast as snowflakes poured from heaven the thunderbolts: the might of Zeus was roused, and burning Gigantes (Giants) seemed to breathe out flames.”
[N.B. The Titan and Giant Wars are here conflated.]
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 8. 460 ff : “On the presumptuous Titanes (Titans) once in wrath he [Zeus] poured down fire from heaven: then burned all earth beneath, and Okeanos’ (Oceanus’) world-engirdling flood boiled from its depths, yea, to its utmost bounds: far-flowing mighty rivers were dried up: perished all broods of life-sustaining earth, all fosterlings of the boundless sea, and all dwellers in rivers : smoke and ashes veiled the air: earth fainted in the fervent heat.”
Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Book 2 (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 190) (trans. Pearse) (Greek mythographer C1st to C2nd A.D.) : “The tomb which passes for that of Zeus in Krete (Crete) is that of Olympos (Olympus) of Krete, who received Zeus son of Kronos (Cronus), raised him and taught divine things to him; but Zeus, he says, struck down his foster-parent and master because he had pushed the Gigantes [that is, the Titanes] to attack him in his turn; but when he had struck, before his body he was full of remorse and, since he could appease his sorrow in no other way, he gave his own name to the tomb of his victim.”
Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Book 6 (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 190) : “Arke (Arce) was the daughter of Thaumas and her sister was Iris (Rainbow); both had wings, but, during the struggle of the gods against the Titanes (Titans), Arke flew out of the camp of the gods and joined the Titanes [to act as their messenger]. After the victory Zeus removed her wings before throwing her into Tartaros (Tartarus).”
Anonymous (perhaps Pamprepius of Panopolis), Fragments (trans. Page, Vol. Select Papyri III, No. 140b) (Greek poetry C4th A.D.) : “Zeus, the leader of the dance that slew the Gigantes (Giants) . . . Khthon (Chthon, Earth) [i.e. Gaia] teemed of old and bore a son Azeios (Azeus), who grew to manhood amid the mighty battles of the Titanes (Titans). Gigas (the Giant) Azeios encountered a Nymphe with lover’s intent, and begot Lykon (Lycon) [the grandfather of King Lykaon of Arkadia].” [Cf. Eumelos’ Titanomakhia Frag 3 above for the dance of Zeus. The Gigantomakhia and Titanomakhia are here synonymous. The figure of Azeios fixes the Titan war in the Arkadian chronology.]
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 150 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Encouraged the Titanes [and Gigantes?] to drive Jove [Zeus] from the kingdom and restore it to Saturn [Kronos (Cronus)]. When they tried to mount tot heaven, Jove with the help of Minerva [Athene], Apollo, and Diana [Artemis], cast them headlong into Tartarus. On Atlas, who had been their leader, he put the vault of the sky; even now he is said to hold up the sky on his shoulders.”
Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 13 : “Some have called Aex (Goat) the daughter of Sol [Helios the Sun], who surpassed many in beauty of body, but in contrast to this beauty, had a most horrible face [she was the Gorgon]. Terrified by it, the Titanes (Titans) begged Terra (Earth) [Gaia] to hide her body, and Terra is said to have hidden her in a cave in the island of Crete. Later she became nurse of Jove [Zeus], as we have said before [and made his aigis-shield from her skin].”
Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 16 : “Aglaosthenes, who wrote the Naxica , says that Jove [Zeus] was taken secretly from Crete, brought to Naxos, and there nourished. After he came to man’s estate and wished to attack the Titanes (Titans) in war, he sighted an eagle as he was sacrificing, and considering this an omen, he placed it among the stars.”
Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 39 : “[The constellation] Altar. On this altar the gods are thought to have first made offerings and formed an alliance when they were about to oppose the Titanes (Titans). The Cyclopes made it. From this observance men established the custom that when they plan to do something, they make sacrifices before beginning the undertaking.”
Ovid, Fasti 3. 793 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “Saturnus [Kronos (Cronus)] was thrust from his realm by Jove [Zeus]. In anger he stirs the mighty Titanes to arms and seeks the assistance owed by fate. There was a shocking monster born of Mother Terra (Earth) [Gaia], a bull, whose back half was a serpent. Roaring Styx [as an ally of Zeus] imprisoned it, warned by the three Parcae [Moirai, Fates], in a black grove with a triple wall. Whoever fed the bull’s guts to consuming flames was destined to defeat the eternal gods. Briareus [or Aigaion, an ally of Kronos] slays it with an adamantine axe and prepares to feed the flames its innards [and so ensure the victory of the Titanes]. Jupiter [Zeus] commands the birds to grab them; the kite brought them to him and reached the stars on merit.”
Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2. 28 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) : “According to the myths they [the gods] even engage in wars and battles . . . they actually fought wars of their own, for instance with the Titanes (Titans) and the Gigantes (Giants). These stories and these beliefs are utterly foolish.”
Seneca, Hercules Furens 79 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) : “Set free the Titanes who dared to invade the majesty of Jove [Zeus].”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1. 378 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “[Zeus speaks as the monster Typhoeus approaches heaven :] ‘What will my aigis [storm-cloud] do fighting with Typhon’s thunderbolt? I fear old Kronos (Cronus) may laugh aloud, I am shy of the proud neck of my lordly adversary Iapetos (Iapetus).’”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 8. 67 ff : “I [Ares] will take my Titan-destroying deathdealing spear.”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 13. 33 ff : “Zeus Lord in the Highest, did not rise to heaven without hard work, he the sovereign of the stars : firt he must beind fast those threateners of Olympos, the Titanes (Titans) and hide them deep in the pit of Tartaros.”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 18. 223 ff : “[Zeus] in his first youth battered the earthborn Titanes for Olympos, when he was only a boy.”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 20. 35 ff : “Ares, destroyer of the Titanes, his father’s champion, who lifts a proud neck in heaven, still holding that shield ever soaked with gore; and . . . once upon a time valiant Pallas holding the aigis (goatskin) defended the gates of Olympos, and scattered the stormy assault of the Titanes, thus honouring the dexterous travail of her father’s head.”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 24. 230 ff : “The singer wove his lay beside the mixing-bowl, how the older Titanes armed themselves against Olympos. He sang the true victory of Zeus potent in the Heights, how broadbeard Kronos (Cronus) sank under the thunderbolt, and Zeus sealed him deep in the dark Tartarean pit, armed in vain with the watery weapons of the storm.”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 27. 290 ff : “He [Pan] once helped to defend my [Zeus’] inviolable sceptre and fought against the Titanes.”
Nonnus, Dionsyiaca 30. 283 ff : “[Athene addresses Dionysos :] ‘Your father and mine [Zeus] feared not battle, when the Titan-gods armed themselves against Olympos.’”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 36. 110 ff : “[Hermes addresses Poseidon and Apollon as they engage in battle when the gods take opposite sides during Dionysos’ Indian War :] ‘Brother of Zeus [Poseidon, and you his son [Apollon]–you, famous Archer, throw to the winds your bow nad your brand, and you, your pronged trident : lest the Titanes (Titans) laugh to see a battle among the gods. Let there not be intestine war in heaven once gain, after that conflict with Kronos (Cronus) which threatened Olympos : let me not see another war after the affray with Iapetos (Iapetus).’”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 19. 158 ff : “What an old man of Titan blood might have done, show the Titan race in his speaking picture . . . Kronos (Cronus), or Phanes more primeval still, or the breed of Titan Helios as old as the universe itself.”
For MORE information on the fall of Kronos see KRONOS For the closely related STORY of the War of the Giants see THE GIGANTES
THE TITANS IMPRISONED IN TARTARUS
Homer, Iliad 8. 479 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) : “The undermost limits of earth and sea, where Iapetos (Iapetus) and Kronos (Cronus) seated have no shining of the sun god Hyperion to delight them nor winds’ delight, but Tartaros (Tartarus) stands deeply about them.”
Homer, Iliad 14. 277 ff : “The goddess Hera of the white arms swore [a promise] as he [Hypnos, Sleep] commanded, and called by their names on all those gods who live in the Pit, and who are called Titenes (Titans). Then when she had sworn this, and made her oath a complete thing.”
Hesiod, Theogony 715 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “[In the Titan War, Zeus and the Hekatonkheires (Hecatoncheires)] launched from their strong hands and overshadowed the Titenes (Titans) with their missiles, and hurled them beneath the wide-pathed earth, and bound them in bitter chains when they had conquered them by their strength for all their great spirit, as far beneath the earth as heaven is above earth; for so far is it from earth to Tartaros (Tartarus). For a brazen anvil ( khalkeos akmôn ) falling down from heaven nine nights and days would reach the earth upon the tenth: and again, a brazen anvil falling from earth nine nights and days would reach Tartaros upon the tenth. Round it runs a fence of bronze, and night spreads in triple line all about it like a neck-circlet, while above grow the roots of the earth and unfruitful sea. There by the counsel of Zeus who drives the clouds the Titan gods are hidden under misty gloom, in a dank place where are the ends of the huge earth. And they may not go out; for Poseidon fixed gates of bronze upon it, and a wall runs all round it on every side. There [the Hekatonkheires] Gyes and Kottos (Cottus) and great-souled Obriareus live, trusty warders of Zeus who holds the aigis.”
Hesiod, Theogony 807 ff : “And there [at the edges of the cosmos], all in their order, are the sources and ends of the dark earth and misty Tartaros (Tartarus) and the unfruitful sea and starry heaven, loathsome and dank, which even the gods abhor. And there are shining gates and an immoveable threshold of bronze having unending roots and it is grown of itself. And beyond, away from all the gods, live the Titenes (Titans), beyond gloomy Khaos (Chaos).”
Hesiod, Theogony 849 ff : “[Zeus battles the monster Typhoeus :] And through the two of them . . . through the thunder and lightning, and through the fire from the monster, and the scorching winds and blazing thunderbolt . . . Haides trembled where he rules over the dead below, and the Titenes (Titans) under Tartaros who live with Kronos (Cronus), because of the unending clamour and the fearful strife.”
Homeric Hymn 3 to Pythian Apollo 300 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C7th – 4th B.C.) : “Hera prayed, striking the ground flatwise with her hand, and speaking thus : ‘Hear now, I pray, Gaia (Gaea) and wide Ouranos (Uranus) above, and you Titan gods ( Titanes theoi ) who dwell beneath the earth about great Tartaros (Tartarus), and from whom are sprung both gods and men! Harken you now to me, one and all, and grant that I may bear a child apart from Zeus.’ [Her prayer was answered when she bare the monster Typhoeus.]’”
Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 152 ff (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) : “[Prometheus laments his fate, declaring that he would have preferred to have been cast into Tartaros with the rest of the Titanes :] Oh if only he [Zeus] had hurled me below the earth, yes beneath Haides, the entertainer of the dead, into impassable Tartaros, and had ruthlessly fastened me in fetters no hand can loose. Chorus [of Okeanides (Oceanids)] : . . . He [Zeus] in malice, has set his soul inflexibly and keeps in subjection the race sprung from Ouranos (Uranus) ( genna ouranios ) [i.e. the Titanes]; nor will he stop, until he has satiated his soul or another seizes his impregnable empire by some device of guile.”
Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 221 ff : “The cavernous gloom ( melanbathês ) of Tartaros (Tartarus) now hides ancient ( palaigenês ) Kronos (Cronus) and his allies [the Titanes] within it.”
Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 1050 ff : “Let him [Zeus] lift me [the Titan Prometheus] on high and hurl me down to black Tartaros with the swirling floods of stern Necessity ( anankê ) [i.e. the fate of the other Titanes] : do what he will, me he shall never bring to death [i.e. because the Titanes are immortal].”
Plato, Laws 701b (trans. Lamb) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) : “[Plato uses the suffering of the Titanes as a metaphor :] The character of the Titanes (Titans) of story, who are said to have reverted to their original state, dragging out a painful existence with never any rest from woe.”
Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 37. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “The first to introduce Titanes (Titans) into poetry was Homer, representing them as gods down in what is called Tartaros (Tartarus); the lines are in the passage about Hera’s oath.”
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 12. 179 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) : “Even to Haides’ fathomless abyss : trembled the Titanes (Titans) there in depths of gloom [to hear the Olympian gods battling amongst themselves].”
Orphic Hymn 37 to the Titans (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) : “O mighty Titanes (Titans) . . . in Tartaros (Tartarus) profound who dwell, deep merged beneath the solid ground . . . Avert your rage, if from the infernal seats one of your tribe should wish to visit our retreats.”
Statius, Thebaid 8. 41 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) : “Mine [Haides’] is the prison-house, now broken, of the Gigantes (Giants), and of the Titanes (Titans), eager to force their way to the world above, and his own unhappy sire [Kronos (Cronus)].”
Colluthus, Rape of Helen 48 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poetry C5th to C6th A.D.) : “[Eris was furious at being turned away from the wedding of Peleus and Thetis :] Fain would she unbar the bolts of the darksome hollows and rouse the Titanes (Titans) from the nether pit and destroy heaven the seat of Zeus, who rules on high.”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 256 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “[Typhoeus boasts of what he intends to do after seizing the throne of heaven :] Then with his midmost man-shaped head the Gigante (Giant) yelled out threats against Zeus : ‘Smash the house of Zeus, O my hands! Shake the foundations of the universe, and the blessed ones with it! Break the bar of Olympos, self-turning, divine! Drag down to earth the heavenly pillar, let Atlas be shaken and flee away, let him throw down the starry vault of Olympos and fear no more its circling course–for I will not permit a son of Earth to be bowed down with chafed shoulders, while he underprops the revolving compulsion of the sky! No, let him leave his endless burden to the other gods, and battle against the Blessed Ones! . . . Okeanos (Oceanus) my brother shall bring his water to Olympos aloft with many-fountained throat, and rising above the five parallel circles he shall inundate the stars . . . I will keep the chains of Iapetos (Iapetus) for Poseidon; and the soaring round Kaukasos (Caucasus), another and better eagle shall tear the bleeding liver, growing for ever anew, of Hephaistos (Hephaestus) the fiery: since fire was the for which Prometheus has been suffering the ravages of his self-growing liver . . . And cannibal Kronos (Cronus) I will drag up once more to the light, another brother, to help me in my task, out of the underground abyss; I will break those constraining chains, and bring back the Titanes (Titans) to heaven, and settle under the same roof in the sky the Kyklopes (Cyclopes), sons of Gaia (Gaea).’”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 563 ff : “[Zeus gloats over the body of the defeated Typhoeus, who was sent by Gaia (Earth) to champion the cause of the Titanes (Titans) :] Kronides (Cronides) laughed aloud, and taunted him like this in a flood of words from his mocking throat : ‘A fine ally has old Kronos (Cronus) found in you, Typhoeus! Gaia could scarcely bring forth that great son for Iapetos (Iapetus)! A jolly champion of Titanes! The thunderbolts of Zeus soon lost their power against you, as I see! How long are you going to wait before taking up your quarters in the inaccessible heavens, you sceptred imposter? The throne of Olympos awaits you: accept the robes and sceptre of Zeus, God-defying Typhoeus! Bring back Astraios (Astraeus) to heaven; if you wish, let Eurynome and Ophion return to the sky, and Kronos in the train of that pair! When you enter the dappleback vault of the highranging stars, let crafty Prometheus leave his chains, and come with you; the bold bird who makes hearty meals off that rejuvenescent liver shall show him the way to heaven.’”
For MORE information on the Titan prison see THE PIT OF TARTAROS
MEN BORN FROM THE TITANS’ BLOOD
The Pelasgian tribes of Thrake (Thrace) were said to have been born from the blood of Titanes (Titans) or Gigantes (Giants), spilled in their war against the gods.
Lycophron, Alexandra 1358 ff (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd B.C.) : “Them [the Pelasgians] who drew the root of their race from the blood of the Sithonian Gigantes (Giants).”
Strabo, Geography 7 Fragments 39 – 40 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “The Paionians (Paeonians) [people of the highlands of Thrake] were called Pelagonians . . . Since the paianismos [chanting of the paian or hymn] of the Thrakians (Thracians) is called titanismos [cry to Titan] by the Greeks, in imitation of the cry uttered in paians, the Titanes (Titans) too were called Pelagonians.”
Orphic Hymn 37 to the Titans (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) : “O mighty Titanes (Titans). . . in Tartaros (Tartarus) profound who dwell . . . from whom began the afflicted miserable race of man: who not alone in earth’s retreats abide, but in the ocean and the air reside; since every species from your nature flows, which, all-prolific, nothing barren knows.”
Oppian, Halieutica 5. 4 (trans. Mair) (Greek poet C3rd A.D.) : “Someone created men to be a race like unto the blessed gods, albeit he gave them inferior strength: whether it was the son of Iapetos, Prometheus . . . or whether we are born of the blood divine that flowed from the Titanes (Titans); for there is nothing more excellent than men, apart from the gods.”
For the related STORY of the birth of men from giant’s-blood see THE GIGANTES
RELEASE OF THE TITANS FROM TARTARUS
Hesiod, Works and Days 156 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “And they [the heroes in Elysion (Elysium)] live untouched by sorrow in the islands of the blessed along the shore of deep swirling Okeanos (Oceanus), happy heroes for whom the grain-giving earth bears honey-sweet fruit flourishing thrice a year, far from the deathless gods, and Kronos (Cronus) rules over them; for the father of men and gods released him from his bonds. And these last equally have honour and glory.”
Pindar, Pythian Ode 4. 290 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “Does not even now great [Titan] Atlas struggle to bear up the weight of heaven, far from his fathers’ land and his possessions? But almighty Zeus set free the Titanes (Titans), for as time passes and the breeze abates, the sails are set anew. [I.e. all of the Titanes were freed, even Atlas.]”
Aeschylus, Prometheus Unbound (lost play) : The Titanes (Titans) formed the chorus of Aeschylus’ lost play Prometheus Unbound ( Lyomenos ), visiting their nephew after being released from Tartaros (Tartarus) by the clemency of Zeus. The chained hero proceeds to tell them of his benefactions to mankind and the torment he must endure.
Aeschylus, Fragment 104 Prometheus Unbound (from Arrian, Voyage in the Euxine 99. 22) (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) : “[The Titanes (Titans) address their nephew Prometheus :] ‘We have come to look upon these thy ordeals, Prometheus, and the affliction of thy bonds.’”
Aeschylus, Fragment 107 Prometheus Unbound (from Cicero, Tusculan Disputations 2. 10. 23-25) : “[Prometheus addresses his Titan uncles :] Ye race of Titanes (Titans), offspring of Ouranos (Uranus), blood-kinsmen mine! Behold me fettered, clamped to these rough rocks.”
For MORE specific stories of Titans released see KRONOS & PROMETHEUS
THE TITANS OF CRETE & THE GOLDEN AGE
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 66. 1 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “The Titanes (Titans) had their dwelling in the land about Knosos, at the place where even to this day men point out foundations of a house of Rhea and a cypress grove which has been consecrated to her from ancient times. The Titanes numbered six men and five women, being born, as certain writers of myths relate, of Ouranos (Uranus, Heaven) and Ge (Earth), but according to others, of one of the Kouretes (Curetes) and Titaia (Titaea), from whom as their mother they derive the name they have. The males were Kronos (Cronus), Hyperion, Koios (Coeus), Iapetos (Iapetus), Krios (Crius) and Okeanos (Oceanus), and their sisters were Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoibe (Phoebe) and Tethys [he omits Theia]. Each one of them was the discover of things of benefit to mankind, and because of the benefaction they conferred upon all men they were accorded honours and everlasting fame.”
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 67. 3 : “And so these gods [the Titanes], by reason of the many benefactions which they conferred upon the life of man, were not only accorded immortal honours, but it was also believed that they were the first to make their home on Mount Olympos after they had been translated from among men.”
The story of the Titanes of Drepane (below) probably belonged to the same tradition.
For MORE information on the Golden Age see KRONOS
THE TITANS OF DREPANE & AGRIGULTURE
The island of Drepane, home of Titanes (Titans) and Phaiakians (Phaeacians) was identified with both Korkyra (Corcyra) and Sikelia (Sicily).
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 982 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) : “In the Keraunian (Ceraunian) Sea, fronting the Ionian Straits, there is a rich and spacious island [Drepane], under the soil of which is said to lie (bear with me, Mousai (Muses); it gives me little pleasure to recall the old tale) the sickle used by Kronos (Cronus) to castrate his father Ouranos (Uranus, Sky). Others call it the reaping-hook of Demeter Khthonia (Chthonia, of the Underworld), who lived there once and taught the Titanes (Titans) to reap corn for food, in her affection for Makris (Macris). From this reaping-hook the island takes its name of Drepane, the sacred Nurse of the Phaiakians (Phaeacians), who by the same token trace their ancestry to Ouranos (Heaven).”
THE TITANS OF THRACE & ZAGREUS (THE ORPHIC MYTH)
In the story of the Thraco-Orphic godling Zagreus (a divinity combining aspects of Zeus and Dionysos) the Titanes (Titans) were a tribe of giants who dwelt on the white-chalk ( titanos ) peaks of Mount Titanos or Titarios in northern Thessaly. They were closely identified with the Gigantes (Giants) of Pallene who made war on the gods.
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 75. 4 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “This god [Dionysos-Zagreus] was born in Krete (Crete), men say, of Zeus and Persephone, and Orpheus has handed down the tradition in the initiatory rites that he was torn in pieces by the Titanes (Titans).”
Pausanias, Description of Greece 7. 19. 4 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “The stories told of Dionysos by the people of Patrai (Patrae) [in Akhaia (Achaea)], that he was reared in Mesatis [in Akhaia] and incurred there all sorts of perils through the plots of the Titanes (Titans).”
Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 37. 1 : “The first to introduce Titanes (Titans) into poetry was Homer, representing them as gods down in what is called Tartaros; the lines are in the passage about Hera’s oath. From Homer the name of the Titanes was taken by [the Orphic poet] Onomakritos (Onomacritus), who in the orgies he composed for Dionysos made the Titanes the authors of the god’s sufferings.”
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 155 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “Sons of Jove [Zeus]. Liber [Dionysos] by Proserpina [Persephone], whom the Titanes dismembered.”
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 167 : “Liber [Dionysos], son of Jove [Zeus] and Proserpina [Persephone], was dismembered by the Titanes, and Jove gave his heart, torn to bits, to Semele in a drink. When she was made pregnant by this, Juno [Hera], changing herself to look like Semele’s nurse, Beroe, said to her : ‘Daughter, ask Jove to come to you as he comes to Juno, so you may know what pleasure it is to sleep with a god.’ At her suggestion Semele made this request of Jove, and was smitten by a thunderbolt.”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 6. 155 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : “Zagreus the horned baby [son of Persephone & Zeus], who by himself climbed upon the heavenly throne of Zeus and brandished lightning in his little hand, and newly born, lifted and carried thunderbolts in his tender fingers [for Zeus meant him to be king of the universe]. But he did not hold the throne of Zeus for long. By the fierce resentment of implacable Hera, the Titanes (Titans) cunningly smeared their round faces with disguising chalk ( titanos ), and while he contemplated his changeling countenance reflected in a mirror they destroyed him with an infernal knife. There where his limbs had been cut piecemeal by the Titan steel, the end of his life was the beginning of a new life as Dionysos. He appeared in another shape, and changed into many forms : now young like crafty Kronides (Cronides) [Zeus] shaking the aegis-cape, now as ancient Kronos h eavy-kneed, pouring rain. Sometimes he was a curiously formed baby, sometimes like a mad youth with the flower of the first down marking his rounded chin with black. Again, a mimic lion he uttered a horrible roar in furious rage from a wild snarling throat, as he lifted a neck shadowed by a thick mane, marking his body on both sides with the self-striking whip of a tail which flickered about over his hairy back. Next, he left the shape of a lion’s looks and let out a ringing neigh, now like an unbroken horse that lifts his neck on high to shake out the imperious tooth of the bit, and rubbing, whitened his cheek with hoary foam. Sometimes he poured out a whistling hiss from his mouth, a curling horned serpent covered with scales, darting out his tongue from his gaping throat, and leaping upon the grim head of some Titan encircled his neck in snaky spiral coils. Then he left the shape of the restless crawler and became a tiger with gay stripes on his body; or again like a bull emitting a counterfeit roar from his mouth he butted the Titanes with sharp horn. So he fought for his life, until Hera with jealous throat bellowed harshly through the air–that heavy-resentful step-mother! And the gates of Olympos rattled in echo to her jealous throat from high heaven. Then the bold bull collapsed: the murderers each eager for his turn with the knife chopt piecemeal the bull-shaped Dionysos [Zagreus]. After the first Dionysos had been slaughtered, Father Zeus learnt the trick of the mirror with its reflected image. He attacked the mother of the Titanes [Gaia the Earth] with avenging brand, and shut up the murderers of horned Dionysos within the gate of Tartaros [after a long war]: the trees blazed, the hair of suffering Gaia (Earth) was scorched with heat . . . Now Okeanos poured rivers of tears from his watery eyes, a libation of suppliant prayer. Then Zeus clamed his wrath at the sight of the scorched earth; he pitied her, and wished to wash with water the ashes of ruin and the fiery wounds of the land. Then Rainy Zeus covered the whole sky with clouds and flooded all the earth [in the flood of Deukalion (Deucalion)].”
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 48. 41 ff : “[Gaia (Gaea) addresses the Gigantes (Giants), inciting them to make war on the gods :] ‘Wound him [Dionysos] with cutting steel and kill him for me like Zagreus, that one may say, god or mortal, that Gaia in her anger has twice armed her slayers against the breed of Kronides (Cronides) [Zeus]–the older Titanes (Titans) against the former Dionysos [Zagreus], the younger Gigantes against Dionysos later born.’”
For MORE information on this god see ZAGREUS
THE TITANS OF EGYPT & EPAPHUS (THE EGYPTIAN MYTH)
The Titanes (Titans) were sometimes identified by the Greeks with Set, the evil god who slew and dismembered Osiris in Egyptian mythology.
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 6. 1 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) : “The Aigyptians (Egyptians) in their myths about Priapos [Osiris] say that in ancient times the Titanes [Set] formed a conspiracy against Osiris and slew him, and then, taking his body and dividing it into equal parts among themselves, the slipped them secretly out of the house, but this organ alone they threw into the river, since no one of them was willing to take it with him. But Isis tracked down the murder of her husband, and after slaying the Titanes [Set] and fashioning the several pieces of his body into the shape of a human figure, she gave them to the priests with orders that they pay Osiris the honours of a god, but since the only member she was unable to recover was the organ of sex she commanded them to pay to it the honours of a god and set it up in their temples in an erect position.”
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 150 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : “After Juno [Hera] saw that Epaphus, born of a concubine, ruled such a great kingdom [Egypt], she saw to it that he should be killed while hunting, and encouraged the Titanes to drive Jove [Zeus] from the kingdom and restore it to Saturn [Kronos (Cronus)]. When they tried to mount tot heaven, Jove with the help of Minerva [Athene], Apollo, and Diana [Artemis], cast them headlong into Tartarus. On Atlas, who had been their leader, he put the vault of the sky; even now he is said to hold up the sky on his shoulders.” [N.B. This is a conflation of various myths, including the Egyptian tale of Osiris and Set.]
HYMNS TO THE TITANS
Orphic Hymn 37 to the Titans (trans. Taylor) (Greek hymns C3rd B.C. to 2nd A.D.) : “To the Titanes (Titans), Fumigation from Frankincense. O mighty Titanes, who from Ouranos (Uranus, Heaven) and Gaia (Gaea, Earth) derive your noble and illustrious birth, our fathers’ sires, in Tartaros (Tartarus) profound who dwell, deep merged beneath the solid ground: fountains and principles from whom began the afflicted miserable race of man: who not alone in earth’s retreats abide, but in the ocean and the air reside; since every species from your nature flows, which, all-prolific, nothing barren knows. Avert your rage, if from the infernal seats one of your tribe should wish to visit our retreats.”
CULT OF TITANS IN THE PELOPONNESE
I. TITAN CRONUS (KRONOS) IN ELIS
Pindar, Olympian Ode 1. 111 (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) : “When I come to Kronos’ (Cronus’) sunlit hill [at Olympia].”
Pausanias, Description of Greece 6. 20. 1 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) : “Mount Kronios (Cronius), as I have already said, extends parallel to the terrace [at the sanctuary of Olympia in Elis] with the treasuries on it. On the summit of the mountain the Basilai (Kings), as they are called, sacrifice to Kronos (Cronus) at the spring equinox [the start of the new year], in the month called Elaphios (Of the Deer) among the Eleans.”
Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 7. 6 – 10 : “As for the Olympic games, the most learned antiquaries of Elis say that Kronos (Cronus) was the first king of heaven, and that in his honor a temple was built in Olympia by the men of that age, who were named the Golden Race . . .
Now some say that Zeus wrestled here with Kronos himself for the throne, while others say that he held the games in honor of his victory over Kronos.”
For MORE information on this Titan see KRONOS
II. TITAN CRIUS (KRIOS) IN ACHAEA (AKHAIA)
Pausanias, Description of Greece 7. 27. 11 : “Rivers come down from the mountains above Pellene [in Akhaia], the one on the side nearest Aigeira being called Krios (Crius), after, it is said, the Titanos (Titan), which rises in Mount Sipylos (Sipylus) and is a tributary of the Hermos.” [N.B. Sipylos and Hermos were presumably named after the Lydian mountain and river which shared the name. Titanes (Titans) such as Prometheus and Atlas were often associated with that Anatolian kingdom.]
For MORE information on this Titan see KRIOS
III. TITAN COEUS (KOIOS) IN MESSENIA
Pausanias, Description of Greece 4. 33. 6 : “One the road from Andania towards Kyparissiai (Cyparissiae) is Polikhne (Polichne) [in Messenia], as it is called, and the streams of Elektra (Electra) and Koios (Coeus). The names perhaps are to be connected with Elektra the daughter of Atlas and Koios the father of Leto.”
For MORE information on this Titan see KOIOS
IV. TITAN IAPETUS (IAPETOS) IN ARCADIA (ARKADIA)
Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 27. 15 : “The river [Bouphagos (Buphagus) in southern Arkadia (Arcadia)] got its name, they say, from the hero Bouphagos (Cattle-Eater), the son of Iapetos (Iapetus) [either the Titan or a local king] and Thornax. This is what they call her in Lakonia (Laconia) also.”
For MORE information on this Titan see IAPETOS
V. TITAN HYPERION ? IN SICYON (SIKYONIA)
The Titan of Sikyonia is perhaps Hesiod’s Hyperion.
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 11. 5 : “Having crossed the Asopos (Asopus) River again [near Titane, Sikyonia (Sicyonia)] and reached the summit of the hill, you come to the place where the natives say that Titan first dwelt. They add that he was the brother of Helios (the Sun), and that after him the place got the name Titane. My own view is that he proved clever at observing the seasons of the year and times when the sun increases and ripens seeds and fruits, and for this reason was held to be the brother of Helios (the Sun).”
For MORE information on this Titan see TITAN & HYPERION
VI. TITANS HOPLODAMUS & ANYTUS IN ARCADIA (ARKADIA)
Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 32. 5 : “Here also [in the sanctuary of Asklepios (Asclepius) at Megalopolis, Arkadia (Arcadia)] are kept bones, too big for those of a human being, about which the story ran that they were those of one of the Gigantes (Earth-Born) mustered by Hopladamos (Hopladamus) to fight for Rhea.” [N.B. “Hoplodamos and his Gigantes” are presumably the Kouretes (Curetes).]
Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 36. 2 : “Mount Thaumasios (Wonderful) lies beyond the river Maloitas [in Arkadia], and the Methydrians hold that when Rhea was pregnant with Zeus, she came to this mountain and enlisted as her allies, in case Kronos (Cronus) should attack her, Hopladamos and his few Gigantes (Earth-Born). They allow that she gave birth to her son on some part of Mount Lykaios (Lycaeus), but they claim that here Kronos was deceived, and here took place the substitution of a stone for the child that is spoken of in the Greek legend. On the summit of the mountain is Rhea’s Cave, into which no human beings may enter save only the women who are sacred to the goddess.” [N.B. These Gigantes are presumably the Kouretes (Curetes), the usual companions of Rhea.]
Pausanias, Description of Greece 8. 37. 1 : “[In the sanctuary of Despoine, near Akakesion (Acacesion), Arkadia :] By the image of Despoine [daughter of Demeter] stands Anytos (Anytus), represented as a man in armour. Those about the sanctuary say that Despoine was brought up by Anytos, who was one of the Titanes (Titans), as they are called.” [N.B. Anytos was probably one of the Kouretes (Curetes).]
For MORE information on these Titan-Kouretes see HOPLODAMOS & ANYTOS
VII. YOUNGER TITANS
Prometheus was associated with Phokis (Phocis) in Central Greece, where he was said to have moulded mankind from clay; his brother Epimetheus was linked with Korinthos (Corinth) in the Peloponnese; and the daughters of Atlas were scattered throughout the region–ancestresses of the royal houses of Lakonia, Arkadia, Elis, Korinthos, and Boiotia (Boeotia).
ETYMOLOGY OF THE NAME TITAN
Hesiod derives the name “Titanes” from the Greek verb titainô meaning “to strain.” The geographer Strabo, on the other hand, connects it with the titanismos, a ritual cry uttered in certain religious rites practised by the Thrakians (Thracians) to the north. The Orphic tradition alternatively has them named for titanos , white-chalk gypsum, which thte Titanes were said to have smeared on their faces when they snuck into Olympos to slay the infant god Zagreus. A mountain peak close by Olympos was also named Titanos after deposits of this mineral. Nearby flowed the river Tartaressos (cf. Tartaros), which Homer says drew its water from the netherworld Styx. It is unclear if the region was traditionally associated with the Titanes.
Hesiod, Theogony 207 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) : “These sons whom be begot himself great Ouranos (Sky) used to call Titanes (Titans, Strainers) in reproach, for he said that they strained and did presumptuously a fearful deed [the brothers strained to hold Ouranos down whilst Kronos castrated him].”
Strabo, Geography 7 Fragments 39 – 40 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : “The Paionians (Paeonians) [people of the highlands of Thrake (Thrace)] were called Pelagonians . . . Since the paianismos [chanting of the paian or hymn] of the Thrakians is called titanismos [i.e. cry to Titan] by the Greeks, in imitation of the cry uttered in paians, the Titanes too were called Pelagonians.”
The Titanes were composite deities, who were represented in a number of ways through the classical age.
In the ancient cosmogonies the four represented the four great cosmic pillars which either held earth and sky asunder, or the entire cosmos aloft–Hyperion in the west, Iapetos (Iapetus) in the east, Koios (Coeus) in the north and Krios (Crius) in the south. The fifth Kronos (Cronus, Time) stood in the centre, and the sixth, Okeanos (Oceanus), circled the world in the form of the river Ocean.
Homer and Hesiod also represent them as anti-gods, divinities residing in the pit of Tartaros (Tartarus), the cosmic inverse of heaven–for just as Heaven was imagined as a solid bronze dome rising above the earth, so Tartaros was a huge pit, or reverse dome, which enclosed the underworld. The home of the Titanes in the depths of the pit, was the cosmic opposite of the apex of heaven, the home of the Olympian gods.
Hesiod also seems to imagine the Titanes as gods of time who mastered Heaven. Individually they were apparently responsible for the establishment of the portions of time:–Kronos, was time the destroyer; Krios (Crius, the Ram), leader of the constellations, and so regulator of the seasons; Koios (Coeus) (also known as Polos “the pole”), lord of the axis of heaven, around which the constellations revolved measuring the year; Hyperion, overlord of the day and night, father of sun, moon and dawn; Iapetos (Iapetus) “the piercer,” Titan-god of mortal life-span and ancestor of man; and Okeanos (Oceanus) the earth-encircler, who oversaw the rising and setting of the heavenly bodies.
Hesiod later confines five of the Titanes to the Tartarean pit, and Zeus assumes control over the regulation of time in their stead.
In the Cretan tradition, the Titanes were portrayed as agrarian gods who lived in the vicinity of Knossos (Cnossus) in Krete (Crete) where they ruled over mankind during the Golden Age. At this time the Earth produced an endless bounty, and presented the Titanes with the first sickle for the harvest. The Sicilian myths also speak of the Titanes harvesting the first grain. When the Titanes attempted to destroy the infant Zeus, Gaia (Gaea) and Rhea hid him away in a cave on Mount Ida from where he later returned to destroy them.
In the Thrakian (Thracian) and Thessalian tradition, the Titanes were portrayed as a barbarous tribe of giants who made war on the gods. They were almost indistinguishable from the Thrakian Gigantes (Giants) of Pallene. These barbarian gods once snuck into Olympos, their faces smeared with with white chalk ( titanos ), and seized the child Zagreus who was seated on the throne of heaven, removing his lightning bolts, and dismembered him with their knives. The god was reborn and the Titanes-Gigantes destroyed in the war which ensued. Certain local landmarks on the mountainous borders of Thessalia (Thessaly) and Thrake were apparently identified with this Titan-story: including the river Titaressos (c.f. Tartaros) whose murky waters were said to be drawn from the infernal Styx, and Mount Titanos or Titarios opposite Olympos whose deposits of white-chalk gypsum were the Titanes’ disguise.
The individual Titanes also appear in the guise of obscure local gods with minor cults in the regions of central and southern Greece. The cult of Kronos (Cronus) was centred on the hill of Kronos at Olympia in the Peloponnese; Koios (Coeus) posssessed a stream in Messenia; Krios (Crius) one in Akhaia (Achaea) and perhaps Euboia (Euboea); Hyperion possibly had a shrine at Titane in Sikyonia (Sicyonia); and Iapetos (Iapetus) is located in the valleys of southern Arkadia (Arcadia). Second generation Titanes such as Prometheus, Atlas and Helios (Helius), and the female Titanes Themis, Dione, Rhea, Eurynome and Phoibe (Phoebe) also had minor cults scattered around the region.
Some of the Titanes were also apparently gods of foreign import : Atlas and the fire-stealing Prometheus, for example, were frequently associated with the Anatolian kingdom of Lydia. The cosmic story of five Titanes–four holding the corners of heaven–may be Phoenician in origin. Late Greek writers also equated the Titanes with Set, enemy of the god-king Osiris in Eygptian myth.
ANCIENT GREEK ART
T6.1 Cronus, Rhea, Omphalus Stone
Figura roja ateniense Florero Pintura C5th B.C.
T20.2 Atlas & Gaea the Earth
Apulian Red Figure Vase Painting C4th B.C.
O1.1 Oceanus & Tethys
Figura ateniense negra Jarrón Pintura C6th B.C.
T20.1 Atlas & Prometheus
Laconian Black Figure Vase Painting C6th B.C.
R16.1 Rhea, Cronus, Omphalos Stone
Greco-Roman Marble Bas-Relief
Homer, The Iliad – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
Hesiod, Theogony – Greek Epic C8th – 7th B.C.
The Homeric Hymns – Greek Epic C8th – 4th B.C.
Epic Cycle, Titanomachia Fragments – Greek Epic C8th B.C.
Pindar, Odes – Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
Greek Lyric I Alcman, Fragments – Greek Lyric C7th B.C.
Greek Lyric II Anacreon, Fragments – Greek Lyric C6th B.C.
Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
Aeschylus, Fragments – Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
Plato, Laws – Greek Philosophy C4th B.C.
Apollodorus, The Library – Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
Apollonius Rhodius, The Argonautica – Greek Epic C3rd B.C.
Callimachus, Hymns – Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
Lycophron, Alexandra – Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History – Greek History C1st B.C.
Strabo, Geography – Greek Geography C1st B.C. – C1st A.D.
Pausanias, Description of Greece – Greek Travelogue C2nd A.D.
The Orphic Hymns – Greek Hymns C3rd B.C. – C2nd A.D.
Oppian, Halieutica – Greek Poetry C3rd A.D.
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy – Greek Epic C4th A.D.
Nonnus, Dionysiaca – Greek Epic C5th A.D.
Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History – Greek Mythography C1st – 2nd A.D.
Colluthus, The Rape of Helen – Greek Epic C5th – 6th A.D.
Greek Papyri III Anonymous, Fragments – Greek Poetry C4th A.D.
Other references not currently quoted here: Stephanus of Byzantium, Clement Homiles 6.2.
A complete bibliography of the translations quoted on this page.